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R10_Balanced_Literacy_Day1
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R10_Balanced_Literacy_Day1

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Balanced Literacy & Readers/Writers Workshop

Balanced Literacy & Readers/Writers Workshop

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  • 1. Developed by the Texas Education Service Center Curriculum Collaborative (TESCCC) TEKS R/S and BALANCED LITERACY INSTITUTE Richard James, Ed.D. ELA/R Consultant ESC Region 10 Day 1
  • 2. Institute Sessions Will… – Increase understanding of the Instructional Focus Document – Ensure content knowledge of the TEKS with specificity – Provide opportunities for collaboration while planning for the upcoming six weeks of instruction – Demonstrate effective instructional design and implementation
  • 3. News to Know…
  • 4. Making Connections: List at least one current or historical real-life event or person to which each of these famous quotes from literature might apply. (Classroom Extension: find an article or image online for each.) Literature Quote Bingo
  • 5. Blended Hybrid Course
  • 6. Norms 1. Take care of yourself and others 2. Be courteous and professional 3. Focus on student achievement Any additional norms to include?
  • 7. Agenda – Day 1 • TEKS Resource System Updates • Overview of Balanced Literacy • Unit Study/IFDs Understanding by Design (UBD) • Word Study • Shared Reading • Independent Reading
  • 8. TEKS R/S Implementation Models Vertical Alignment Document (VAD) – SCOPE & Year At a Glance (YAG) and/or Instructional Focus Document (IFD) – SEQUENCE
  • 9. BALANCED LITERACY
  • 10. Developed by the Texas Education Service Center Curriculum Collaborative (TESCCC) Balanced Literacy is the FOUNDATION for TEKS R/S Language Arts and Reading.
  • 11. Developed by the Texas Education Service Center Curriculum Collaborative (TESCCC) Sentence stem talk… What is a sentence stem? Sentence stems are short phrases that provide models for how to use academic vocabulary and correct grammar in context. They help English Language Learners and ALL students have a starting place for communicating their ideas orally and in writing.
  • 12. THE PENDULUM SWING…
  • 13. Phonics Whole Language So what is BALANCED LITERACY? What would balanced literacy take from each of these methods? Turn and define it with a partner.
  • 14. Phonics Whole Language FRAMEWORK BALANCED LITERACY
  • 15. the ways children learn to read Read TO Read WITH Read BY Balanced Literacy is…
  • 16. Balanced Literacy is a Framework… • The framework is a tool for planning and organizing daily teaching. The “holes” are like spaces in your lesson plan book! • The components are not fixed and separate! Activities in the classroom move fluidly around the components of instruction. We may discuss them separately as a tool for planning how to use them, but there is usually overlap. • There are dangers to becoming an eclectic literacy program…
  • 17. Framework on the IFD
  • 18. A Guiding Element of Balanced Literacy… The goal of Balanced Literacy is for students to become independent! There should be ongoing assessment to measure whether or not the teaching is leading students to greater independence. TO… leads to WITH… and WITH leads to BY
  • 19. Educational Services & Staff Development Association of Central Kansas www.ESSDACK.org Gradual Release of Responsibility Model DEMONSTRATION (Teacher Directed) SHARED DEMONSTRATION (Joint Practice) GUIDED PRACTICE (Student Practices Under Teacher Guidance) INDEPENDENT PRACTICE (Independent Use) Model thinking Model fluency Explicit strategy instruction Collaboration Share Thinking Scaffolding Strategy Use Differentiation Small Group Assessment Application Transfer of Learning I DO YOU WATCH I DO YOU HELP YOU DO I HELP YOU DO I WATCH WHOLE GROUP SMALL GROUPS INDEPENDENT
  • 20. Sentence Stem Turn and Talk… Think about a time you learned a new skill: (Riding a bike, swimming, playing a new sport, skiing etc.) Think about the process you went through and then complete the sentence stem with a partner. Something that helped me learn how to _______ was _______ .
  • 21. Swimming and bike riding are taught by gradually removing supports (scaffolding) in order to develop successful, independent swimmers and bike riders. With Balanced Literacy we teach students to become independent readers and writers in this same way. DeeperShallowShallow End With Flotation Dev ice Deepest End
  • 22. Scaffolding… Scaffolding is one tool that teachers use to ensure that students are able to operate in their zone of proximal development (ZPD). -Vygotsky
  • 23. “Scaffolding is a process that enables a child or novice to solve a problem, carry out a task, or achieve a goal which would be beyond his unassisted efforts.” -Wood, Bruner, and Ross
  • 24. Educational Services & Staff Development Association of Central Kansas www.ESSDACK.org Gradual Release of Responsibility Model DEMONSTRATION (Teacher Directed) SHARED DEMONSTRATION (Joint Practice) GUIDED PRACTICE (Student Practices Under Teacher Guidance) INDEPENDENT PRACTICE (Independent Use) Model thinking Model fluency Explicit strategy instruction Collaboration Share Thinking Scaffolding Strategy Use Differentiation Small Group Assessment Application Transfer of Learning I DO YOU WATCH I DO YOU HELP YOU DO I HELP YOU DO I WATCH WHOLE GROUP SMALL GROUPS INDEPENDENT
  • 25. Gradual Release on the IFD
  • 26. Balanced Literacy is a FRAMEWORK! What is BALANCED LITERACY?
  • 27. TEKS R/S ELA/R and SLA/R • IFDs organize the TEKS into instructional components based on the Balanced Literacy framework – Word Study – Shared/Independent Reading – Writing Balanced Literacy Connections
  • 28. Lesson Design Option Mini-Lesson Learning Application Closure Word Study Shared Reading Independent Reading Writing
  • 29. Getting to Know your IFD… Moving BEYOND the First Date
  • 30. UNIT STUDY Understanding by Design
  • 31. Understanding by Design Well designed instruction is the result of backward planning. 1. Identify desired results. 2. Determine acceptable evidence of learning. 3. Plan learning experiences and instruction. -Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggins
  • 32. Unit 1 Study Kindergarten: Sharing Ideas and Messages First Grade: Exchanging Ideas and Messages Second Grade: Communicating Ideas and Messages Third Grade: Literary Discovery Begins with Fiction Fourth Grade: Literary Understanding Begins with Fiction and Poetry Fifth Grade: Literary Study Begins with Fiction and Poetry
  • 33. Cognitive Specificity Content Specificity Be sure to read the Knowledge and Skills statement, the Student Expectation, and the SPECIFICITY.
  • 34. ANCHOR CHARTS!!
  • 35. In a classroom with strong anchor support, there can be little doubt as to what is under study or what students are expected to know. -Unknown
  • 36. STRONG Anchor Support
  • 37. IFD Review Share Your Anchor Charts • Count off 1-6 – 1. Rationale – 2. Misconceptions – 3. Performance Indicators – 4. Academic Vocabulary – 5. TEKS Org Chart – 6. TEKS List • Take turns around the table sharing the anchor charts you made about the Unit IFD section you are assigned. At the end of this Unit students will know and be able to ______________________________________.
  • 38. Teaching the right material Aligning Items to the TEKS • Strands • Knowledge and Skills Statement • Student Expectations Strand Knowledge and Student Skills Statement Expectation General Specific
  • 39. Content and Cognitive Expectations • Content – The content items for which students must demonstrate understanding at the appropriate cognitive level in order to adequately meet the standard. • Cognitive – The level at which students are expected to perform in order to adequately meet the standard. – Determined by the verbs used in both the Knowledge and Skills statements and the Student Expectations VERB STUFF KNOW DO
  • 40. Now We Need to Determine... • What do the students need to KNOW? • What do the student need to be able to DO? • How will we know they got there? • How will we get them there?
  • 41. What Should Students KNOW? • Background knowledge they will need to have? • Vocabulary? • What should they understand at end of unit?
  • 42. What Should Students be ABLE TO DO ? Look at the cognitive level of the verb • But is this all? • If the cognitive level of the SE is ANALYZE, what does that mean students have to be able to do?
  • 43. So what do they need to Know and Do? 5.3 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to: • 5.3A Compare and contrast the themes or moral lessons of several works of fiction from various cultures.
  • 44. So what does it mean?? Know DO Know themes and moral lessons: fiction non-fiction theme main idea genres: fable, legend, myth, historical fiction, realistic fiction moral cultural values human experience evaluation interpretation PARAPHRASE: reduce the wording of a text to a shorter length without evaluation or interpretation SUMMARIZE: reduce large sections of text down to their essential points or main ideas COMPARE: identify the themes or moral lessons in various works and find the similarities between or among the cultures represented. CONTRAST: identify the themes or moral lessons in various works and relate the differences between or among the cultures represented. ANALYZE/MAKE INFERENCES/DRAW CONCLUSIONS: comprehend and make meaning beyond literal interpretations of the text PROVIDE EVIDENCE: give specific details or facts found in text to support inferences
  • 45. Building a Strong Foundation of Skills 2.6B compare different versions of the same story in traditional and contemporary folktales with respect to their characters, settings, and plot. E4.2B compare and contrast the similarities and differences in classical plays with their modern day novel, play, or film version Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:
  • 46. KNOWs and DOs From our standards we create a list of what the student must KNOW at the end of the unit –Vocabulary –Facts …and what they must be able to DO. –What do they need to do with the information? –What do the verbs say? VERB STUFF
  • 47. Word Study Balanced Literacy Components
  • 48. Word Study
  • 49. • Making Words • Word Walls • Vocabulary • Phonics • Spelling Patterns • Environmental Print • High Frequency Words • Word meaning • Syllables • Word Sorts • Dictionary Skills • Definitions • Root Words/Suffix/Compound Words Familiar “Word Study” Words
  • 50. E2.3 Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. (+ Fig. 19.B) Test Taking Barriers Fig.19.B make complex inferences about text and use textual evidence to support understanding
  • 51. Word Study develops strategies in students not just skills. What’s the difference?
  • 52. Word Study… is how we direct students’ attention toward letters and sounds to enable them to use strategies, not just skills.
  • 53. Word Study Notebooks… The sole purpose for learning to decode and spell (encode) words is to enable reading and writing. Word Study Notebooks hold on to the learning so that it may be used again during reading and writing activities in the classroom. Think of it as a collection of “personal” anchor charts
  • 54. Word Study is a Link… At the heart of literacy is a language process in which children use what they know about the language they speak and connect it to print! Children learn best by using what they know in active, purposeful ways!
  • 55. Phonics is about “rule following”… but the brain is not a rule applier, it is a pattern seeker! When readers come to unfamiliar words, they do a fast search through their cognitive word stores and familiar patterns. Without the knowledge of “kn” words or “ob” as a chunk- knob would NOT be accessible!
  • 56. Word Study Defined IS… • interesting, and often FUN • a brief part of the ELA/R curriculum • active learning • within student capabilities or the ZPD • directly related to reading and writing • motivation for students to learn words and how words work is NOT… • boring and bottom based • a HUGE chunk of the day • passive drill • not just the next skill in the workbook • isolated from the act of reading and writing • what kids are doing to keep busy and never transfer to real application
  • 57. PHONICS VS. WORD STUDY Let’s See the Difference IN ACTION… We Do…
  • 58. If you… manipulate it categorize it or contextualize it… then it is WORD STUDY!
  • 59. GROUP WORK… PHONICS / WORD STUDY You Do… Manipulating / Categorizing / Contextualizing
  • 60. • What is this resource attempting to teach? • How can this worksheet be more Word Study than Phonics? • What might an anchor chart for this look like? • What might students put in their Word Study Notebook (2-5)? Guiding Questions
  • 61. GRADE LEVEL SHARING…
  • 62. Let’s Be Honest… Skills demonstrated on a worksheet or a mastery test often don’t get used where they matter most…in reading and writing! -Patricia Cunningham Phonics They Use(2000)
  • 63. K-2 Phonics Scope and Sequence Kindergarten First Second Under… Curriculum Elements Resources
  • 64. Studying the IFD for Word Study Materials: IFD, blue highlighter, yellow highlighter Goals: – Increase understanding of the Instructional Focus Document – Ensure content knowledge of TEKS with specificity
  • 65. Coding the IFD by Component Cognitive Specificity Content Specificity
  • 66. WHAT IS WORD STUDY? Plan Learning Experiences and Instruction… As a table, define Word Study and post to http://todaysmeet.com/BL_2-Day
  • 67. Word Study Balanced Literacy Components
  • 68. Word Study Write YOUR definition of Word Study
  • 69. Balanced Literacy COMPONENTS Reflection… Please see Component Reflection handout. Update your personal reflections for Word Study. What did you see on the video samples?
  • 70. Shared Reading Balanced Literacy Components
  • 71. Shared Reading
  • 72. Educational Services & Staff Development Association of Central Kansas www.ESSDACK.org Gradual Release of Responsibility Model DEMONSTRATION (Teacher Directed) SHARED DEMONSTRATION (Joint Practice) GUIDED PRACTICE (Student Practices Under Teacher Guidance) INDEPENDENT PRACTICE (Independent Use) Model thinking Model fluency Explicit strategy instruction Collaboration Share Thinking Scaffolding Strategy Use Differentiation Small Group Assessment Application Transfer of Learning I DO YOU WATCH I DO YOU HELP YOU DO I HELP YOU DO I WATCH WHOLE GROUP SMALL GROUPS INDEPENDENT
  • 73. Shared Reading is the Bridge to Independent Reading…
  • 74. Be SPECIFIC! It is called a MINI-lesson for a reason! And you don’t have to teach EVERYTHING! One of the BIGGEST mistakes…
  • 75. Shared Reading… It is the familiarity with common texts that allows for more in- depth and detailed study of individual elements, skills, and strategies presented later in your instruction.
  • 76. ELAR/SLAR TEKS Figure 19 The TEKS R/S Instructional Focus Document will include specific TEKS for Shared/Independent Reading. These TEKS become the target skills and strategies to be modeled and shared. Reading Strategies
  • 77. STAAR Reading Let’s examine what we know about STAAR Reading and connect it to what we have learned about Shared Reading and TEKS R/S.
  • 78. STAAR Reading • STAAR reading assessments emphasize students’ ability • to “go beyond” a literal understanding of what they read • to make connections within and across texts • to think critically/inferentially about different types of texts • to understand how to use text evidence to confirm the validity of their ideas
  • 79. The Big Picture—What Students Have to Know How To Do • Think critically/inferentially about different types of texts (in essence, know how to do more than literally read the lines: know how to read “between” the lines and “beyond” the lines) • Make connections—at differing levels of depth and complexity—both within and across texts • Understand what makes a connection between texts thematic or meaningful (and what doesn’t) • Understand and be able to apply the specific academic vocabulary associated with literary and informational reading 109
  • 80. The Big Picture—What Students Have to Know How To Do • Understand that the way an author crafts a piece drives the way the reader reads it. Know that authors use different “tools” to craft different types of pieces (e.g., genres). Be able to identify these tools and pinpoint/articulate how they affect meaning. • Understand the difference between effective text evidence and flawed text evidence. Know how to stay “inside” the text to find evidence that truly confirms the validity of an idea. Know how to find and use text evidence for different genres of reading. 110
  • 81. STAAR Reading 2012 Spring Testing Data • Overall students performed well on the STAAR test items, across all genres. • The data suggest that students are less familiar with poetry, drama, and persuasive genres. These are newly assessed genres.
  • 82. STAAR Reading 2012 Spring Test Data • The 2012 STAAR reading test data also suggest that identifying theme is a weakness across all genres. • Theme: A theme is an underlying central and/or unifying idea that is repeated or developed throughout a work. Themes often explore timeless and universal ideas and are almost always implied.
  • 83. • Students must be able to identify the “tools” an author uses to craft a piece and to pinpoint/articulate how they affect meaning. • Students must be able to make connections—at differing levels of depth and complexity—both within and across texts (including connections between a text and its accompanying photograph or procedural piece) 113 Reading—What the Data Tell us 2013 Spring Test
  • 84. • Students must have a command of and be able to apply the specific academic vocabulary associated with literary and informational reading. • Student must know how to find and use text evidence to confirm the validity of an idea both within and across texts. 114 Reading—What the Data Tell us 2013 Spring Test
  • 85. STAAR Reading 2012 Spring Test Data • The 2012 STAAR reading test data is based on Phase-In Stage 1 passing standard of about 50%. • Recommended level passing standard (Phase-In Stage 3) is closer to 75%. • Phase-In Stage 1 passing rate of 70% in most grade levels becomes 30-33% in Stage 3.
  • 86. STAAR Reading Performance Spring 2013 Statewide Results Phase-in and Recommended Standards 116 Grade/Course Phase-in 1 Phase-in 2 Recommended Grade 3 79% 58% 40% Grade 4 72% 57% 38% Grade 5 77% 61% 39% Grade 6 71% 57% 40% Grade 7 77% 59% 38% Grade 8 84% 67% 47% English I 65% 53% 44% English II 78% 70% 63%
  • 87. STAAR Writing Performance Spring 2013 Statewide Results Phase-in and Recommended Standards 117 Grade/Course Phase-in 1 Phase-in 2 Recommended Grade 4 71% 51% 35% Grade 7 70% 50% 29% English I 48% 37% 30% English II 52% 38% 30%
  • 88. STAAR Reading  Students must be provided in-depth instruction in all genres represented by the ELAR/SLAR TEKS.  Genres should not only be taught in isolation and/or at only one point in the school year.  Students should routinely compare/contrast genres. Examples: How does drama differ from other literary genres? How do persuasive texts differ from expository texts? How does author’s purpose differ across genres?
  • 89. STAAR Reading  Students must learn to analyze both fiction and expository genres — the readiness genres — at elementary, middle, and high school.  Students must receive thorough instruction in the genres/TEKS prior to the year the genre is assessed on STAAR. · Literary nonfiction begins in 1st grade · Drama begins in 2nd grade · Persuasive text begins in 3rd grade
  • 90. STAAR Reading • Students must understand the relationship between reading test-taking strategies and making meaning. • Students should be taught to use test-taking strategies as an individual “tool kit.” • Students must learn to use reading test-taking strategies judiciously, especially given the 4-hour time limit.
  • 91. Studying the IFD-Shared Reading Materials: IFD, green highlighter, yellow highlighter Goals: – Increase understanding of the Instructional Focus Document – Ensure content knowledge of TEKS with specificity
  • 92. Coding the IFD by Component Cognitive Specificity Content Specificity
  • 93. Shared Reading Balanced Literacy Components
  • 94. Shared Reading Write your definition of Shared Reading
  • 95. TEKS R/S COMPONENTS Reflection… Please see Component Reflection handout. Update your personal reflections for Shared Reading. What did you see on the video samples?
  • 96. Balanced Literacy and TEKS R/S Shared Reading Reading With Word Study Word Work To/With/By ADD THESE WORDS AS WELL!
  • 97. Word Study Resources… • Word Matters: Teaching Phonics and Spelling in the Reading/Writing Classroom by Gay Su Pinnell and Irene C. Fountas • Phonics They Use: Words for Reading and Writing by Patricia M. Cunningham • Words Their Way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary, and Spelling Instruction by Donald R. Bear, Marcia Invernizzi, Shane Templeton and Francine R. Johnston • Phonics Lessons: Letters, Words, and How They Work (Grade K,1, or 2) by Gay Su Pinnell and Irene C. Fountas • Interactive Writing: How Language & Literacy Come Together, K-2 by Gay Su Pinnell and Irene C. Fountas
  • 98. Shared Reading Resources… • Read It Again!: Revisiting Shared Reading by Brenda Parkes • On the Same Page: Shared Reading Beyond the Primary Grades by Janet Allen • Text Savvy: Using a Shared Reading Framework to Build Comprehension, Grades 3-6 by Sarah Daunis • Balancing Reading and Language Learning by Mary Cappellini
  • 99. Independent Reading Balanced Literacy Components
  • 100. Independent Reading
  • 101. What We KNOW about Independent Reading… • SSR – Silent Sustained Reading • DEAR – Drop Everything and Read All this allows the teacher to… DO SOMETHING ELSE!
  • 102. We KNOW about Independent Reading! Do We? The missing part from SSR and DEAR… direct, explicit instruction about reading and what should be taking place during independent reading time related to the process of reading!
  • 103. Independent Reading Lessons… A Reader’s Workshop Approach involves… Mini Lessons related to reading Time for students to practice the Mini Lesson concept during their reading (i.e. accountability) Sharing/Follow Up to Mini Lesson
  • 104. Independent Reading… is also sandwiched by instruction. Balanced Literacy Lessons include: Mini Lesson: Teacher Demonstrating/Modeling Learning Application: Students Reading/Conferring Closure: Students sharing through discussion
  • 105. Research shows… Independent reading is beneficial for all learners only when:  There is a careful match between the reader’s ability and the text demands.  Explicit goals/purposes are established for the independent reading activity.  There is a link between the content of the reading activity and other parts of the curriculum. National Reading Panel Report
  • 106. Research shows… Information from the National Reading Panel: “No research evidence is available currently to confirm that instructional time spent on silent, independent reading with minimal guidance and feedback improves reading fluency and overall reading achievement.”
  • 107. Reflect as a Reader… Turn and talk about what you do when you finish a great book.
  • 108. I’m pretty sure you DID not say… Call up a friend so we can round robin read parts of it together! Complete a cut-and-paste of vocabulary words. Make a graphic organizer of the story sequence.
  • 109. Lucy Calkins Says… Independent reading workshop is the of our reading work because it’s the time in the day when children have the opportunity to orchestrate all that they know about reading in order to read their own just-right books. (Calkins 2001)
  • 110. Reader’s Workshop…  Readers have time to read just right books independently every day.  Readers select their own appropriate books.  Readers take care of books.  Readers respect each other’s reading time and reading lives.  Readers have daily opportunities to talk about their books in genuine ways.  Readers don’t just read the words, but also understand the story.  Readers’ work in the independent reading workshop is replicable outside the classroom.
  • 111. Think About It… “When we plan to spend six weeks teaching Island of the Blue Dolphins, we plan to limit children’s reading and fill class time with other activities.” What Really Matters for Struggling Readers -Richard Allington
  • 112. Reader’s Workshop Is… • TIME for students to read independently • TIME for students to apply taught skills • TIME for teacher to teach skills • TIME for teachers to see how students apply skills
  • 113. Studying the IFD for Reading Materials: IFD, orange highlighter, yellow highlighter Goals: – Increase understanding of the Instructional Focus Document – Ensure content knowledge of TEKS with specificity
  • 114. Coding the IFD by Component Cognitive Specificity Content Specificity
  • 115. Reading has a notebook too! Reader’s Notebooks
  • 116. Reader’s Notebooks Contents:  Lists of books read  Lists of books to read  Notes related to specific genres of books  Notes from Mini Lessons  Responses to books  Any other authentic information related to the real act of reading http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/top_teaching/2009/11/reade rs-notebook
  • 117. Teaching Comprehension Turn and talk about how you currently teach your students to comprehend.
  • 118. Teaching Comprehension • Model, model, model, model! • Provide time to read • Provide time to talk and share
  • 119. WHAT IS SHARED READING? Plan Learning Experiences and Instruction… As a table, define Shared Reading and post to http://todaysmeet.com/BL_2-Day
  • 120. Think About It… “Any activity that does not involve reading, writing about reading, or discussing reading may be an “extra” that takes away from students development as readers, writers, and thinkers.” The Book Whisperer -Donalyn Miller
  • 121. “Reading is an interactive process in which good readers engage in a constant internal dialogue with the text. The ongoing dialogue helps them understand and elaborate on what they read.” - Susan Zimmermann
  • 122. Famous Last Words… “My classroom is an anthill- alive and bustling! Each member working independently, yet united in our common purpose: READING!” The Book Whisperer -Donalyn Miller
  • 123. Independent Reading Balanced Literacy Components
  • 124. Independent Reading Write your own definition for Independent Reading
  • 125. TEKS R/S COMPONENTS Reflection… Please see Component Reflection handout. Update your personal reflections for Independent Reading. What did you see on the video samples?
  • 126. This session will… – Increase understanding of the Instructional Focus Document – Ensure content knowledge of TEKS with specificity – Provide opportunities for collaboration while planning for the upcoming six weeks of instruction – Demonstrate effective classroom instructional design and implementation
  • 127. Ticket Out the Door… Before today, I didn’t know _____________ about Balanced Literacy. Before today, I didn’t know _______________ about TEKS R/S. See you for MORE good stuff tomorrow! anything
  • 128. Contact Information Dr. Richard James richard.james@region10.org www.region10.org/TEKS R/S

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