Embryo Biopsy - Saturn active workshop presentation dec2012 (2)
The RI laser systems for laser drilling
Rob Watkins - BSc (Hons)
Business and Sales Manager
Head of Training
Microsurgical Laser Systems
• Quick and easy tool to affect full or partial zona ablation
• Distinct advantages over mechanical and chemical methods
• Ever increasing portfolio of applications
What is a Laser ?
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of
optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of
photons. The term "laser" stands for
The emitted laser light is notable for its high degree of
spatial and temporal coherence – A clear precise light wave
Light, including laser “light” can be
generated in a range of wavelengths.
Remember that not all wavelengths are visible
Remember that not all wavelengths are visible
Red (635nm) green (532nm) and Blue Violet (445nm)
Laser & Light Wavelength
Laser is near
Some laser beams can be focused to very tiny spots, achieving a
very high irradiance.
They can be launched into beams of very low divergence in order
to concentrate their power at a large distance.
When particular lasers are made using gas chambers etc the output
power can be very high indeed. Clinical IVF lasers output is
Power of lasers is expressed as milliwatt mW
1 mW = 0.001 w
Lasers can have high powered
focused heat output / irradiation
Fabri-Perrot type Laser Diode FP-LD
The Laser Diode Crystal
Laser Diode Crystal (as used in clinical IVF)
A laser diode is similar to a light emitting diode (LED),
in that it is comprised of a junction between two
semiconductors (one positive, one negative) and it emits
- Glows bright in response to an electrical current
being passed through it
- The crystal size defines the resonance and
thus the wavelength
- It is the coherence that gives this
type of laser its ability to ablate the zona
The Science of Lasers
The amount of energy delivered in a single laser pulse is simply the
product of laser power and the pulse duration. For example, a laser
of 400mW fired for a duration of 200μs (which would make a hole in
ZP of several μm) delivers 80μJ.
Same laser power
If this energy were distributed through a small droplet of media (10 μl),
then it would cause an increase in temperature of about 0.002°C.
The Science of Laser for IVF...
Laser energy is not delivered uniformly across the droplet,
but tightly focused, and this is what makes the laser useable for
A certain amount of the energy delivered will raise the temperature of the ZP
to the point where it disintegrates. There will also be surplus energy delivered
into the area of focus and transferred to the surrounding area.
This surplus energy has the potential to damage surrounding cells. It is
therefore desirable to minimise the amount of energy and so reduce this
potential for damage
Energy vs Hole size –
The quest to reduce the level
of risk from peripheral ablation damage
NASA space glass
Dichroic glass refers to a glass containing multiple
micro-layers of metals or oxides which give the glass
dichroic optical properties.
The main characteristic of this glass is that it has a
particular transmitted colour and a completely different
reflected colour, as certain wavelengths of light either
pass through or are reflected.
Class I laser product:
A Class 1 laser is safe under all conditions of normal use. This means the
maximum permissible exposure (MPE) cannot be exceeded when viewing a
laser with the naked eye or with the aid of typical magnifying optics (e.g.
telescope or microscope).
Unique motorised laser module
Laser ‘Exclusion Zone’ indicates heat safety zone
Versatile software system – RI Viewer
RI is using everything learned from 12 years of
building and selling laser systems to build Saturn 5,
the best ever laser system. (with a little help from
Saturn 5 replaces the existing Saturn 3 and Saturn
Active laser products
Its new Biopsy Mode means that the operator can
easily select a line, whether straight or curved, and
adjust the frequency and size of holes allowing the
system to ablate exactly along the chosen path.
Saturn 5 Active Biopsy Mode
So how does the laser work?
Water readily absorbs infra-red at 1480nm wavelength. As it absorbs the energy it
The laser works by locally heating the zona, which is made up mostly of protein
The laser is focussed to a spot about 2 microns in diameter.
When the laser is switched on, the temperature at the centre of the beam rises,
and heat starts to be conducted away into the surroundings, so that a hole can be
made which is larger than the beam.
The proteins break down at somewhere around 100-120C, and dissolve into the
surrounding media to leave a hole.
The size of the hole can be controlled by varying the length of time the laser is
RI Laser Objective
A standard microscope objective is
designed to focus visible light
(wavelengths from ~400 to 750nm).
IVF lasers use infra-red light with a
wavelength of 1480nm. Standard
objectives will not focus an infra-red beam
correctly and much of the power will be
lost through reflections within the
The RI laser objective is designed to focus
visible light, but also to focus the infra-red
beam at the same plane as the visible
light, and to maximise the power
transmission for efficient drilling.
The ideal would be to supply just enough energy to remove a given volume
of zona to make a given size of hole.
A low power and long pulse allows more time for the heat to leak away, so you
need to turn the laser on for longer to make up for the loss.
With a higher power laser you can put more energy in with a short pulse before it
has a chance to leak away.
In other words, a high power laser is more efficient at delivering its energy, so
the total heat energy delivered is lower than with a low power laser, and so
should minimise the risk of specimen damage.
• Most effective at 8 cell stage on day 3 of treatment
– 1 or 2 cells can be taken without compromising embryo development
• Biopsied cells used for pre-implantation genetic screening of the
embryo prior to embryo transfer
– Generally accepted limitations due to mosiacism and potential
• Evidence for value of rapid aneuploidy screen using CGH is rapidly
Summary of Laser Applications
Oocyte Polar Body Biopsy
Zygote Polar Body Biopsy
Laser Assisted Hatching
Pre-vitrification Blastocyst Collapse
Energy Output from Laser for 8μm
•The energy that was needed to be delivered to
make an 8μm hole at 400mW was 76μJ.
•At 300mW the energy was 102μJ. At 175mW the
energy needed was 147μJ, almost twice the
amount as at 400mW.
•At all diameters of hole, the lower power laser
needed to deliver more energy than the higher
MORE POWER IS A BETTER LASER TO A POINT
• Safe, reliable and easy to use
• Unique features
– Class I laser device
– Motorised laser module
– Exclusion Zone
– User visible pilot laser
• Precise and accurate
• Expanding range of clinical and research applications
• Essential equipment item