Challenges to Water ResourcesManagement in the Middle EastAUT, Halat-Byblos, Lebanon   Ralf Klingbeil17 Januar y 2012     ...
Lebanon - ‫لبنان‬1 February 2012      www.escwa.un.org   2
Lebanon - ‫لبنان‬                  http://ilndation-elaof.blogspot.com/2009/11/how-to-make-bucket-margarita.html 2, 20091 ...
Opening Quotes• “Arabs are already in the heart of the water   catastrophe.”• “Any delay in a serious response to the wate...
Iraq – Displacement due to Drought                                          IOM, July 20101 February 2012    www.escwa.un....
Iraq – Water Needs 2008 - 2010                                          IOM, July 20101 February 2012      www.escwa.un.or...
Outline• UN-ESCWA  A UN Regional Economic Commission• Regional Water Overview:  The Many Dimensions of Water     –   Water...
UN ESCWA and the                   Regional Dimension in the UN                                 ECE                       ...
UN ESCWA• 14 Member Countries   • Bahrain   • Egypt   • Iraq   • Jordan   • Kuwait   • Lebanon   • Qatar   • Oman   • Pale...
Sustainable Development and Productivity                                                                          Producti...
Water - Challenges•   Status and Trends•   Availability vs. Use and Demand•   Renewable vs. Non-Renewable•   Population Gr...
Regional Water Overview              Water Availability and Demand1 February 2012         www.escwa.un.org      12
Actual Renewable Freshwater Resources                 per Capita. by Region                                         FAO AQ...
Percent of Total Renewable Water                  Resources Withdrawn, by Region                                          ...
Rainfall Distribution in the Arab Region                                                      ESCWA, 20091 February 2012  ...
Total Renewable Water per Person                      in ESCWA Region         Water Stress         Water Scarcity         ...
Total Actual Renewable Water                  Resources per Capita in MENA           Water Stress           Water Scarcity...
Arab Countries’ Water Availability and Use                                          www.carboun.com, 20111 February 2012  ...
High Rate of Population Growth                                           ICBA, Barghouti, 20091 February 2012         www....
High Rate of Population Growth                        in ESCWA Region                                                   ES...
Renewable - Non-Renewable Groundwater              Renewable groundwater resources              Non-renewable groundwater ...
Regional Water Overview                  Solutions to a Dilemma?1 February 2012          www.escwa.un.org   22
Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Read Sea - Dead Sea Canal                                             WB, Lintne...
Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Dead Sea: Water Level Changes                                             WB, Li...
Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Dead Sea: Sink Holes, Water Level Drop1 February 2012        www.escwa.un.org   ...
Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Red - Dead Sea Canal: The Concept1 February 2012        www.escwa.un.org        ...
Solutions? - Desalination                                              ESCWA, 20091 February 2012          www.escwa.un.or...
Desalination for West Bank?                  Zeitoun 20101 February 2012                  www.escwa.un.org   28
Regional Water Overview              Water and Food, Virtual Water,                      Food Imports1 February 2012      ...
Water and FoodFood Security• Food security vs. food self-sufficiency.• Food security vs. internal agricultural production....
Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia1 February 2012             www.escwa.un.org     31
Irrigated Agriculture in Saudi Arabia1 February 2012        www.escwa.un.org                        32                    ...
Irrigated Agriculture in Saudi Arabia   Accumulated 30 year groundwater abstraction, 1975 - 2004 per   Region for KSA (Wat...
Irrigated Agriculture in Saudi Arabia   Location of aquifer utilisation zones and outcrop area of principal   aquifers (Wa...
Sustainability and                  Non-Renewable Groundwater• Immediate gains vs. long term benefits• No clear “Exit Stra...
Declining Shares of Agriculture in GDP                                       ICBA, Barghouti, 20091 February 2012     www....
Perverse Incentives for Excess Irrigation                                                     WB, 20071 February 2012     ...
Sources of Water and Use                                             ICBA, Barghouti, 20091 February 2012           www.es...
Alternative Future Water Policy OptionsEssentially 3 future policy options available:• Population Policy change –  high po...
Three Levels of Scarcity                                             WB, 20071 February 2012          www.escwa.un.org    ...
Regional Water Overview                  Transboundary Water and                   Transboundary Aquifers1 February 2012  ...
TB Water & Aquifers Worldwide                  •   MENA Region: Only few transboundary rivers,                      BUT la...
What is a Transboundary Aquifer ?                                       UNESCO / ISARM,                                   ...
TB Water & Aquifers in Middle East1 February 2012     www.escwa.un.org       44
TB Water Cooperation – Principles1. Equitable and Reasonable Utilisation2. Obligation not to Cause Significant Harm3. Gene...
Jordan River Basin• 4 / 5 riparians                                      Y  officially support the                     LEB...
Israel, Jordan and Palestine1 February 2012            www.escwa.un.org      47
Lebanon1 February 2012    www.escwa.un.org   48
Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs                                          Klein, 19981 February 2012       www.escwa.un....
Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs                  Hasbani (125 Mio m³/a)Libanon                             Dan (250 Mio...
Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs• Hasbani Spring, Hasbani River1 February 2012       www.escwa.un.org        51
Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs• Ouazzani Spring, Hasbani River1 February 2012       www.escwa.un.org        52
Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs                                          Klein,19981 February 2012       www.escwa.un.o...
Lake Tiberias1 February 2012     www.escwa.un.org   54
Lake Tiberias discharge –                  “Spring” of the Lower Jordan River                                             ...
The Mouth of the River Jordan -                        at the Dead Sea… in 2008:1.20 m wide1 February 2012             www...
Jordan River Basin1 February 2012        www.escwa.un.org   57 Moelle. 2000 ?
Jordan River Basin1 February 2012        www.escwa.un.org   58 Moelle. 2000 ?
Jordan Basin / Mediterranean: Groundwater                              Basin        Recharge Abstractions                 ...
Eastern Mountain Aquifer• Ein Samia, well field           • Spring Fazael, close to  for Ramallah water                Jor...
Israel - Palestine: The Mountain Aquifers• Geological Cross Section from West to East                                     ...
Groundwater Data: Israel – Palestine     Historical Use: Surface and Groundwater                                         Z...
Groundwater Data: Israel – Palestine         Groundwater Development Costs                                         MacDona...
Israel-Palestine:                  Western Aquifer - Boreholes                                                SUSMAQ, 2004...
Gaza as Part of TB Coastal Aquifer1 February 2012      www.escwa.un.org                    65                             ...
Gaza as Part of TB Coastal Aquifer• Chloride concentrations in public drinking water wells                                ...
Gaza - End of Humanity?• What is the World waiting for?• Gaza cannot be self-supplied  with water  … just like Manhattan• ...
Perspectives• No resolution of the water conflict without  reallocation of freshwater• No viable Palestinian State without...
Perspectives                                       Friends of the Earth Middle East1 February 2012     www.escwa.un.org   ...
Climate Change and Water             in the Region                  Understanding Impacts                  Making Adaptati...
Potential Impacts• Coupled with excessive population growth and rising  living standards,  climate change will exacerbate ...
Potential Impacts•   Changes in water availability     –   Increase system resilience through surface / underground storag...
Change in Precipitation                                            Hue shows change in mm/y.                              ...
Change in Length of Dry Season                                          Evans, J.P., 2009.                                ...
Changes in RCM projections of seasonal  precipitation (mm/season) across the region             Mar to May 2070           ...
Changes in RCM projections of seasonal  precipitation (mm/season) across the regionHemming, D. et al., 2007. Environmental...
Water – Key Development Issues                             Facilitating               Food Crisis                         ...
Main Messages• Water is everybody’s business.• Goal of many countries:  National water strategy for water security,  enoug...
Main Messages• Urgent need to change water, agriculture and population  policies with regard to water consumption and prot...
Challenges to Water ResourcesManagement in the Middle EastAUT, Halat-Byblos, Lebanon   Ralf Klingbeil17 Januar y 2012     ...
R. Klingbeil, 2012: Challenges to Water Resources Management in the Middle East
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R. Klingbeil, 2012: Challenges to Water Resources Management in the Middle East

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Klingbeil, R., 2012. Challenges to Water Resources Management in the Middle East. Presentation in the Water Resources Seminar, 17 January 2012, American University of Technology, Halat - Byblos, Lebanon.

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R. Klingbeil, 2012: Challenges to Water Resources Management in the Middle East

  1. 1. Challenges to Water ResourcesManagement in the Middle EastAUT, Halat-Byblos, Lebanon Ralf Klingbeil17 Januar y 2012 Regional Advisor Environment & Water
  2. 2. Lebanon - ‫لبنان‬1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 2
  3. 3. Lebanon - ‫لبنان‬ http://ilndation-elaof.blogspot.com/2009/11/how-to-make-bucket-margarita.html 2, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 3
  4. 4. Opening Quotes• “Arabs are already in the heart of the water catastrophe.”• “Any delay in a serious response to the water challenge corresponds to mass suicide. The water apocalypse is knocking on Arab doors, right now.” Najib Saab, SG AFED, 12 June 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 4
  5. 5. Iraq – Displacement due to Drought IOM, July 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 5
  6. 6. Iraq – Water Needs 2008 - 2010 IOM, July 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 6
  7. 7. Outline• UN-ESCWA A UN Regional Economic Commission• Regional Water Overview: The Many Dimensions of Water – Water Availability and Demand – Solutions to a Dilemma? – Water and Food, Virtual Water, Food Imports – Transboundary Water and Transboundary Aquifers – Climate Change• What remains to be said. Hope?1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 7
  8. 8. UN ESCWA and the Regional Dimension in the UN ECE 1947 ESCWA ECLAC 1973 1948 ECA ESCAP 1958 19471 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 8
  9. 9. UN ESCWA• 14 Member Countries • Bahrain • Egypt • Iraq • Jordan • Kuwait • Lebanon • Qatar • Oman • Palestine • Saudi Arabia • Sudan • Syrian Arab Republic • United Arab Emirates • Yemen 1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 9
  10. 10. Sustainable Development and Productivity Productive Energy Water Sectors § Energy efficiency § Integrated water § Competitiveness § Access to modern resource and productivity of energy services management SMEs § Renewable (IWRM) § Environmentally energies § Management of sound technologies § Advanced/cleaner shared water § Sustainable fossil fuels resources agriculture and § Rural electrification § Improved water rural development § Sustainable energy supply and § Trade and use in transport sanitation environment Cross-cutting issues: § Climate change adaptation and mitigation § Sustainable consumption and production § Green economy01 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 10
  11. 11. Water - Challenges• Status and Trends• Availability vs. Use and Demand• Renewable vs. Non-Renewable• Population Growth and Agriculture• Pollution – Reduction of Available Resources• Virtual Water• Water Imports and Transfers• Desalination• Transboundary Water and Aquifers• ... and Climate Change1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 11
  12. 12. Regional Water Overview Water Availability and Demand1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 12
  13. 13. Actual Renewable Freshwater Resources per Capita. by Region FAO AQUASTST, WB 20071 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 13
  14. 14. Percent of Total Renewable Water Resources Withdrawn, by Region FAO AQUASTAT data 1998-2002, WB 20071 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 14
  15. 15. Rainfall Distribution in the Arab Region ESCWA, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 15
  16. 16. Total Renewable Water per Person in ESCWA Region Water Stress Water Scarcity Extreme Water Scarcity ESCWA, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 16
  17. 17. Total Actual Renewable Water Resources per Capita in MENA Water Stress Water Scarcity Extreme Water Scarcity FAO AQUASTAT, WB 20071 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 17
  18. 18. Arab Countries’ Water Availability and Use www.carboun.com, 20111 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 18
  19. 19. High Rate of Population Growth ICBA, Barghouti, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 19
  20. 20. High Rate of Population Growth in ESCWA Region ESCWA, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 20
  21. 21. Renewable - Non-Renewable Groundwater Renewable groundwater resources Non-renewable groundwater Non ground water resources ESCWA, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 21
  22. 22. Regional Water Overview Solutions to a Dilemma?1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 22
  23. 23. Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Read Sea - Dead Sea Canal WB, Lintner, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 23
  24. 24. Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Dead Sea: Water Level Changes WB, Lintner, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 24
  25. 25. Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Dead Sea: Sink Holes, Water Level Drop1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 25
  26. 26. Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Red - Dead Sea Canal: The Concept1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 26
  27. 27. Solutions? - Desalination ESCWA, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 27
  28. 28. Desalination for West Bank? Zeitoun 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 28
  29. 29. Regional Water Overview Water and Food, Virtual Water, Food Imports1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 29
  30. 30. Water and FoodFood Security• Food security vs. food self-sufficiency.• Food security vs. internal agricultural production.• Food security and nonrenewable groundwater resources. • A recent World Bank study on water economics in the Middle East and North Africa estimates that groundwater resources depletion has substantially reduced GDP in some countries, by 2.1% in Jordan, 1.5% in Yemen, 1.3% in Egypt, and 1.2% in Tunis.• Food security and virtual water - implications for: • Trade • Rural development, including women & youth • Foreign revenue reserves • Sustainability
  31. 31. Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 31
  32. 32. Irrigated Agriculture in Saudi Arabia1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 32 FAO AQUASTAT, 2008
  33. 33. Irrigated Agriculture in Saudi Arabia Accumulated 30 year groundwater abstraction, 1975 - 2004 per Region for KSA (WaterWatch, 2006)1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 33
  34. 34. Irrigated Agriculture in Saudi Arabia Location of aquifer utilisation zones and outcrop area of principal aquifers (WaterWatch, 2006)1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 34
  35. 35. Sustainability and Non-Renewable Groundwater• Immediate gains vs. long term benefits• No clear “Exit Strategy”, no replacement for non-renewable water resource we are here, but where are we going next? after Al Zubari, 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 35
  36. 36. Declining Shares of Agriculture in GDP ICBA, Barghouti, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 36
  37. 37. Perverse Incentives for Excess Irrigation WB, 20071 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 37
  38. 38. Sources of Water and Use ICBA, Barghouti, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 38
  39. 39. Alternative Future Water Policy OptionsEssentially 3 future policy options available:• Population Policy change – high political risk, long term impact, adopted economic development model• Agricultural Policy change – medium political risk, medium term impact• Water Policy change – lower political risk, short term impact• Combination of two or three of the above1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 39
  40. 40. Three Levels of Scarcity WB, 20071 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 40
  41. 41. Regional Water Overview Transboundary Water and Transboundary Aquifers1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 41
  42. 42. TB Water & Aquifers Worldwide • MENA Region: Only few transboundary rivers, BUT large volumes of transboundary groundwater • Concepts for Transboundary River Basins do not necessarily fit to the needs in MENA1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 42
  43. 43. What is a Transboundary Aquifer ? UNESCO / ISARM, 20011 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 43
  44. 44. TB Water & Aquifers in Middle East1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 44
  45. 45. TB Water Cooperation – Principles1. Equitable and Reasonable Utilisation2. Obligation not to Cause Significant Harm3. General Obligation to Cooperate § Regular Exchange of Data and Information § Bilateral and Regional Agreements & Arrangements4. Environmental Protection § Protection and Preservation of Ecosystems § Prevention, Reduction and Control of Pollution5. Monitoring and ManagementLimited Sovereignty of Riparian / Aquifer States1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 45
  46. 46. Jordan River Basin• 4 / 5 riparians Y officially support the LEBANON 1997 UN Watercourse Y SYRIA Convention JORDAN N RIVER Y BASIN Y JORDAN PALESTINE1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 46 Zeitoun 2010
  47. 47. Israel, Jordan and Palestine1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 47
  48. 48. Lebanon1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 48
  49. 49. Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs Klein, 19981 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 49
  50. 50. Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs Hasbani (125 Mio m³/a)Libanon Dan (250 Mio m³/a) Banias (125 Mio m³/a) Israel Golan Jordan1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 50
  51. 51. Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs• Hasbani Spring, Hasbani River1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 51
  52. 52. Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs• Ouazzani Spring, Hasbani River1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 52
  53. 53. Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs Klein,19981 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 53
  54. 54. Lake Tiberias1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 54
  55. 55. Lake Tiberias discharge – “Spring” of the Lower Jordan River Zeitoun. 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 55
  56. 56. The Mouth of the River Jordan - at the Dead Sea… in 2008:1.20 m wide1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 56
  57. 57. Jordan River Basin1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 57 Moelle. 2000 ?
  58. 58. Jordan River Basin1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 58 Moelle. 2000 ?
  59. 59. Jordan Basin / Mediterranean: Groundwater Basin Recharge Abstractions Coastal Aq 476 544 WAB 409 377 W.Galilee 171 123 Carmel 60 48 EAB,NEAB 386 330 Negev, Aravah 32 94 Tiberias 507 454 Σ 2041 1970 Messerschmid, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 59
  60. 60. Eastern Mountain Aquifer• Ein Samia, well field • Spring Fazael, close to for Ramallah water Jordan valley supply1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 60
  61. 61. Israel - Palestine: The Mountain Aquifers• Geological Cross Section from West to East FAO. 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 61
  62. 62. Groundwater Data: Israel – Palestine Historical Use: Surface and Groundwater Zeitoun, Messerschmid, Attili, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 62
  63. 63. Groundwater Data: Israel – Palestine Groundwater Development Costs MacDonald et al., 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 63
  64. 64. Israel-Palestine: Western Aquifer - Boreholes SUSMAQ, 20041 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 64
  65. 65. Gaza as Part of TB Coastal Aquifer1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 65 Messerschmid 2009
  66. 66. Gaza as Part of TB Coastal Aquifer• Chloride concentrations in public drinking water wells Messerschmid 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 66
  67. 67. Gaza - End of Humanity?• What is the World waiting for?• Gaza cannot be self-supplied with water … just like Manhattan• Desalination does not solve the main problems of the humanitarian and environmental crisis• Blockade is the greatest environmental hazard• Do we have to wait for Cholera? Messerschmid 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 67
  68. 68. Perspectives• No resolution of the water conflict without reallocation of freshwater• No viable Palestinian State without sufficient water.• Negotiated agreement must be based on equitable reallocation of shared water resources.• Equitable distribution with Palestinians without harm to Israel is possible.• Water can be used as a vehicle for peace, but is a source of further conflict. Zeitoun 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 68
  69. 69. Perspectives Friends of the Earth Middle East1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 69
  70. 70. Climate Change and Water in the Region Understanding Impacts Making Adaptation Work1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 70
  71. 71. Potential Impacts• Coupled with excessive population growth and rising living standards, climate change will exacerbate water scarcity conditions across the Arab world.• Persistent reduction of total annual precipitation coupled with rising temperatures will reduce water availability.• Higher temperatures will influence water quality and may cause additional sanitation problems1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 71
  72. 72. Potential Impacts• Changes in water availability – Increase system resilience through surface / underground storage and transfer capacity – Shift form surface to underground storage where applicable to reduce evaporation losses• Urban drainage networks - new dimensions – Sewage systems, storm runoff• Desalination - higher temperature in feed water may increase algae growth and risk of closure of plant intake – Improve intake procedures – Increase storage and transfer capacity• Infrastructure failures – Higher flooding intensities, frequencies – Higher temperatures,• Changes in hydraulic patterns and temperatures – Loss of snowpack storage in Lebanon, Oman, etc.• Groundwater recharge changes, impacts on spring and river discharges – Increase managed aquifer recharge schemes – Better monitoring and scientific understanding of recharge mechanism for predictive planning of alternatives, before springs cease• Seawater level rise – Increasing groundwater salinisation1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 72
  73. 73. Change in Precipitation Hue shows change in mm/y. Saturation / intensity shows the change as percentage of 2005 PPTN. Evans, J.P., 2009. 21st Century Climate Change in the Middle East.1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 73
  74. 74. Change in Length of Dry Season Evans, J.P., 2009. 21st Century Climate Change in the Middle East.1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 74
  75. 75. Changes in RCM projections of seasonal precipitation (mm/season) across the region Mar to May 2070 Sep to Nov 2070Hemming, D. et al., 2007. Environmental Stresses from Detailed Climate Model Simulations for theMiddle East and Gulf Regions. Defense and Security Implications of Climate Change – Gulf Region1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 75
  76. 76. Changes in RCM projections of seasonal precipitation (mm/season) across the regionHemming, D. et al., 2007. Environmental Stresses from Detailed Climate Model Simulations for theMiddle East and Gulf Regions. Defense and Security Implications of Climate Change – Gulf Region1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 76
  77. 77. Water – Key Development Issues Facilitating Food Crisis Economic Growth Governance & Finance Water Resources Management Livable Water Supply Climate CitiesGrowth and Change Human Development Water Conflicts Decentralization Sanitation Peak Water Water Security Local human services Urbanization Irrigation Energy and and Rural Development Hydropower Poverty Impact Challenges Water, Climate and Environment Transboundary Water Financial Crisis WB, Saghir, 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 77
  78. 78. Main Messages• Water is everybody’s business.• Goal of many countries: National water strategy for water security, enough water for all demands.• Countries in the region are largely unable to sustain their water needs only from within their national boundaries.• All countries are already net water importers through food imports – virtual water.• Largest water consumer is agriculture, although rarely economically viable nor socially necessary.1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 78
  79. 79. Main Messages• Urgent need to change water, agriculture and population policies with regard to water consumption and protection.• Surface and groundwater is often transboundary, i.e. (needs to be) shared between neighbouring countries.• Effective und sustainable management of transboundary water needs willingness to cooperate for a more equitable sharing of the benefits from the common resource.• Without cooperation, without innovative integration of economic tools, social justice and environmental sustainable approaches, without regional and bilateral agreements on water, the region may actually slowly move towards a mass suicide.1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 79
  80. 80. Challenges to Water ResourcesManagement in the Middle EastAUT, Halat-Byblos, Lebanon Ralf Klingbeil17 Januar y 2012 Regional Advisor Environment & Water

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