Geografia• Perú es mas conocido como la tierra de los Incas. Tiene una área de1,285,216 Km. cuadrados, y esta situado en la costa del Pacifico, en laparte norte central de Sud America.• Perú es el tercer país mas grande de Sud America, detrás solo de Brasil yArgentina. Perú es considerado un país tropical. Perú tiene tres regionesbien marcadas, una delgada zona costera, las montañas de los Andes demayor anchura, y la zona forestal del Amazonas.• La faja costera es mayormente formada de desiertos pero aquí se ubicanlos ciudades principales.• Los ríos corren desde el este hacia el oeste, deslizándose hacia abajo contaludes bien inclinados lo que hace que los ríos sean torrentosos. En estasvalles se encuentran los mayores centros de agricultura.
Historia• La famosa civilización Inca solo es una parte de toda laArqueología Peruana. Antes de los Incas, Perú tuvo lasculturas PRE-Colombinas , algunas de estasprecediendo a los Incas por muchos siglos.• Este imperio es uno de lo mas conocido en el mundo.En su apogeo, el imperio tenia 2500 Km. cuadradoscubriendo los países que hoy se llaman: Colombia,Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia, Chile, e Argentina.
El Imperio Incaico• A pesar de toda su grandeza el Imperio Incaico existió más de unsiglo. Con anterioridad al año 1430 los Incas gobernaron solo elValle del Cuzco.• Ellos habían entablado una guerra con los Chancas y finalmente losderrotaron en una gran victoria en 1430. Esto marcó el comienzo deuna gran expansión militar.• El Imperio Incaico conquistó e incorporó la mayoría de las culturasen el área que se extendía desde el sur de Colombia hasta elcentro de Chile. Los Incas impusieron su modo de vida sobre lasgentes que conquistaron.• Para el tiempo que los Españoles arribaron la mayoría del área delos Andes había sido totalmente controlado bajo las leyes de losIncas.
Las fechas importantes• 1438 – empezó el imperio inca (el rey,Pacha cutí conquistó otros tribus)• 1532 – Francisco Pizarro llegó aSudamérica (la conquista española)• 1572 – murió el ultimo rey inca (TupácAmaru) terminó el imperio
The Inca Rise To Power (1)• Their own legends state that ten related clansemerged from caves in the region and were taken toCuzco by a mythical leader. Wherever their origins,by about A.D. 1350 they resided in and around Cuzcoand by 1438 they had defeated their hostileneighbors in the area. At this point under their ruler,or Inca, Pachacuti (1438-1471), they launched aseries of military alliances and campaigns thatbrought them control of the whole area from Cuzcoto the shores of Lake Titicaca.•
The Inca Rise To Power (2)• The Inca armies were constantly on the march, extendingcontrol over a vast territory. Pachacutis son and successor,Topac Yupanqui (1471-1493) conquered the northern coastalkingdom of Chimor by seizing its irrigation system, and heextended Inca control into the southern area of what is nowEcuador.• At the other end of the empire, Inca armies reached the MauleRiver in Chile in spite of the Araucanian Indians’ resistance.• The next ruler, Huayna Capac (1493-1527) consolidated theseconquests and suppressed a number of rebellions on thefrontiers. By the time of his death, the Inca Empire - or as theycalled it, Twantinsuyu - stretched from what is now Colombiato Chile and eastward across Lake Titicaca and Bolivia tonorthern Argentina.• Between nine and 13 million people of different ethnicbackgrounds and languages came under Inca rule, aremarkable number given the extent of the empire and thetechnology available for transportation and communication.
Las centros importantes• Cuzco (el ombligo del mundo [navel of theworld] en quechua)• Machu Picchu (desde allí los incasestudiaban el sol)• Pisac (también en Perú)
La religión• Los incas también creían en muchosdioses (eran politeístas).-Viracocha – el dios creador-Inti – el dios sol-Mama Kilya – la diosa de la luna-Ilyapa – el dios del buen tiempo (weather)
Religion• Inca political and social life was infused with religious meaning. Likethe Aztecs, the Incas held the sun to be the highest deity andconsidered the Inca to be the suns representative on earth.• The magnificent Temple of the Sun in Cuzco was the center of thestate religion, and in its confines the mummies of the past Incasresided. The cult of the sun was spread throughout the empire, but theInca did not prohibit the worship of local gods.• Other deities were also worshiped as part of the state religion.Viracocha, a creator god, was a favorite of Inca Pachacuti andremained important.• Popular belief was based on the idea that many natural phenomenawere connected to spiritual power. Mountains, stones, rivers, caves, ortombs and temples were considered to be holy shrines. At theseplaces, prayers were offered and sacrifices of animals, goods, andhumans were made.• The temples were served by many priests and women dedicated to thepreparation of cloth and food for sacrifice. The temple priests weremainly responsible for the great festivals and celebrations upon whichstate actions often depended.
La sociedad incaica• emperador• la familia real• aristócratas• administradores• otros nobles• artesanos• Trabajadores• Campesinos• guerreros• Los incas creían quesus emperadoreseran hijos del primerdios Viracocha, poreso el rey oemperador tenía laautoridad máxima enel imperio.La familia realnobles
Social classes• The Inca nobility was greatly privileged and those related to theInca himself held the highest positions. The nobility were alldrawn from the ten royal ayllus.• In addition, the residents of Cuzco were given noble status toenable them to serve in high bureaucratic posts.• The nobles were distinguished by dress and custom. Only theywere entitled to wear the large ear spools that enlarged theears and caused the Spaniards to later call them orejones, or"big ears."• Noticeably absent in most of the Inca Empire was a distinctmerchant class. Unlike Mesoamerica where long-distance tradewas so important, Inca emphasis on self- sufficiency and stateregulation of production and surplus limited trade.• Only in the northern areas of the empire, in the chiefdoms ofEcuador, the last region brought under Inca control, did aspecialized class of traders exist.
La comida• Tres cosas esenciales:-maíz (sara)-papas o patatas (chuno)-quinoa (chisaya mama [mother grain])para cereales, harina, sopas• Cuando los incas empezaron a comerciarcon otros tribus comían calabazas, piñasy papayas.• Sabían como hacer la comida seca.
Language• The Incas intentionally spread the Quechua language as ameans of integrating the empire.• The Incas made extensive use of colonists. SometimesQuechua-speakers from Cuzco might be settled in a newly wonarea to provide an example and a garrison. On other occasions,a resistive conquered population was moved to a new home.• Throughout the empire, a complex system of roads wasconstructed with bridges and causeways when needed. Alongthese roads, way stations, were placed about a days walkapart to serve as inns, storehouses, and supply centers forInca armies on the move.• Tambos also served as relay points for the system of runnerswho carried messages throughout the empire. The Incaprobably maintained over 10,000 tambos.
World of the Incas• Almost at the same time that the Aztecsextended their control over much ofMesoamerica, a great imperial state wasrising in the Andean highlands, and iteventually held sway over an empiresome 3000 miles in extent.• The Inca Empire incorporated manyaspects of previous Andean cultures butfused them together in new ways - andwith a genius for state organization andbureaucratic control over peoples ofdifferent cultures and languages, itachieved a level of integration anddomination previously unknown in theAmericas.
Los Impuestos• With few exceptions the Incas, unlike the Aztecs, did not demandtribute, but rather required labor on the lands assigned to the stateand the religion.• Communities were expected to take turns working on state andchurch lands and sometimes on building projects or in mining.• These labor turns were an essential aspect of Inca control.• In addition, the Inca required women to weave high-quality cloth forthe court and for religious purposes. The Incas provided the wool, buteach household was required to produce cloth. Woven cloth, a greatAndean art form, had political and religious significance.• Some women were taken as concubines for the Inca and others wereselected as servants at the temples, the so-called "Virgins of the Sun."• In all this, the Inca had an overall imperial system, but remainedsensitive to local variations so that its application accommodatedregional and ethnic differences.
Inca Cultural Achievements• The Incas drew on the artistic traditions of their Andeanpredecessors and the skills of subject peoples.• Beautiful pottery and cloth was produced in specializedworkshops.• Inca metallurgy was among the most advanced of theAmericas, and Inca artisans worked gold and silver with greattechnical skill. The Incas also used copper and some bronzefor weapons and tools.• Like the Mesoamerican peoples, the Incas made no practicaluse of the wheel.• They had no system of writing.• The Incas, however, did make use of a system of knottedstrings with which numerical and perhaps other informationcould be recorded. It functioned something like an abacus, andwith it the Incas took censuses and kept financial records.
Inca Cultural Achievements• The Incas had a passion for numerical order, and thepopulation was divided into decimal units from which theyenlisted the them in the military.• Inca stonecutting was remarkably accurate and the bestbuildings were constructed of large fitted stones without theuse of masonry. Some of these buildings were immense.• Incan constructions, the large agricultural terraces, irrigationprojects, and the extensive system of roads were among theIncas greatest achievements.• The Incas displayed their technical ability and workmanship aswell as their ability to mobilize large amounts of manpower.• Inca genius was best displayed– in their statecraft and– in their architecture and– public buildings.
Comparing The Incas And Aztecs• Both the Inca and the Aztec empires were based on a longdevelopment of civilization that preceded them; and while insome areas of artistic and intellectual achievement earlierpeoples had surpassed their accomplishments, bothrepresented the success of imperial and military organization.• Both empires were based on intensive agriculture organized bya state that accumulated surplus production and thencontrolled the circulation of goods and their redistribution togroups or social classes.• In both states older semi kinship-based institutions, the aylluand the calpulli, were being transformed by the emergence of asocial hierarchy in which the nobility was increasinglypredominant. In both areas this nobility was also the personnelof the state, so that the state organization was almost an imageof society.
Comparing The Incas And Aztecs (2)• While the Incas attempted to create an overarching political state andmade conscious attempts to integrate their empire as a unit (theAztecs did less in this regard), both empires recognized local ethnicgroups and political leaders and were willing to allow considerablevariation from one group or region to another - that is, provided thatInca or Aztec sovereignty was recognized and tribute paid.• Both the Aztecs and the Incas found that their military power was lesseffective against nomadic peoples who lived on their frontiers.Essentially, the empires were created by the conquest of sedentaryagricultural peoples and the extraction of tribute and labor from them.• At the same time, their ability to survive the shock of conquest and tocontribute to the formation of societies after conquest demonstratesmuch of their strength and resiliency. Long after the Aztec and Incaempires had ceased to exist, the peoples of the Andes and Mexicocontinue to draw on these cultural traditions.
Comparing The Incas And Aztecs (3)• There were considerable differences between Mesoamericaand the Andean region in terms of climate and geography butalso in terms of their civilizations.• Trade and markets, for example, were far more developed inthe Aztec Empire and earlier in Mesoamerica in general than inthe Andean world.• There were considerable differences in metallurgy, in writingsystems, and in social definition and hierarchy. But within thecontext of world civilizations, these two empires are variationsof populations where sedentary agriculture is the mostimportant.• Basic similarities can also be seen in systems of belief andcosmology and in social structure.• But the American Indian civilizations shared much with eachother, and that factor plus their relative isolation from externalcultural and biological influences gave them their peculiarcharacter and ultimately their vulnerability.
La Conquista Española• En Noviembre de 1526, Francisco Pizarro encabezó desde el sur dePanamá una expedición. Pizarro se enteró de la riqueza del Imperio Incaicoy retornó a España para recaudar dinero y reclutar gente para la conquista.• En 1530 acoderó en la zona costera del Ecuador y comenzó su marchahacia tierra adentro. En 1532 Pizarro fundó el primer pueblo español enterritorio Peruano el que llamó San Miguel de Piura. En Noviembre de1532 el alcanzó la ciudad de Cajamarca, donde el Inca Atahualpa estabaresidiendo.• Pizarro y sus hombres capturaron Atahualpa aprovechando de la ventaja delas corazas que sus hombres vestían y sobre todo de los caballos que erandesconocidos en América, lo que ponían a los Españoles en ventajarespecto a altura y protección. Después que los hombres de Pizarrocapturaron a Atahualpa, Pizarro encarceló a Atahualpa y pidió un rescateen piezas de oro suficiente para llenar el cuarto donde encerraron aAtahualpa hasta la marca que el Inca alcanzara con su brazo extendido.• Con la excusa que la gente de Atahualpa estaba demorando, Pizarroordenó la ejecución de Atahualpa con la pena del garrote. Los Españoles locondenaron a muerte por herejía.