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Lecture given to digital Libraries class on metadata

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  • Metadata 101public

    1. 1. Metadata 101 An introduction to data about data R. John Robertson, Digital Libraries class 28 th April 2005
    2. 2. Who? What? Why? <ul><li>Project(s): Metadata Workflow Investigation, mandate </li></ul><ul><li>An introduction to metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Inform you about other settings for your skills: not just digital libraries – IR’s; LOR’s; records management; webpages.. </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliography at end, notes online </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions; tell me if you can’t hear me </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is metadata? <ul><li>Answers on a postcard… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you know about metadata? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simple definitions… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data about data; information about information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Getting trickier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of consensus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Metadata is machine understandable information for the web” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Metadata is data about data. The term refers to any data used to aid the identification, description and location of networked electronic resources.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussing formal metadata </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Overview <ul><li>What does metadata have to do with digital libraries? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is metadata (1)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does metadata do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is metadata (2)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do you need it? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do you create metadata? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why bother with workflow or quality? </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. What I’m not doing <ul><li>Technical systems stuff – rdf / xml bindings… </li></ul><ul><li>Limits to examples </li></ul><ul><li>Not how to create metadata, rather how and why to choose and manage metadata </li></ul>
    6. 6. Metadata and digital libraries: what is metadata? <ul><li>Firefox plug-in [bottom right] </li></ul>
    7. 7. Metadata and digital libraries: what is metadata?
    8. 8. Metadata and digital libraries: what is metadata? <ul><li>When metadata becomes important (sort of) </li></ul><ul><li>Who is this? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we know about them? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this picture significant? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is this picture stored? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Metadata and digital libraries: what does metadata do? <ul><li>What do you are you trying to do? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you need your metadata to do to achieve that? (discuss…) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bibliographic (e.g. a picture of Fred) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative (e.g. taken on 12/07/1997) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights (e.g. all rights reserved/ no re-use) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation (e.g. requirements to view jpeg ; context: passport photo) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical (e.g. jpeg ; 85.8kb) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education (e.g. illustration; UKEL 11) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How does this convey meaning? </li></ul>
    10. 10. Metadata and digital libraries: what is metadata (part 2)? <ul><li>Definition from Weibel (1998) how to think about data… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure : ‘a data model […] for specifying semantic schemas’ e.g. Dublin Core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic : ‘agreed content description standards’ e.g. author name conventions; controlled vocabularies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syntax : ‘syntax for expressing metadata’ e.g. XML binding for Dublin Core </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Metadata and digital libraries: what is metadata (part 2)? <ul><li>Metadata Structure - a data model </li></ul><ul><li>Standards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marc 21 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE LOM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC(MES) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ Super’standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>METS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application profiles </li></ul>
    12. 12. Metadata and digital libraries: what is metadata (part 2)? Title Creator Subject Description Publisher Contributor Date Type Format Identifier Source Language Relation Coverage Rights METS header descriptive metadata administrative metadata file section structural map structural links behaviour
    13. 13. Metadata and digital libraries: what is metadata (part 2)? <ul><li>Metadata semantics - content description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where things get tricky </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tools for getting semantic metadata right </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled vocabularies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenge of interoperability </li></ul>
    14. 14. Metadata and digital libraries: what is metadata (part 2)? <ul><li>Metadata Syntax – metadata expression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoding information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formats (XML) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>z39.50 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OAI-PMH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crosswalk and map </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Metadata and digital libraries: why do you need metadata? <ul><li>How else could you manage stuff? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Browse limits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free text limits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other limits </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Metadata generation: workflow and quality <ul><li>How do you create metadata? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who creates? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they create? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why should they? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much does it cost… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why do you need good metadata and what does that mean anyway? </li></ul>
    17. 17. Metadata generation: workflow <ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><li>Who? (Actors/ Agents/ Roles) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic: good at/ bad at </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creator: good at/ bad at </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LIS professional: good at/ bad at </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other professional: good at/ bad at </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>How much? </li></ul>
    18. 18. Metadata generation: quality <ul><li>Good enough metadata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fitness for purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metadata metrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>verification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>completeness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sufficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>timeliness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>persistence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Metadata quality: why bother? <ul><li>Functional digital libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Which leads to… <ul><li>Amazon </li></ul><ul><li>Merlot </li></ul><ul><li>Jorum </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-searching library catalogues </li></ul><ul><li>e-journal access </li></ul><ul><li>CORDRA </li></ul><ul><li>Scotland’s Culture </li></ul><ul><li>… and hopefully, interesting jobs for all of us </li></ul>
    21. 21. Key references <ul><li>National Information Standards Organization. (2004). Understanding Metadata . NISO Press. Available from: Last accessed 21st December 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>NISO Framework Advisory Group. (2004). A Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections . 2nd ed. Bethesda, MD: National Information Standards Organization. Available from: . Last accessed 10th Nov 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Weibel, S.L. (1998). The Metadata Landscape: conventions for semantics, syntax, and structure in the Internet Commons. In: Metadiversity. Proceedings of the Conference , Natural Bridge, VA. Available from: Last accessed 20th January 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Currier, S., Barton, J., O'Beirne, R. & Ryan, B. (2004). Quality assurance for digital learning object repositories: issues for the metadata creation process. ALT-J, 12(1), pp.5-20. </li></ul><ul><li>Dushay, N. & Hillmann, D.I. (2003). Analyzing metadata for effective use and re-use. DC-2003: 2003 Dublin Core Conference, Seattle. </li></ul><ul><li>Greenberg, J., Pattuelli, M. C., Parsia, B., & Robertson, W. D. (2001). Author-generated Dublin Core metadata for web resources: a baseline study in an organization. Journal of Digital Information, 2(2). </li></ul>
    22. 22. The end <ul><li>Questions now? </li></ul><ul><li>Questions later – contact: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rm 12:12 </li></ul></ul>