Water -A Strategic Resource in the Middle EastWildbad Kreuth, Germany      Ralf Klingbeil25 July 2010                 Regi...
Quotes• “The next war in the Middle East will be over water.”  attributed to Boutros Boutros Ghali, former SG UN, 1993• “T...
Outline1 February 2012   www.escwa.un.org   3
Outline• UN-ESCWA – regional economic commission• Regional Water Overview  The Many Dimensions of Water     –   Water Avai...
UN ESCWA• 14 Member  Countries1 February 2012    www.escwa.un.org   5
Regional Water Overview              Water Availability and Demand1 February 2012         www.escwa.un.org      6
Freshwater Worldwide1 February 2012         www.escwa.un.org   7
Actual Renewable Freshwater Resources                     per Capita. by Region                                           ...
Percent of Total Renewable Water                  Resources Withdrawn, by Region                                          ...
Rainfall Distribution in the Arab Region                                                      ESCWA,, 20091 February 2012 ...
Total Renewable Water per Person                      in ESCWA Region         Water Stress         Water Scarcity         ...
Total Actual Renewable Water                  Resources per Capita in MENA           Water Stress           Water Scarcity...
High Rate of Population Growth                                           ICBA, Barghouti, 20091 February 2012         www....
High Rate of Population Growth                        in ESCWA Region                                                   ES...
Renewable - Non-Renewable Groundwater              Renewable groundwater resources              Non-renewable groundwater ...
Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia1 February 2012   www.escwa.un.org     16
Sustainability and                  Non-Renewable Groundwater• Immediate gains vs. long term benefits• No clear “Exit Stra...
Sources of Water and Use                                             ICBA, Barghouti, 20091 February 2012          www.esc...
Water – Key Development Issues                              Facilitating               Food Crisis                        ...
Regional Water Overview                  Solutions to a Dilemma?1 February 2012          www.escwa.un.org   20
Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Read Sea - Dead Sea Canal                                             WB, Lintne...
Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Dead Sea: Water Level Changes                                             WB, Li...
Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Dead Sea: Sink Holes, Water Level Drop1 February 2012        www.escwa.un.org   ...
Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Red - Dead Sea Canal: The Concept1 February 2012        www.escwa.un.org        ...
Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Read Sea - Dead Sea Canal                                             WB, Lintne...
Solutions? - Desalination                                              ESCWA, 20091 February 2012           www.escwa.un.o...
Regional Water Overview              Water and Food, Virtual Water,                      Food Imports1 February 2012      ...
Declining Shares of Agriculture in GDP                                       ICBA, Barghouti, 20091 February 2012     www....
Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia1 February 2012   www.escwa.un.org     29
Irrigated Agriculture in Saudi Arabia1 February 2012   www.escwa.un.org                        30                         ...
Perverse Incentives for Excess Irrigation                                            WB, 20071 February 2012     www.escwa...
Regional Water Overview                  Transboundary Water and                   Transboundary Aquifers1 February 2012  ...
What is a Transboundary Aquifer ?                                     UNESCO / ISARM,                                     ...
TB Water & Aquifers in Middle East1 February 2012   www.escwa.un.org    34
TB Water – International Law• 1966 Helsinki Rules• 1992 UN ECE Water Convention, and  2003 Amendment• 1997 UN Non-navigati...
TB Water Cooperation – Principles1. Equitable and Reasonable Utilisation2. Obligation not to Cause Significant Harm3. Gene...
Israel, Jordan and Palestine1 February 2012        www.escwa.un.org     37
Jordan River Basin1 February 2012        www.escwa.un.org        38                                          FAO. 2009
Jordan River - Dead Sea Basin                    • Israel, Jordan, Lebanon,                      Palestine, Syrian Arab Re...
Jordan River Basin• Cooperation over                                        Y  existing water                             ...
Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs                  Hasbani (125 Mio m³/a)Libanon                             Dan (250 Mio...
Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs• Hasbani Spring, Hasbani River1 February 2012   www.escwa.un.org       42
Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs• Ouazzani Spring, Hasbani River1 February 2012   www.escwa.un.org       43
Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs                                     Klein. 19981 February 2012   www.escwa.un.org      ...
Lake Tiberias1 February 2012     www.escwa.un.org   45
Lake Tiberias discharge –                  “Spring” of the Lower Jordan River                                             ...
The Mouth of the River Jordan -                        at the Dead Sea… in 2008:1.20 m wide1 February 2012             www...
Jordan River Basin1 February 2012        www.escwa.un.org   48 Moelle. 2000 ?
Jordan River Basin1 February 2012        www.escwa.un.org   49 Moelle. 2000 ?
Jordan River Basin1 February 2012        www.escwa.un.org   50
Jordan River Basin1 February 2012        www.escwa.un.org   51
Jordan Basin / Mediterranean: Groundwater                              Basin        Recharge Abstractions                 ...
Israel - Palestine: The Mountain Aquifers• Geological Cross Section from West to East                                     ...
Eastern Mountain Aquifer• Ein Samia, well field          • Spring Fazael, close to  for Ramallah water               Jorda...
Israel-Palestine:                  Western Aquifer 2/7                                         SUSMAQ, 20041 February 2012...
Israel-Palestine:                      Western Aquifer 3/7• Well yields                  West Bank     Israel1 February 20...
Israel-Palestine:                  Western Aquifer 3/7• Communities:  per cap  water  availability                        ...
Israel-Palestine:                   Western Aquifer 3/7• Communities:  Extent of  water  networks     Communities         ...
Israel-Palestine:                  Western Aquifer 4/7     Historical Use: Surface and Groundwater                        ...
Israel – Palestine:                  Western Aquifer 5/7     Historical Use: Different Sectors, Parties                   ...
Israel-Palestine:                  Western Aquifer 6/7     Historical Use: One Party’s GW Abstraction                     ...
Israel-Palestine:                 Western Aquifer 7/7         Groundwater Development Costs                               ...
Desalination for West Bank?                  Zeitoun 20101 February 2012                  www.escwa.un.org   63
Gaza as Part of TB Coastal Aquifer1 February 2012   www.escwa.un.org                    64                                ...
Gaza as Part of TB Coastal Aquifer• Chloride concentrations in public drinking water wells                                ...
Gaza: Sewage Lagoons• Sewage catastrophe, • and new lagoons,  March 2007            October 20071 February 2012         ww...
Khan Younis, Gaza:                  Fetching Water instead of School1 February 2012              www.escwa.un.org        67
Gaza - End of Humanity?• What is the World waiting for?• Gaza cannot be self-supplied  with water  … just like Manhattan• ...
Israel-Palestine:                       Summary of Allocations                  source         Palestine      Israel    Jo...
Basis for Negotiations                                            Annapolis 2008• The Israeli Solution                    ...
Basis for Negotiations                                            Annapolis 2008• The Palestinian Solution (1)            ...
Basis for Negotiations                                            Annapolis 2008• The Palestinian Solution (2)      Overal...
Perspectives• No resolution of the water conflict without  reallocation of freshwater• No viable Palestinian State without...
Perspectives• Less realistic solutions:     –   Import from outside (Turkey)?     –   Desalination ?     –   Cisterns ?   ...
Perspectives                                        Friends of the Earth Middle East1 February 2012      www.escwa.un.org ...
Further Reading                                         Zeitoun 20101 February 2012       www.escwa.un.org           76
Israel - Palestine                            water is everybody‘s business!1 February 2012        www.escwa.un.org       ...
Lebanon1 February 2012    www.escwa.un.org   78
Lebanon• Rainfall distribution                                      El-Fadel, 20091 February 2012    www.escwa.un.org     ...
Lebanon• Groundwater Basins                                      El-Fadel, 20091 February 2012    www.escwa.un.org        ...
Lebanon                                      • Bala’a                                        Karst                        ...
Lebanon• Major River Basins                                      El-Fadel, 20091 February 2012    www.escwa.un.org        ...
Lebanon• Annual Water Balance                                      El-Fadel, 20091 February 2012    www.escwa.un.org      ...
Lebanon• MEW 10 year plan:  Dams and Lakes                           some dams not shown on map   El-Fadel, 20091 February...
Lebanon• Inter-Basin Transfers     – Litani     – Awali     – Hasbani / Jordan• Transboundary  implications               ...
UN ESCWA Cooperation with           German Development Cooperation• Federal Ministry for Economic  Cooperation and Deveopm...
ESCWA – BGR CooperationProject objective:• “to improve national and regional dialogue for the  integrated management and p...
ESCWA – BGR CooperationMain activities:1. Compilation of an inventory of shared water resources   in Western2. Technical A...
ESCWA – BGR Cooperation   Inventory  Shared Surface                              Shared Groundwater                       ...
ESCWA – GTZ CooperationMain focus:• Promoting cooperation and exchange of expertise and  experience in the water supply an...
What remains to be said.                  Hope?1 February 2012    www.escwa.un.org   91
Issues affecting the water sector                         in the Middle East• The region allocated significant investment ...
Main Messages• Water is everybody’s business.• Goal for many countries:  National water strategy for water security, enoug...
Main Messages• Urgent need to change water policies with regard water  consumption, treated waste water reuse.• Many surfa...
Ralf KlingbeilRegional AdvisorEnvironment & Water
Water -A Strategic Resource in the Middle EastWildbad Kreuth, Germany      Ralf Klingbeil25 July 2010                 Regi...
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R. Klingbeil, 2010: Wasser - eine strategische Ressource im Nahen und Mittleren Osten [Water - A Strategic Resource in the Middle East]

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Klingbeil, R., 2010. Wasser - eine strategische Ressource im Nahen und Mittleren Osten [Water - A Strategic Resource in the Middle East]. Presentation at DGVN-HSS-Seminar “Krisenregion Naher Osten” "Crises Region Middle East", 23-25 July 2010, Wildbad Kreuth, Germany.

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R. Klingbeil, 2010: Wasser - eine strategische Ressource im Nahen und Mittleren Osten [Water - A Strategic Resource in the Middle East]

  1. 1. Water -A Strategic Resource in the Middle EastWildbad Kreuth, Germany Ralf Klingbeil25 July 2010 Regional Advisor Environment & Water
  2. 2. Quotes• “The next war in the Middle East will be over water.” attributed to Boutros Boutros Ghali, former SG UN, 1993• “The policy makers should become much more aware of the central role of water in achieving regional peace. Right now the question is, will it be cooperation or riparian suicide?” Joschka Wessels, From the Source, 11 May 2010• “Arabs are already in the heart of the water catastrophe.” Najib Saad, SG AFED, 12 June 2010• “Any delay in a serious response to the water challenge corresponds to mass suicide. The water apocalypse is knocking on Arab doors, right now.” Najib Saad, SG AFED, 12 June 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 2
  3. 3. Outline1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 3
  4. 4. Outline• UN-ESCWA – regional economic commission• Regional Water Overview The Many Dimensions of Water – Water Availability and Demand – Solutions to a Dilemma? – Water and Food, Virtual Water, Food Imports – Transboundary Water and Transboundary Aquifers• What remains to be said Hope?1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 4
  5. 5. UN ESCWA• 14 Member Countries1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 5
  6. 6. Regional Water Overview Water Availability and Demand1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 6
  7. 7. Freshwater Worldwide1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 7
  8. 8. Actual Renewable Freshwater Resources per Capita. by Region FAO AQUASTST, WB 20071 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 8
  9. 9. Percent of Total Renewable Water Resources Withdrawn, by Region FAO AQUASTAT data 1998-2002, WB 20071 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 9
  10. 10. Rainfall Distribution in the Arab Region ESCWA,, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 10
  11. 11. Total Renewable Water per Person in ESCWA Region Water Stress Water Scarcity Extreme Water Scarcity ESCWA, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 11
  12. 12. Total Actual Renewable Water Resources per Capita in MENA Water Stress Water Scarcity Extreme Water Scarcity FAO AQUASTAT, WB 20071 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 12
  13. 13. High Rate of Population Growth ICBA, Barghouti, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 13
  14. 14. High Rate of Population Growth in ESCWA Region ESCWA, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 14
  15. 15. Renewable - Non-Renewable Groundwater Renewable groundwater resources Non-renewable groundwater Less extensive aquifers ESCWA, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 15
  16. 16. Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 16
  17. 17. Sustainability and Non-Renewable Groundwater• Immediate gains vs. long term benefits• No clear “Exit Strategy”, e.g., replacement water resource we are here, but where are we going next? after Al Zubari, 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 17
  18. 18. Sources of Water and Use ICBA, Barghouti, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 18
  19. 19. Water – Key Development Issues Facilitating Food Crisis Economic Growth Governance & Finance Water Resources Management Livable Water Supply Climate CitiesGrowth and Change Human Development Water Conflicts Decentralization Sanitation Peak Water Water Security Local human services Urbanization Irrigation Energy and and Rural Development Hydropower Poverty Impact Challenges Water, Climate and Environment Transboundary Water Financial Crisis WB, Saghir, 2010 1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 19
  20. 20. Regional Water Overview Solutions to a Dilemma?1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 20
  21. 21. Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Read Sea - Dead Sea Canal WB, Lintner, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 21
  22. 22. Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Dead Sea: Water Level Changes WB, Lintner, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 22
  23. 23. Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Dead Sea: Sink Holes, Water Level Drop1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 23
  24. 24. Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Red - Dead Sea Canal: The Concept1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 24
  25. 25. Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Read Sea - Dead Sea Canal WB, Lintner, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 25
  26. 26. Solutions? - Desalination ESCWA, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 26
  27. 27. Regional Water Overview Water and Food, Virtual Water, Food Imports1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 27
  28. 28. Declining Shares of Agriculture in GDP ICBA, Barghouti, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 28
  29. 29. Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 29
  30. 30. Irrigated Agriculture in Saudi Arabia1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 30 FAO AQUASTAT, 2008
  31. 31. Perverse Incentives for Excess Irrigation WB, 20071 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 31
  32. 32. Regional Water Overview Transboundary Water and Transboundary Aquifers1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 32
  33. 33. What is a Transboundary Aquifer ? UNESCO / ISARM, 20011 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 33
  34. 34. TB Water & Aquifers in Middle East1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 34
  35. 35. TB Water – International Law• 1966 Helsinki Rules• 1992 UN ECE Water Convention, and 2003 Amendment• 1997 UN Non-navigational Use Convention (UN Watercourse Convention)• 2000 EU Water Framework Directive “WFD” (2000/60/EC), 2006 Groundwater Directive (2006/118/EC)• 2008 UNGA Resolution on the Law of TBAs (“UNTBA”), inc. UN ILC comments 08/05/081 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 35
  36. 36. TB Water Cooperation – Principles1. Equitable and Reasonable Utilisation2. Obligation not to Cause Significant Harm3. General Obligation to Cooperate  Regular Exchange of Data and Information  Bilateral and Regional Agreements & Arrangements4. Environmental Protection  Protection and Preservation of Ecosystems  Prevention, Reduction and Control of Pollution5. Monitoring and ManagementLimited Sovereignty of Riparian / Aquifer States1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 36
  37. 37. Israel, Jordan and Palestine1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 37
  38. 38. Jordan River Basin1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 38 FAO. 2009
  39. 39. Jordan River - Dead Sea Basin • Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syrian Arab Republic (mainly)1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org modified after UN Dept. of Field Support 39
  40. 40. Jordan River Basin• Cooperation over Y existing water LEBANON resources is not SYRIA Y effective / existent JORDAN Domination of control N 1994 negotiations with Jordan RIVER 1995, 2000, 2008 negotiations BASIN Y with Palestinians Red – Dead Canal Y JORDAN Occupied No Long-term Water Security West Bank Lebanon perspective Syria perspective Signatories to IWL: 4 / 51 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 40 Zeitoun 2010
  41. 41. Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs Hasbani (125 Mio m³/a)Libanon Dan (250 Mio m³/a) Banias (125 Mio m³/a) Israel Golan Jordan1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 41
  42. 42. Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs• Hasbani Spring, Hasbani River1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 42
  43. 43. Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs• Ouazzani Spring, Hasbani River1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 43
  44. 44. Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs Klein. 19981 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 44
  45. 45. Lake Tiberias1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 45
  46. 46. Lake Tiberias discharge – “Spring” of the Lower Jordan River Zeitoun. 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 46
  47. 47. The Mouth of the River Jordan - at the Dead Sea… in 2008:1.20 m wide1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 47
  48. 48. Jordan River Basin1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 48 Moelle. 2000 ?
  49. 49. Jordan River Basin1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 49 Moelle. 2000 ?
  50. 50. Jordan River Basin1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 50
  51. 51. Jordan River Basin1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 51
  52. 52. Jordan Basin / Mediterranean: Groundwater Basin Recharge Abstractions Coastal Aq 476 544 WAB 409 377 W.Galilee 171 123 Carmel 60 48 EAB,NEAB 386 330 Negev, Aravah 32 94 Tiberias 507 454 Σ 2041 1970 Messerschmid, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 52
  53. 53. Israel - Palestine: The Mountain Aquifers• Geological Cross Section from West to East FAO. 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 53
  54. 54. Eastern Mountain Aquifer• Ein Samia, well field • Spring Fazael, close to for Ramallah water Jordan valley supply1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 54
  55. 55. Israel-Palestine: Western Aquifer 2/7 SUSMAQ, 20041 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 55
  56. 56. Israel-Palestine: Western Aquifer 3/7• Well yields West Bank Israel1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 56
  57. 57. Israel-Palestine: Western Aquifer 3/7• Communities: per cap water availability less than 30 l/cap/day http://www.intertech-pal.com/monitoring/data/data1.php1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 57
  58. 58. Israel-Palestine: Western Aquifer 3/7• Communities: Extent of water networks Communities without networks http://www.intertech-pal.com/monitoring/data/data1.php1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 58
  59. 59. Israel-Palestine: Western Aquifer 4/7 Historical Use: Surface and Groundwater Zeitoun, Messerschmid, Attili, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 59
  60. 60. Israel – Palestine: Western Aquifer 5/7 Historical Use: Different Sectors, Parties Zeitoun, Messerschmid, Attili, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 60
  61. 61. Israel-Palestine: Western Aquifer 6/7 Historical Use: One Party’s GW Abstraction Zeitoun, Messerschmid, Attili, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 61
  62. 62. Israel-Palestine: Western Aquifer 7/7 Groundwater Development Costs MacDonald et al., 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 62
  63. 63. Desalination for West Bank? Zeitoun 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 63
  64. 64. Gaza as Part of TB Coastal Aquifer1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 64 Messerschmid 2009
  65. 65. Gaza as Part of TB Coastal Aquifer• Chloride concentrations in public drinking water wells Messerschmid 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 65
  66. 66. Gaza: Sewage Lagoons• Sewage catastrophe, • and new lagoons, March 2007 October 20071 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 66
  67. 67. Khan Younis, Gaza: Fetching Water instead of School1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 67
  68. 68. Gaza - End of Humanity?• What is the World waiting for?• Gaza cannot be self-supplied with water … just like Manhattan• Desalination does not solve the main problems of the humanitarian and environmental crisis• Blockade is the greatest environmental hazard• Do we have to wait for Cholera? Messerschmid 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 68
  69. 69. Israel-Palestine: Summary of Allocations source Palestine Israel Jordan River 0 100 Wadi al Fara’ 5 95 Wadi Gaza 2 98 Eastern Aquif. 60 40 N.Eastern Aquif. 35 65 Western Aquif. 6 94 Coastal Aquif. 35 65 OVERALL 10% 90% ‘Inequitable and Unreasonable’ Hydro-Hegemony Consented to by PLO, and Palestinian Authority Zeitoun 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 69
  70. 70. Basis for Negotiations Annapolis 2008• The Israeli Solution Perpetuate the current inequitable allocation and Overall Water Allocation provide funding for ‘new New water’ to enhance Palestine’s share New Israel Israel Zeitoun 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 70
  71. 71. Basis for Negotiations Annapolis 2008• The Palestinian Solution (1) I. Reallocate the existing water resources, generating Overall Water Allocation equitable allocations, and ending the water conflict Israel Israel Zeitoun 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 71
  72. 72. Basis for Negotiations Annapolis 2008• The Palestinian Solution (2) Overall Water Allocation II. Develop and allocate the ‘new water’ New New Israel Israel Zeitoun 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 72
  73. 73. Perspectives• No resolution of the water conflict without reallocation of freshwater• No viable Palestinian State without sufficient water.• Negotiated agreement must be based on equitable reallocation of shared water resources.• Equitable distribution with Palestinians without harm to Israel is possible.• Water can be used as a vehicle for peace, but is a source of further conflict. Zeitoun 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 73
  74. 74. Perspectives• Less realistic solutions: – Import from outside (Turkey)? – Desalination ? – Cisterns ? – Water Savings ?• More realistic solutions: – New (deep) boreholes – Waste water recycling – Utilisation of springs – Supply from Israel to Palestine Zeitoun 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 74
  75. 75. Perspectives Friends of the Earth Middle East1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 75
  76. 76. Further Reading Zeitoun 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 76
  77. 77. Israel - Palestine water is everybody‘s business!1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 77 after Messerschmid, 2010
  78. 78. Lebanon1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 78
  79. 79. Lebanon• Rainfall distribution El-Fadel, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 79
  80. 80. Lebanon• Groundwater Basins El-Fadel, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 80
  81. 81. Lebanon • Bala’a Karst Sink Hole, Tanourine1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 81
  82. 82. Lebanon• Major River Basins El-Fadel, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 82
  83. 83. Lebanon• Annual Water Balance El-Fadel, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 83
  84. 84. Lebanon• MEW 10 year plan: Dams and Lakes some dams not shown on map El-Fadel, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 84
  85. 85. Lebanon• Inter-Basin Transfers – Litani – Awali – Hasbani / Jordan• Transboundary implications El-Fadel, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 85
  86. 86. UN ESCWA Cooperation with German Development Cooperation• Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Deveopment, BMZ • Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, BGR • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, GTZ1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 86
  87. 87. ESCWA – BGR CooperationProject objective:• “to improve national and regional dialogue for the integrated management and protection of (shared / transboundary) water resources in the ESCWA member countries”• Only BMZ-funded regional TC project in the Middle East addressing issues related to the management of shared (transboundary) water resources.1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 87
  88. 88. ESCWA – BGR CooperationMain activities:1. Compilation of an inventory of shared water resources in Western2. Technical Assistance to Member Countries – Monitoring of shared (transboundary) water resources • Lebanon (Nahr El-Kebir - Border River) • Syria (Euphrates River and tributaries in Northern Syria) • Jordan (Disi Aquifer)3. Support regional UN ESCWA activities to promote dialogue on shared water resources4. Promote, and provide tools for, the protection of (drinking) water resources Faysal, R. 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 88
  89. 89. ESCWA – BGR Cooperation Inventory Shared Surface Shared Groundwater PART A THE ARABIAN PENINSULANA PART B MASHREK Northern Zone Jordan Basin Western Mountain Aquifer basin Saq-Ram system (KSA-JOR) (PAL-ISR) Dead Sea Basin Sakaka-Rutba system (KSA-IRQ) Coastal Aquifer Basin (PAL-ISR-EGY) Umm er Radhuma-Dammam system – North Orontes Basin  Western Galilee Basin Zone (KSA-IRQ-KUW) (PAL-ISR-LEB) Nahr El Kebir Hammad system (KSA-JOR-IRQ-SYR) Jabal Al Arab Euphrates Basin Southern Zone Akkar-Hermel Tigris Basin Wajid system (KSA-YEM) Mount Hermon Mahra (Tawila)-Cretaceaous Sands system Shatt al Arab (KSA-YEM) Anti-Lebanon Kweik Basin  Jezira Tertiary Limestone system Umm er Radhuma-Dammam system – South Zone (KSA-OMA-YEM) Jezira Lower Fars-Upper Fars system Eastern Zone Wasia-Biyadh (KSA-BAH-QAT) Umm er Radhuma-Dammam system – Central Zone (KSA-BAH-QAT) AlHasa-AlDahira system (OMA-UAE) 1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 89
  90. 90. ESCWA – GTZ CooperationMain focus:• Promoting cooperation and exchange of expertise and experience in the water supply and sanitation sector – Establishment and Strengthening of the Arab Countries Water Utilities Association (ACWUA) in 2008/2009, Secretariat in Amman/Jordan – Support to the ACWUA Secretariat and Governing Bodies (Board of Directors, General Assembly, development of constitution) – Advisory Services in the development of program and thematic priorities, strategies and activities – Support to ACWUA Working Groups – Further Development of MDG Indicators (MDG+ process) in cooperation with the Arab Ministers’ Council for Water (AMCW) – Launching of Arab Water Week in December 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 90
  91. 91. What remains to be said. Hope?1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 91
  92. 92. Issues affecting the water sector in the Middle East• The region allocated significant investment in developing water resources.• The region supported advances in hydrological engineering which allowed full utilization of surface and ground water resources.• The region gives more attention to engineering than to water policy and demand management.• The region urgently needs to strengthen water institutions to manage water policies and water management projects.1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 92
  93. 93. Main Messages• Water is everybody’s business.• Goal for many countries: National water strategy for water security, enough water for all demands• None of the countries in the region is today able to sustain their water needs only from within their national boundaries.• All countries are already net water importers through food imports – virtual water.• Largest water consumer is agriculture, although rarely economically viable nor socially necessary.1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 93
  94. 94. Main Messages• Urgent need to change water policies with regard water consumption, treated waste water reuse.• Many surface and groundwater resources are transboundary, i.e. shared between neighbouring counties.• Effective und sustainable management of transboundary water needs willingness to cooperate for a more equitable sharing of the benefits from the common resource.• Without cooperation and regional and bilateral agreements on water the region is likely to move towards a mass suicide.1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 94
  95. 95. Ralf KlingbeilRegional AdvisorEnvironment & Water
  96. 96. Water -A Strategic Resource in the Middle EastWildbad Kreuth, Germany Ralf Klingbeil25 July 2010 Regional Advisor Environment & Water

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