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R. Klingbeil, 2007: Water Cooperation in MENA - Status Quo and Perspective


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Klingbeil, R., 2007. Water Cooperation in MENA - Status Quo and Perspective. Presentation for BMZ, 22-26 October 2007, ARCA-Net International Workshop 2007, Western Asia and North Africa (WANA), …

Klingbeil, R., 2007. Water Cooperation in MENA - Status Quo and Perspective. Presentation for BMZ, 22-26 October 2007, ARCA-Net International Workshop 2007, Western Asia and North Africa (WANA), Middle East Region “Water Scarcity in the Middle East - Conflict Potentials and Coping Strategies”, Damascus, Syria.

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  • 1. Water Cooperation in MENAStatus Quo and PerspectiveDr. Ralf Klingbeilon behalf ofGerman Federal Ministry forEconomic Cooperation andDevelopment (BMZ)Department forWater, Energy,Urban Development
  • 2. Sharing the Future
  • 3. Transboundary Water:Source of Conflict or Basis forRegional Cooperation Different Bilateral Relations in theCompetition for the Utilisation of Natural Resources
  • 4.  Often used term “shared” water is in the true English sense of the wording-unfortunately- until today only wishful thinking. Although fair sharing of common resources or of the benefits of theiruse is the ultimate goal the fact is that in the Middle East in particular thereis currently no full sharing of water resources which are crossing international borders or are existent as one surface/subsurface water bodyon both sides of an international border. Instead the term “transboundary” just reflectsthe issue of a resource crossing “over”/“under”a border, describing a physical status, i.e. thecurrent situation and status quo. It’s still a long way for transboundarywaters in the Middle East to becometruly shared resources.Transboundary vs. SharedWater Resources
  • 5. Outline German Development Cooperation inthe Water Sector Reasons why we are engaged,international legal framework German contribution to transboundarywater cooperation, experiences,instruments and actions Transboundary / Shared Water in MENA Relevance of Groundwater in theContext of Shared Water Resources Some Cases, Status and Perspectives
  • 6. German Development Cooperationin the Water Sector Worldwide 3rd largest bilateral donor in the water sector:approx. 350 Mio. € per annum North Africa & Middle East: 2nd largest donor Largest donor in Morocco, Tunisia and Yemen Other regional cooperating partners in Water & Environment::Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Turkey Long Term Partner: In water sector of the region since 1963 Approx. 42 % of the German financial development assistanceto the region and 17,5 % of the technical assistance ischannelled into the water sector
  • 7. Background, Aims and Prospects About 40% of the world„s population live along more than 260transboundary rivers and lakes, in a total of 145 states thereare regions located within international river basins To harness sustainable benefits of transboundary waters for allriparian states joint efforts need to be made Cooperation at watershed or basin level aims at: Poverty reduction Resource protection towards ecological sustainability Economic cooperation and collaboration Crisis and conflict prevention Transboundary Water Cooperation is a logic consequence ofregional application of IWRM
  • 8. International Legal Framework International law plays an important role as a legal frameworkfor the settlement of transboundary water disputes 1997 UN Convention on the Law of Non-Navigational Uses ofInternational Watercourses reflects international common law;its main elements are: Principle of equitable and reasonable utilization and participation Obligation not to cause significant harm Principle of Cooperation Obligation to seek peaceful settlement of disputes Principles serve as guidelines for specific endeavours in the area oftransboundary water cooperation UN GA 2006 received from the UN ILC draft articles for aninternational convention on transboundary aquifers to becommented by UN Member States by end of 2007
  • 9. German Contribution Policy dialogue for shaping international water policy(i.e. Petersberg Process, 2001 International Freshwater Conference in Bonn,World Commission on Dam, EUWI, Conferences such as the Stockholm WorldWater Week) Improving regional cooperation:networking, experience and good practice exchange(i.e. assistance to the NBI Secretariat, SADC, UN ESCWA, ACSAD, etc.) Institutional and technical support for basin organizations(i.e. Congo, Nile, LCBC, Limpopo, Mekong) Investing in the protection and sustainableuse of water resources(tapping of hydropower potential, flood control,monitoring and measurement programs)
  • 10. Experience 1/21. Transboundary water cooperation has an impact onsensitive policy issues2. Regional political organisations act as catalysts3. An international institutional framework facilitatestransboundary water cooperation4. The riparian states must themselves want and promotetransboundary cooperation
  • 11. Experience 2/25. Benefit-sharing enhances readiness for cooperation(the clearer the advantages for all stakeholders are,the greater the willingness for cooperation)6. Transboundary water cooperation is a long-term process(raising mutual confidence and trust takes time)7. It is only in the long term that transboundary watercooperation leads to regional integration and conflictprevention8. Good governance andtransboundary water cooperationare closely interrelated
  • 12. Instruments and Areas for Action 1/21. Harmonizing water policies(aligning national water policies with joint cooperation goals, providingtechnical advise to member states, forging a shared vision)2. Developing cooperation agreements(frameworks for joint activities)3. Promoting communication and cooperative relations4. Building knowledge management capacity(reliable data on basins, technical knowledge,operational capabilities, monitoring systems)5. Drawing up integrated water management plans
  • 13. Instruments and Areas for Action 2/26. Investing in the implementation of integrated watermanagement plans7. Monitoring and evaluating projects(assessment of impacts and lessons learned)8. Improving donor coordination9. Promoting South-South exchange10. Paying more attention to transboundary groundwaterresources (risks and opportunities of using shared groundwaterresources, particularly in the Middle East)
  • 14. Transboundary Surface andGroundwater WorldwideSource: MENA Region: Nearly no transboundary rivers,BUT large volumes of transboundary groundwater Concepts for Transboundary River Basins do notnecessarily fit to the needs in MENA
  • 15. Source: www.WHYMAP.orgTransboundary Aquifer Systemsin North Africa and Middle East
  • 16. Source: UNESCO / ISARM 2001But:What is a Transboundary Aquifer ?
  • 17. South-Western Sahara Aquifer SystemSource: UNESCO 2001
  • 18. Nubian Sandstone Aquifer SystemSource: UNESCO 2001
  • 19. Saudi Arabiaand the Aquifers on the Arab PeninsulaSource: UNESCO 2006
  • 20. More Water for Lebanon and SyriaSource: ESCWA-BGR 2003
  • 21. The Basalt Aquifer:The Source of the Yarmouk RiverSource: ESCWA-BGR 2004
  • 22. The Mountain Aquifers:The Source of Life for the West BankSource: ESCWA-BGR 2004 Geological Cross Section from West to East
  • 23. The Mountain Aquifers:The Source of Life for the Westbank
  • 24. Israel and its Neighbours:More complex with Time
  • 25. Source: www.WHYMAP.orgTransboundary Aquifer Systemsin North Africa and Middle East
  • 26. North Africa401 Tindouf Aquifer Algeria, Morocco402 Errachidia Basin Algeria, Morocco403 Northwest Sahara Aquifer System(NWSAS)Algeria, Libya, Tunisia404 Mourzouk-Djado Basin Chad, Libya, Niger405 Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System(NSAS)Chad, Egypt, Libya, Sudan406 Senegalo-Mauritanian Basin Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania,Senegal407 Taoudéni Basin Algeria, Mali, Niger408 L‟Air Cristalline Aquifer Algeria, Mali, Niger409 Tin-Séririne Basin Algeria, NigerWestern Asia501 Upper Jezira / Mesopotamia Iraq, Syria, Turkey502 Eastern Mediterranean Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria503 Hauran and Jabal Al-Arab (Basalts,Neogene to Quaternary)Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Syria504 Syrian Steppe Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Syria505 Eastern Arabian Peninsula (Paleogene) Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, SaudiArabia, UAE, YemenTransboundary Aquifer Systemsin North Africa and Middle East
  • 27. 501 Upper Jezira / Mesopotamia Iraq, Syria, Turkey502 Eastern Mediterranean Israel, (Jordan), Lebanon, Palestine,SyriaWestern Mountain Aquifer Israel, PalestineEastern Mountain Aquifer Israel, PalestineNortheastern Mountain Aquifer Israel, PalestineHasbani-Ouazani Aquifer catchment Israel, LebanonSouthern Anti-Lebanon Cretaceous Lebanon, SyriaNorthern Anti-Lebanon Cretaceous Lebanon, SyriaSouthern Anti-Lebanon Jurassic Lebanon, SyriaNorthern Anti-Lebanon Jurassic Lebanon, SyriaGaza Strip Aquifer Israel, Palestine503 Hauran and Jabal Al-Arab (Basalts, Neogene toQuaternary)Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Syria504 Syrian Steppe Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, SyriaDisi, Saq Jordan, Saudi Arabia505 Eastern Arabian Peninsula (Paleogene) Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar,Saudi Arabia, UAE, YemenSaq Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAETransboundary Aquifers /Groundwater Units in the Middle East
  • 28. Not AssignableAruma Deep Aquifer Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi ArabiaNeogene Deep Aquifer Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi ArabiaWasia-Biyadh Deep Aquifer Oman, Saudi Arabia, YemenWajid Deep Aquifer Saudi Arabia, YemenWasia-Biyadh Deep Aquifer Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAESaq and Tabuk DeepAquifersJordan, Saudi Arabia, SyriaUpper Jordan RiverQuaternaryIsrael, SyriaLower Jordan RiverQuaternaryIsrael, Jordan, Palestine…Transboundary Aquifers /Groundwater Units in the Middle East
  • 29. Source: UN ESCWA, BGR, GTZ, 2004.Dispute Resolution TechniquesEnhancing Negotiation Skills onInternational Water Resources
  • 30.  GW moves 3-dimensional, not 1-dimensional like a river complex in space GW recharge and discharge, GW movement happens invarious timescales from within a few hours to thousands ofyears complex in time GW basin management boundaries are not as obvious asriver basins, they might even change with GW abstraction complex & variable in its extent Out of sight – out of mind? “We better use as much as possible before we may have toagree with our neighbour on reduced water resources use”Transboundary Groundwater morecomplex than River Basins
  • 31. Policy Recommendations 1/21. Every transboundary groundwater case needs a specificallyadapted approach, nothing from the shelf, geology matters - andhydrogeology!2. Understanding and clarification of the benefits of cooperation foreach involved party and for the region as a whole is essential to focuscooperation process on reaching those benefits3. Look for the low hanging apples first - to tackle those challengesfirst that yield beneficial results fast4. Support of trust building between technical staff of the involvedcountries5. Ensure all parties are on equal technical level bytechnical capacity building
  • 32. 6. Creating awareness and support on the political level,incl. capacity building on political level7. If countries might not be likely to find their own way to cooperationfind ONE neutral 3rd party moderator trusted equally by all parties8. Better donor coordination to ensure clear focussed perspective onthe cooperation and agreed support for ONE 3rd party9. As a 3rd party always ask yourself:Can you really be trusted by all parties equally?If not, withdraw immediately from the moderation and stay outside10. Be aware of what is technically needed for cooperation:Do the parties need full-access-publicly-accessible-databases with allpossible hydro-information?Or would a simple information sharing between a small group ofexperts be enough for the purpose?Policy Recommendations 1/2
  • 33. download from
  • 34. Thank you for your attention!www.bmz.deArabic forWater (miyah),from: inamo,No 27, 2001,