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R. Klingbeil, 2014. Coping with Water Scarcity in Lebanon? Some Suggestions and Approaches Based on Experiences from the Region.
 

R. Klingbeil, 2014. Coping with Water Scarcity in Lebanon? Some Suggestions and Approaches Based on Experiences from the Region.

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Klingbeil, R., 2014. Coping with Water Scarcity in Lebanon? Some Suggestions and Approaches Based on Experiences from the Region. Presentation at the 37th Water Sector Coordination Group Meeting, ...

Klingbeil, R., 2014. Coping with Water Scarcity in Lebanon? Some Suggestions and Approaches Based on Experiences from the Region. Presentation at the 37th Water Sector Coordination Group Meeting, Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW), Beirut, Lebanon, 20 Mar 2014.

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    R. Klingbeil, 2014. Coping with Water Scarcity in Lebanon? Some Suggestions and Approaches Based on Experiences from the Region. R. Klingbeil, 2014. Coping with Water Scarcity in Lebanon? Some Suggestions and Approaches Based on Experiences from the Region. Presentation Transcript

    • Coping with Water Scarcity in Lebanon? Some Suggestions and Approaches Based on Experiences from the Region WSCG Meeting Beirut, Lebanon 20 March 2014 Ralf Klingbeil Regional Advisor Environment & Water
    • Lebanon’s Perspective on Water Scarcity and Droughts? www.escwa.un.org 220 March 2014 Cornish,P.,2009.AustraliasDrought.
    • Opening Quote 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 3 “Droughts are hard to avert, but their effects can be mitigated. (...) The price of preparedness is minimal compared to the cost of disaster relief. Let us therefore shift from managing crises to preparing for droughts and building resilience.” UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon World Day to Combat Desertification 17 June 2013
    • Outline • Definitions – Water Scarcity  Drought • Regional Picture – Impact of Drought • Experiences from the Region – Morocco – Palestine – MEDROPLAN • Recommendations – Coordination - Cooperation - Concerted Action – National Coping Strategy for Water Scarcity ? www.escwa.un.org 420 March 2014
    • www.escwa.un.org 520 March 2014 Definitions Inamo,2001.
    • Water Scarcity  Drought Water Scarcity: • “(…) point at which the aggregate impact of all users impinges on the supply or quality of water under prevailing institutional arrangements to the extent that the demand by all sectors, including the environment, cannot be satisfied fully.” UN-Water, 2006. • Falkenmark Indicator: “fraction of total annual runoff available for human use” Falkenmark, M., 1989. • Further developments: Water Scarcity Index, Social Water Stress Indicator, Water Resources Vulnerability Index, … Brown, A., Matlock, M.D., 2011. 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 6
    • Water Scarcity Regime 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 7 Gabiña,D.,MEDROPLAN,2013. Drought: Natural temporary imbalance of water availability (persistent lower-than-average precipitation). Water shortage: Man-induced temporary water imbalance. Aridity: Natural permanent imbalance in the water availability (low average annual precipitation). Desertification: Man-induced permanent imbalance in the availability of water (inappropriate land use).
    • Drought – Critical Parameters • Availability of drinking water • Sustenance of economic activity • Availability of food at reasonable price • Health and nutrition esp. for vulnerable sections • Conservation of livestock 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 8
    • Types of Drought 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 9 Gabiña,D.,MEDROPLAN,2013.
    • Characteristics of Approaches to Drought Management 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 10 Gabiña,D.,MEDROPLAN,2013. Characteristics Limitations Reactive • Based on the implementation of actions after a drought event has occurred and is perceived. • Taken in emergency situations but not based in a contingency plan. • Often results in inefficient technical and economic solutions since actions are taken with little time for evaluating optimal actions. • Limited stakeholder participation. Proactive or preventive • Actions designed in advance, with appropriate planning tools. • Includes stakeholder participation. • Provides both short and long term measures and includes early warning systems. • Includes a contingency plan for emergency situations. • The ineffective coordination and cooperation among institutions and the lack of policy to support and revise the proactive plan may lead to an inadequate planning.
    • www.escwa.un.org 1120 March 2014 Regional Picture Inamo,2001.
    • Drought in the Arab Region: Vulnerability 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 12 Byiringiro,F.,2012.
    • Drought in the Arab Region: Frequency 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 13 Byiringiro,F.,2012.
    • Drought in the Arab Region: Consecutive Period 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 14 Byiringiro,F.,2012.
    • Iraq – Displacement due to Drought 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 15 IOM,2010.
    • Iraq – Water Needs 2008 - 2010 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 16 IOM,2010.
    • Syria’s Drought www.escwa.un.org 1720 March 2014 • Drought since at least 2008 • Inability to “make a living” • Internal displacements • Additional stress on resources and society in urban areas irinnews,2009.
    • Syria’s Past! – Syria’s Future? www.escwa.un.org 1820 March 2014 Estimated Change in Length of Dry Season Evans,J.P.,2008.
    • www.escwa.un.org 1920 March 2014 Experiences from the Region Inamo,2001.
    • RICCAR and Regional Drought Capacity Development • Regional Initiative for the Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources and Socio- Economic Vulnerability in the Arab Region (RICCAR) – UN ESCWA, LAS, and others • Strengthening National Capacities to Manage Water Scarcity and Drought in West Asia and North Africa – UN DESA, UN ESCWA and others – DA Project, 2013-2015 – Jordan, Morocco, Palestine and Tunisia – Lebanon: In process to nominate "National Drought Management Coordinator" 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 20
    • www.escwa.un.org 21 Morocco: Institutional Framework Ouassou,A.etal.,2007. 20 March 2014
    • www.escwa.un.org 22 Morocco: Drought characterization and risk analysis Drought characterization and risk analysis, Oum Er Rbia Basin • Standardized precipitation index (SPI) • Surface water supply index (SWSI) • Spatial drought characterization • Seasonal drought development • Agricultural drought vulnerability Ouassou,A.etal.,2007. 20 March 2014
    • www.escwa.un.org 23 Morocco: Proactive Responses for Agricultural and Hydrological Drought Ouassou,A.etal.,2007. 20 March 2014
    • 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 24 Palestine: Country-wide Rainfall Monitoring Abdo,K.,2012andMoA-PAL,2011.
    • 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 25 Palestine: Water Scarcity Task Force (PWA – MoA) Abdo,K.,2012. WSS Agriculture
    • www.escwa.un.org 26 Palestine: Risk of Water Scarcity – VA Mapping UNOCHA-PAL,2010. 20 March 2014
    • www.escwa.un.org 27 Palestine: Proposal for Transitional Water Scarcity Response Project Coordinating agency: PWA, Ramallah Implementing partners: Water Scarcity Task Force, MoA, MoLG, MoPaD, MoF & related, Local Government Units (Village Councils, Joint Service Councils, Municipalities), Social Society with International and National NGOs, Private Sector Project location: West Bank Project duration: Four years, from 2014 to 2017 No of actors benefitting: Result 1, Water Scarcity Information System & Communication & Advocacy: population and agencies operating in the West Bank; Result 2 & 3: Scenario MIN: 25'000 cons. in 96 comm., Scenario B: 50'000 cons. in 159 comm., Scenario C: 250'000 cons. in 334 comm.; Capacity Building: communities & Local Government Units Total project costs: 10 mio. Euros, 12 mio. Euros, 25 mio. Euros for above scenarios respectively. Muenchenbach,M.,2013. 20 March 2014
    • www.escwa.un.org 2820 March 2014 Mediterranean Drought Preparedness and Mitigation Planning (MEDROPLAN) Inamo,2001.
    • MEDROPLAN Proposed Planning Framework 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 29 Gabiña,D.,MEDROPLAN,2013.
    • MEDROPLAN Proposed Planning Framework: Operational 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 30 Gabiña,D.,MEDROPLAN,2013.
    • MEDROPLAN Proposed Planning Framework: Operational 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 31 Gabiña,D.,MEDROPLAN,2013.
    • MEDROPLAN Proposed Planning Framework: Operational 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 32 Gabiña,D.,MEDROPLAN,2013.
    • MEDROPLAN Proposed Planning Framework: Operational 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 33 Gabiña,D.,MEDROPLAN,2013.
    • MEDROPLAN Proposed Planning Framework: Operational 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 34 Gabiña,D.,MEDROPLAN,2013.
    • www.escwa.un.org 3520 March 2014 Recommendations Inamo,2001.
    • Recommendations: Lebanon 1/2 • Coordinate  Cooperate  Concerted Action • National Strategy to Overcome Water Scarcity (NaSOWaS) – “Water Scarcity Task Force” (WSTF) as inter-ministerial coordination mechanism between core government institutions (PM enforced, MEW lead, MoA deputy chair). – National inter-ministerial workshop with invited external and national speakers. – Wider consultation process with civil societies, NGOs, universities, donors – national and sub-national. • National Monitoring Network – Network of stations that monitor rainfall, surface water flows, groundwater levels and provides a representative overview of the situation all over the country. – Full & free intra-governmental access to monitoring data. 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 36
    • Recommendations: Lebanon 2/2 • Research on Recharge Mechanisms – What are the exact recharge mechanisms for the most important groundwater discharges, i.e. springs? – Where, when and how much snow is necessary to sustain long term average discharge in most important springs? • Legal Basis for Rationalizing Water Use – Approval of water code to allow State to intervene and rationalize water use in times of scarcity / drought. – Establish regulations / guidelines for water rationalization, i.e. differentiation between essential and non-essential water uses and triggers for restrictions in use. – Constitute National Higher Water Council to oversee rationalization activities. 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 37
    • Three Levels of (Water) Scarcity 20 March 2014 www.escwa.un.org 38 TheWorldBank,2007.
    • Coping with Water Scarcity in Lebanon? Some Suggestions and Approaches Based on Experiences from the Region WSCG Meeting Beirut, Lebanon 20 March 2014 Ralf Klingbeil Regional Advisor Environment & Water
    • References 1/2 www.escwa.un.org 4020 March 2014  Abdo, K., 2012. Palestine Experience: National Approaches towards DRM in Palestine. Presentation at the Consensus Building and Awareness Workshop, Iraq Drought Risk Management Project, 26-28 Mar 2012, Beirut.  Brown, A., Matlock, M.D., 2011. A Review of Water Scarcity Indices and Methodologies. The Sustainability Consortium, White Paper #106, Apr 2011. www.sustainabilityconsortium.org/wp- content/themes/sustainability/assets/pdf/whitepapers/2011_Brown_Matlock_Water-Availability-Assessment-Indices-and- Methodologies-Lit-Review.pdf , accessed 19 Mar 2014.  Byiringiro, F., 2012. Overview of Drought Management Initiatives in the Region. Presentation at the Consensus Building and Awareness Workshop, Iraq Drought Risk Management Project, 26-28 Mar 2012, Beirut.  Carboun, 2011. Water Availability and Use in the Middle East. Infographics: Water Availability and Use. www.carboun.com/water/water-availability-and-water-use-in-the-arab-world-infographics, accessed 19 Mar 2014.  Cornish, P., 2009. Australias Drought. www.slideshare.net/mrcornish/australias-drought, accessed 19 Mar 2014.  Evans, J.P., 2008. 21st Century Climate Change in the Middle East. Climatic Change 92, (3–4), 417–432. doi:10.1007/s10584-008-9438-5.  Falkenmark, M. 1989. The Massive Water Scarcity Now Threatening Africa - Why Isn’t It Being Addressed? Ambio, Vol. 18, pp. 112-118.  Gabiña, D., 2013. Drought Management Guidelines in the Mediterranean Region. Mediterranean Drought Preparedness and Mitigation Planning (MEDROPLAN). Presentation at Meeting on Strengthening National Capacities to Manage Water Scarcity and Drought in West Asia and North Africa, 24-25 Jun 2013, Beirut.  Iglesias, A., Cancelliere, A., Gabiña, D., López-Francos, A., Moneo, M., Rossi, G. (eds), 2007. Drought Management Guidelines and Examples of Application. 2 vols (74 and 68 pp.) in Arabic, English, French, Greek, Italian and Spanish. Zaragoza: CIHEAM / EC MEDA Water, www.iamz.ciheam.org/medroplan, accessed 19 Mar 2014.  Inamo, 2001. Wasserpolitik: Probleme und Perspektiven [Water Politics: Problems and Perspectives], 27, www.inamo.de, accessed 19 Mar 2014.
    • References 2/2 www.escwa.un.org 4120 March 2014  IOM, 2010. Iraq Displacement Reports. Special Focus – Water Scarcity. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/F09976DD29B45ECD852577EB006F5ABD-Full_Report.pdf, accessed 19 Mar 2014.  irinnews.org, 2009. Syria’s drought-affected provinces as of Aug 2009. www.irinnews.org/report/89492/syria-act-now-to- stop-desertification-says-fao, accessed 19 Mar 2014.  MoA – PAL, 2011. Rainfall Report from 9 to 16 Feb 2011.  Muenchenbach, M., 2013. Draft Proposal for Transitional Water Scarcity Response Project. Consultancy for UNICEF.  Ouassou, A., Ameziane, T., Ziyad, A., Belghiti M., 2007. Application of the drought management guidelines in Morocco. In: Iglesias A., Moneo M., López-Francos A. (eds.). Drought management guidelines technical annex. Zaragoza: CIHEAM / EC MEDA Water, 2007, p. 343-372. Options Méditerranéennes, Série B. Etudes et Recherches, n. 58. http://om.ciheam.org/om/pdf/b58/00800547.pdf, accessed 19 Mar 2014.  The World Bank, 2007. Making the Most of Scarcity: Accountability for Better Water Management Results in the Middle East and North Africa. MENA Development Report. http://go.worldbank.org/WDPAMJ5290, accessed 19 Mar 2014.  UNICEF, UNHCR, 2014. WASH Sector: Risk of Water Shortages this Summer. Beirut, 26 Jan 2014. http://reliefweb.int/report/lebanon/wash-sector-risk-water-shortages-summer, accessed 19 Mar 2014.  UN OCHA - PAL, 2010. WASH Vulnerability Mapping of Communities at Risk of Water Scarcity.  UN SG, 2013. Secretary-General's Message for 2013, World Day to Combat Desertification, 17 June 2013, www.un.org/en/events/desertificationday/2013/sgmessage.shtml, accessed 19 Mar 2014.  UN-Water, 2006. Coping with Water Scarcity: A Strategic Issue and Priority for System-wide Action. www.unwater.org/downloads/waterscarcity.pdf, accessed 19 Mar 2014.