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R. Klingbeil, 2010: Wasser - eine strategische Ressource im Nahen und Mittleren Osten [Water - A Strategic Resource in the Middle East]
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R. Klingbeil, 2010: Wasser - eine strategische Ressource im Nahen und Mittleren Osten [Water - A Strategic Resource in the Middle East]

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Klingbeil, R., 2010. Wasser - eine strategische Ressource im Nahen und Mittleren Osten [Water - A Strategic Resource in the Middle East]. Presentation at DGVN-HSS-Seminar “Krisenregion Naher ...

Klingbeil, R., 2010. Wasser - eine strategische Ressource im Nahen und Mittleren Osten [Water - A Strategic Resource in the Middle East]. Presentation at DGVN-HSS-Seminar “Krisenregion Naher Osten” "Crises Region Middle East", 23-25 July 2010, Wildbad Kreuth, Germany.

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    R. Klingbeil, 2010: Wasser - eine strategische Ressource im Nahen und Mittleren Osten [Water - A Strategic Resource in the Middle East] R. Klingbeil, 2010: Wasser - eine strategische Ressource im Nahen und Mittleren Osten [Water - A Strategic Resource in the Middle East] Presentation Transcript

    • Water -A Strategic Resource in the Middle EastWildbad Kreuth, Germany Ralf Klingbeil25 July 2010 Regional Advisor Environment & Water
    • Quotes• “The next war in the Middle East will be over water.” attributed to Boutros Boutros Ghali, former SG UN, 1993• “The policy makers should become much more aware of the central role of water in achieving regional peace. Right now the question is, will it be cooperation or riparian suicide?” Joschka Wessels, From the Source, 11 May 2010• “Arabs are already in the heart of the water catastrophe.” Najib Saad, SG AFED, 12 June 2010• “Any delay in a serious response to the water challenge corresponds to mass suicide. The water apocalypse is knocking on Arab doors, right now.” Najib Saad, SG AFED, 12 June 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 2
    • Outline1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 3
    • Outline• UN-ESCWA – regional economic commission• Regional Water Overview The Many Dimensions of Water – Water Availability and Demand – Solutions to a Dilemma? – Water and Food, Virtual Water, Food Imports – Transboundary Water and Transboundary Aquifers• What remains to be said Hope?1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 4
    • UN ESCWA• 14 Member Countries1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 5
    • Regional Water Overview Water Availability and Demand1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 6
    • Freshwater Worldwide1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 7
    • Actual Renewable Freshwater Resources per Capita. by Region FAO AQUASTST, WB 20071 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 8
    • Percent of Total Renewable Water Resources Withdrawn, by Region FAO AQUASTAT data 1998-2002, WB 20071 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 9
    • Rainfall Distribution in the Arab Region ESCWA,, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 10
    • Total Renewable Water per Person in ESCWA Region Water Stress Water Scarcity Extreme Water Scarcity ESCWA, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 11
    • Total Actual Renewable Water Resources per Capita in MENA Water Stress Water Scarcity Extreme Water Scarcity FAO AQUASTAT, WB 20071 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 12
    • High Rate of Population Growth ICBA, Barghouti, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 13
    • High Rate of Population Growth in ESCWA Region ESCWA, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 14
    • Renewable - Non-Renewable Groundwater Renewable groundwater resources Non-renewable groundwater Less extensive aquifers ESCWA, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 15
    • Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 16
    • Sustainability and Non-Renewable Groundwater• Immediate gains vs. long term benefits• No clear “Exit Strategy”, e.g., replacement water resource we are here, but where are we going next? after Al Zubari, 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 17
    • Sources of Water and Use ICBA, Barghouti, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 18
    • Water – Key Development Issues Facilitating Food Crisis Economic Growth Governance & Finance Water Resources Management Livable Water Supply Climate CitiesGrowth and Change Human Development Water Conflicts Decentralization Sanitation Peak Water Water Security Local human services Urbanization Irrigation Energy and and Rural Development Hydropower Poverty Impact Challenges Water, Climate and Environment Transboundary Water Financial Crisis WB, Saghir, 2010 1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 19
    • Regional Water Overview Solutions to a Dilemma?1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 20
    • Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Read Sea - Dead Sea Canal WB, Lintner, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 21
    • Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Dead Sea: Water Level Changes WB, Lintner, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 22
    • Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Dead Sea: Sink Holes, Water Level Drop1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 23
    • Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Red - Dead Sea Canal: The Concept1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 24
    • Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Read Sea - Dead Sea Canal WB, Lintner, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 25
    • Solutions? - Desalination ESCWA, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 26
    • Regional Water Overview Water and Food, Virtual Water, Food Imports1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 27
    • Declining Shares of Agriculture in GDP ICBA, Barghouti, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 28
    • Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 29
    • Irrigated Agriculture in Saudi Arabia1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 30 FAO AQUASTAT, 2008
    • Perverse Incentives for Excess Irrigation WB, 20071 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 31
    • Regional Water Overview Transboundary Water and Transboundary Aquifers1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 32
    • What is a Transboundary Aquifer ? UNESCO / ISARM, 20011 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 33
    • TB Water & Aquifers in Middle East1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 34
    • TB Water – International Law• 1966 Helsinki Rules• 1992 UN ECE Water Convention, and 2003 Amendment• 1997 UN Non-navigational Use Convention (UN Watercourse Convention)• 2000 EU Water Framework Directive “WFD” (2000/60/EC), 2006 Groundwater Directive (2006/118/EC)• 2008 UNGA Resolution on the Law of TBAs (“UNTBA”), inc. UN ILC comments 08/05/081 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 35
    • TB Water Cooperation – Principles1. Equitable and Reasonable Utilisation2. Obligation not to Cause Significant Harm3. General Obligation to Cooperate  Regular Exchange of Data and Information  Bilateral and Regional Agreements & Arrangements4. Environmental Protection  Protection and Preservation of Ecosystems  Prevention, Reduction and Control of Pollution5. Monitoring and ManagementLimited Sovereignty of Riparian / Aquifer States1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 36
    • Israel, Jordan and Palestine1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 37
    • Jordan River Basin1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 38 FAO. 2009
    • Jordan River - Dead Sea Basin • Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syrian Arab Republic (mainly)1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org modified after UN Dept. of Field Support 39
    • Jordan River Basin• Cooperation over Y existing water LEBANON resources is not SYRIA Y effective / existent JORDAN Domination of control N 1994 negotiations with Jordan RIVER 1995, 2000, 2008 negotiations BASIN Y with Palestinians Red – Dead Canal Y JORDAN Occupied No Long-term Water Security West Bank Lebanon perspective Syria perspective Signatories to IWL: 4 / 51 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 40 Zeitoun 2010
    • Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs Hasbani (125 Mio m³/a)Libanon Dan (250 Mio m³/a) Banias (125 Mio m³/a) Israel Golan Jordan1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 41
    • Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs• Hasbani Spring, Hasbani River1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 42
    • Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs• Ouazzani Spring, Hasbani River1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 43
    • Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs Klein. 19981 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 44
    • Lake Tiberias1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 45
    • Lake Tiberias discharge – “Spring” of the Lower Jordan River Zeitoun. 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 46
    • The Mouth of the River Jordan - at the Dead Sea… in 2008:1.20 m wide1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 47
    • Jordan River Basin1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 48 Moelle. 2000 ?
    • Jordan River Basin1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 49 Moelle. 2000 ?
    • Jordan River Basin1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 50
    • Jordan River Basin1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 51
    • Jordan Basin / Mediterranean: Groundwater Basin Recharge Abstractions Coastal Aq 476 544 WAB 409 377 W.Galilee 171 123 Carmel 60 48 EAB,NEAB 386 330 Negev, Aravah 32 94 Tiberias 507 454 Σ 2041 1970 Messerschmid, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 52
    • Israel - Palestine: The Mountain Aquifers• Geological Cross Section from West to East FAO. 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 53
    • Eastern Mountain Aquifer• Ein Samia, well field • Spring Fazael, close to for Ramallah water Jordan valley supply1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 54
    • Israel-Palestine: Western Aquifer 2/7 SUSMAQ, 20041 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 55
    • Israel-Palestine: Western Aquifer 3/7• Well yields West Bank Israel1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 56
    • Israel-Palestine: Western Aquifer 3/7• Communities: per cap water availability less than 30 l/cap/day http://www.intertech-pal.com/monitoring/data/data1.php1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 57
    • Israel-Palestine: Western Aquifer 3/7• Communities: Extent of water networks Communities without networks http://www.intertech-pal.com/monitoring/data/data1.php1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 58
    • Israel-Palestine: Western Aquifer 4/7 Historical Use: Surface and Groundwater Zeitoun, Messerschmid, Attili, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 59
    • Israel – Palestine: Western Aquifer 5/7 Historical Use: Different Sectors, Parties Zeitoun, Messerschmid, Attili, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 60
    • Israel-Palestine: Western Aquifer 6/7 Historical Use: One Party’s GW Abstraction Zeitoun, Messerschmid, Attili, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 61
    • Israel-Palestine: Western Aquifer 7/7 Groundwater Development Costs MacDonald et al., 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 62
    • Desalination for West Bank? Zeitoun 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 63
    • Gaza as Part of TB Coastal Aquifer1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 64 Messerschmid 2009
    • Gaza as Part of TB Coastal Aquifer• Chloride concentrations in public drinking water wells Messerschmid 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 65
    • Gaza: Sewage Lagoons• Sewage catastrophe, • and new lagoons, March 2007 October 20071 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 66
    • Khan Younis, Gaza: Fetching Water instead of School1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 67
    • Gaza - End of Humanity?• What is the World waiting for?• Gaza cannot be self-supplied with water … just like Manhattan• Desalination does not solve the main problems of the humanitarian and environmental crisis• Blockade is the greatest environmental hazard• Do we have to wait for Cholera? Messerschmid 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 68
    • Israel-Palestine: Summary of Allocations source Palestine Israel Jordan River 0 100 Wadi al Fara’ 5 95 Wadi Gaza 2 98 Eastern Aquif. 60 40 N.Eastern Aquif. 35 65 Western Aquif. 6 94 Coastal Aquif. 35 65 OVERALL 10% 90% ‘Inequitable and Unreasonable’ Hydro-Hegemony Consented to by PLO, and Palestinian Authority Zeitoun 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 69
    • Basis for Negotiations Annapolis 2008• The Israeli Solution Perpetuate the current inequitable allocation and Overall Water Allocation provide funding for ‘new New water’ to enhance Palestine’s share New Israel Israel Zeitoun 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 70
    • Basis for Negotiations Annapolis 2008• The Palestinian Solution (1) I. Reallocate the existing water resources, generating Overall Water Allocation equitable allocations, and ending the water conflict Israel Israel Zeitoun 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 71
    • Basis for Negotiations Annapolis 2008• The Palestinian Solution (2) Overall Water Allocation II. Develop and allocate the ‘new water’ New New Israel Israel Zeitoun 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 72
    • Perspectives• No resolution of the water conflict without reallocation of freshwater• No viable Palestinian State without sufficient water.• Negotiated agreement must be based on equitable reallocation of shared water resources.• Equitable distribution with Palestinians without harm to Israel is possible.• Water can be used as a vehicle for peace, but is a source of further conflict. Zeitoun 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 73
    • Perspectives• Less realistic solutions: – Import from outside (Turkey)? – Desalination ? – Cisterns ? – Water Savings ?• More realistic solutions: – New (deep) boreholes – Waste water recycling – Utilisation of springs – Supply from Israel to Palestine Zeitoun 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 74
    • Perspectives Friends of the Earth Middle East1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 75
    • Further Reading Zeitoun 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 76
    • Israel - Palestine water is everybody‘s business!1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 77 after Messerschmid, 2010
    • Lebanon1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 78
    • Lebanon• Rainfall distribution El-Fadel, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 79
    • Lebanon• Groundwater Basins El-Fadel, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 80
    • Lebanon • Bala’a Karst Sink Hole, Tanourine1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 81
    • Lebanon• Major River Basins El-Fadel, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 82
    • Lebanon• Annual Water Balance El-Fadel, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 83
    • Lebanon• MEW 10 year plan: Dams and Lakes some dams not shown on map El-Fadel, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 84
    • Lebanon• Inter-Basin Transfers – Litani – Awali – Hasbani / Jordan• Transboundary implications El-Fadel, 20091 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 85
    • UN ESCWA Cooperation with German Development Cooperation• Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Deveopment, BMZ • Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, BGR • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, GTZ1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 86
    • ESCWA – BGR CooperationProject objective:• “to improve national and regional dialogue for the integrated management and protection of (shared / transboundary) water resources in the ESCWA member countries”• Only BMZ-funded regional TC project in the Middle East addressing issues related to the management of shared (transboundary) water resources.1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 87
    • ESCWA – BGR CooperationMain activities:1. Compilation of an inventory of shared water resources in Western2. Technical Assistance to Member Countries – Monitoring of shared (transboundary) water resources • Lebanon (Nahr El-Kebir - Border River) • Syria (Euphrates River and tributaries in Northern Syria) • Jordan (Disi Aquifer)3. Support regional UN ESCWA activities to promote dialogue on shared water resources4. Promote, and provide tools for, the protection of (drinking) water resources Faysal, R. 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 88
    • ESCWA – BGR Cooperation Inventory Shared Surface Shared Groundwater PART A THE ARABIAN PENINSULANA PART B MASHREK Northern Zone Jordan Basin Western Mountain Aquifer basin Saq-Ram system (KSA-JOR) (PAL-ISR) Dead Sea Basin Sakaka-Rutba system (KSA-IRQ) Coastal Aquifer Basin (PAL-ISR-EGY) Umm er Radhuma-Dammam system – North Orontes Basin  Western Galilee Basin Zone (KSA-IRQ-KUW) (PAL-ISR-LEB) Nahr El Kebir Hammad system (KSA-JOR-IRQ-SYR) Jabal Al Arab Euphrates Basin Southern Zone Akkar-Hermel Tigris Basin Wajid system (KSA-YEM) Mount Hermon Mahra (Tawila)-Cretaceaous Sands system Shatt al Arab (KSA-YEM) Anti-Lebanon Kweik Basin  Jezira Tertiary Limestone system Umm er Radhuma-Dammam system – South Zone (KSA-OMA-YEM) Jezira Lower Fars-Upper Fars system Eastern Zone Wasia-Biyadh (KSA-BAH-QAT) Umm er Radhuma-Dammam system – Central Zone (KSA-BAH-QAT) AlHasa-AlDahira system (OMA-UAE) 1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 89
    • ESCWA – GTZ CooperationMain focus:• Promoting cooperation and exchange of expertise and experience in the water supply and sanitation sector – Establishment and Strengthening of the Arab Countries Water Utilities Association (ACWUA) in 2008/2009, Secretariat in Amman/Jordan – Support to the ACWUA Secretariat and Governing Bodies (Board of Directors, General Assembly, development of constitution) – Advisory Services in the development of program and thematic priorities, strategies and activities – Support to ACWUA Working Groups – Further Development of MDG Indicators (MDG+ process) in cooperation with the Arab Ministers’ Council for Water (AMCW) – Launching of Arab Water Week in December 20101 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 90
    • What remains to be said. Hope?1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 91
    • Issues affecting the water sector in the Middle East• The region allocated significant investment in developing water resources.• The region supported advances in hydrological engineering which allowed full utilization of surface and ground water resources.• The region gives more attention to engineering than to water policy and demand management.• The region urgently needs to strengthen water institutions to manage water policies and water management projects.1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 92
    • Main Messages• Water is everybody’s business.• Goal for many countries: National water strategy for water security, enough water for all demands• None of the countries in the region is today able to sustain their water needs only from within their national boundaries.• All countries are already net water importers through food imports – virtual water.• Largest water consumer is agriculture, although rarely economically viable nor socially necessary.1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 93
    • Main Messages• Urgent need to change water policies with regard water consumption, treated waste water reuse.• Many surface and groundwater resources are transboundary, i.e. shared between neighbouring counties.• Effective und sustainable management of transboundary water needs willingness to cooperate for a more equitable sharing of the benefits from the common resource.• Without cooperation and regional and bilateral agreements on water the region is likely to move towards a mass suicide.1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 94
    • Ralf KlingbeilRegional AdvisorEnvironment & Water
    • Water -A Strategic Resource in the Middle EastWildbad Kreuth, Germany Ralf Klingbeil25 July 2010 Regional Advisor Environment & Water