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IEECI: Assessing Sustainability Knowledge: Development of a framework to assess engineering undergraduate students' knowledge of sustainability concepts Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Assessing  Sustainability  Knowledge  (ASK):  Development  of  a  framework  to  assess   engineering  undergraduate  students’  knowledge  of  sustainability  concepts Alice  L.  Pawley,*  Ranjani  Rao,  Monica  E.  Cardella,  Stephen  R.  Hoffmann, †  Matthew  W.  Ohland This   material   is   based   upon   work   School  of  Engineering  Education,  Purdue  University.  1300  Neil  Armstrong  Hall  of  Engineering,  701  W.  Stadium  Dr,  West  Lafayette  IN  47907 †Division  of  Environmental  and  Ecological  Engineering,  Purdue  University.  322  Potter  Engineering  Center,  500  Central  Drive,  West  Lafayette  IN  47907 supported   by   the   National   Science   Foundation   under   Grant   No.   *Please  direct  comments  to  apawley@purdue.edu. EEC-­‐0935066.Abstract1.  What  need  are  you  addressing? 2.  What  approach  are  you  using  to  address  this  need?   3.  What  are   the   potential  beneGits  of  your  work?  Who   are   4.  What  have  you  learned  so  far? 5.   What   are   the   products   of   your   research   so   far?   How  Engineering   students   will   need   to   have   expertise   in   We   are  using   a  composite  of   four   data   sources  to   develop  the   the  target  audiences?   We   are   working   to   create   an   initial   synthesized   framework   are  you  ensuring  they  will  have  an  impact?  sustainability   to   become   effective   engineering   professionals.     framework:  published  statements  of  sustainability   principles   The   target   audience   includes   traditionally-­‐trained   that   can   guide   faculty   untrained   in   sustainability   how   to   We   have   presented   at   2010  FIE   conference,  have   a   paper  in  However,   most   engineering   faculty   have   little   professional   and  peer-­‐reviewed  literature;  a  survey  of   engineering  course   engineering   faculty   teaching   traditional   core   engineering   assess   sustainability   knowledge   in   their   traditional   review   for   2011   ASEE,   and   will   present   at   the   2011   IEEE  training   in   sustainability,   and   may   lack   a   common   titles   and  descriptions  that  explicitly  mention  sustainability;   courses.    We  hope   our  work   will  help   these  faculty  develop   a   undergraduate   engineering   courses.   Our   initial   Pindings   International   Symposium   on   Sustainable   Systems   and  understanding   of   what   should   constitute   sustainability   interviews   with   undergraduate   engineering   students   about   sense   about   how   to   incorporate   sustainability   (including   indicate   that   our   framework   will   be   less   content-­‐oriented,   Technology.    We  are  preparing  manuscripts  for  JEE,  one   using  education   for   engineers.     This   research   proposes   a   sustainability;   and   conversations   with   experts   in   the   what   to   incorporate,   and   how   to   assess   it)   into   non-­‐ and  more  epistemological  in  focus,  than  we  had  expected,.  It   ecofeminism   as   a   theoretical   framework   for   understanding  framework   to   structure   and   assess   sustainability   sustainability   education,   environmental   studies,   and   environmentally   focused   courses,   to   help   all   engineering   may  be  less  important   for  students  learn   particular  technical   existing   sustainability   education   efforts,   and   a   second  knowledge  in  undergraduate  engineering  students. engineering  education  areas.   students   develop   a   basic   familiarity   with   sustainability-­‐ tools   and   skills,   and   more   important   they   have   a   shift   in   comparing  published  principles  of  sustainability  with  current   related  technical  content. mindset  towards  seeing  all  aspects  of  sustainability  as  core  to   course   material.   We   will   also   prepare   a   discussion   of   our   their   work,   and   begin   to   problematize   their   association   of   overall   framework   after   our   May   workshop,   and   in   engineering  with  the  production  of  new  "things." partnership  with  our  workshop  participants.A.  Literature  coding  and  analysis B.  Content  analysis  of  sustainability  pand  descriptions  and  sustainability  principles Content  analysis  of  course  titles   rinciples  and  engineering  course  information C.  Interviews  with  undergrad.  studentsWe   collected   a   comprehensive   body   of   literature   on   or   related   to   For  the  former,  we  compiled  a  list  of  XX  statements  (-­‐-­‐>),  then  coded  them  for  content  and  key  ideas.   The  initial  set  of  published  statements  of  principles  was  collected  through  a   An   additional   second   data   is   a   set   of   transcripts   from   interviews  sustainability  in  engineering  education:   Figure:  Left:  Course  title  and   STATEMENTS OF PRINCIPLES ENGINEERING GOVTL INDUST. EDUC.wide-­‐net  approach,  including  a  general  web  search  for  “principles  of  sustainable   undergraduate  engineering  students  about  what  they  think  sustainability   • searched  in  Web  of  Science,  then  searched  on  relevant  authors  to   description.  U  or  UG=undergrad;   FOCUS FOCUS FOCUS FOCUS engineering,”  standard  literature  search  tools  with  similar  search  terms,  and   has   to   do   with   engineering.   We   are   in   the   process   of   getting   these   Green Engineering G=graduate;  D=dual.     Green Chemistry transcribed,  and  then  will  use  our  existing  set  of  content   and  theme  codes   Royal Academy Design for Env. find  new  authors,  new  references,  and  new  journals through  references  cited  in  our  broader  literature  review  on  sustainable   Earth Charter !"!#$%&$%(%#)*#+,-,!*$&.*%.,$!*/01.,!2 Natural Step ENGINEERING COURSES Each  box=1  course from  the  literature  coding  to  structure  their  analysis.     Ahwahnee Barcelona Hannover • compiled   a   body   of   approximately   150   papers   relevant   to   the   Sandestin engineering,  yielding  15  sets  (below)  and  sorted  into  four  contexts  (L).  In  total,   Chameau Interface Bellagio ITESM Ceres WIDTH OF ONE COURSE --> <-- topic,   searching   comprehensively   the   Journal   of   Engineering   Right:  Published  statement.   the  fifteen  sets  included  160  individual  principles.    We  then  surveyed  half  of  the   #345676894:*,9;6389<=974:*,9>69==369>*?84:@ D.Workshop  with  sustainability  experts GD U Education,  the  International  Journal  of  Engineering  Education,  the   Each  box  represents  1  principle,   !"#$%&(%)*+,+%&("-.(/$"0%/(1$,)2("-.(/34"-5 G 60+4+-"%$(4+-+4+7$("-.8)9(4"-":$(;"<%$ G D U U 4 3 2 2 sets  of  principles  to  collect  emergent  broad  themes.    For  the  course  content   European   Journal   of   Engineering  Education,  and  the  International   except  where  noted. 1=$<+:-(#)95($-$9:&2$#>+,+$-%(%9"-<?)9%"%+)-("-.(.+<%9+@3%+)- G D U 5 analysis,  data  presented  here  represents  only  courses  offered  within  the   1=$<+:-(#)95($-$9:&($#>+,+$-,&(,)-<$9A"%+)- G D U 2 Our  third  data  source  is  based  on  conversations   with  experts  in  the   Journal  of  Sustainability  in  Higher  Education.     G D U B<$()#(9$-$;"@0$(#$$.<%),C<("-.(9$<)39,$<(1-)-2$-$9:&5 respective  Colleges  of  Engineering  (or  equivalent-­‐title).  We  relied  on  published   Universities  included   G U D)003%+)-(?9$A$-%+)- (either  print  or  web)  text  in  title  or  description  that  self-­‐identifies  as   sustainability   education,   environmental   studies,   and   engineering  We  conducted  a  grounded  theory  (Corbin  &  Strauss,  2008)  analysis  of   in  course  content  analysis G D U B<$()#(9$-$;"@0$()9(-"%39"0($-$9:&(>0);< E??9)?9+"%$(3<$(9"%$<(1$F:F(#)9("<<+4+0"%+)-(9$:$-$9"%+)-(.$A$0)?4$-%()#()?%+)-<52 education   areas.  These   conversations  are   taking   place  over  spring  42   articles   chosen   from   a   large   database   of   over   150   articles.   Two   !A=B6C6B*%7=<@*78*D387=B7*83*%<A38;= sustainability  related,  explicitly  using  one  or  more  of  the  terms  sustainability,   Arizona  State  University U 2011,  culminating  in  a  face-­‐to-­‐face  workshop  in  May  2011.  coders   open   coded   the   articles,   making   at   least   4   passes   over   each   California  Institute  of  Technology G D UG G$<)39,$(,)-<$9A"%+)- 2 sustainable,  sustainable  engineering,  or  sustainable  development.  Related  terms   G D9)%$,%+)-()#(@+)<?/$9$("-.($,)0):+,"0(<&<%$4< Table 1: Summary and details about the formal statements of principles of sustainability. California  Poly.  State  U.,  San  Luis  Obispo GU D9)4)%+)-()#(/34"-(;$0#"9$(@"<+,(/34"-(-$$.<("-.(H3"0+%&()#(0+#$ 2 (e.g.,  green  or  environmental)  are  not  included  in  the  analysis,  unless  the  authors  article  (first  as  an  overall  reading  of  each  article,  second   taking  detailed   D9)%$,%+)-()#($-A+9)-4$-%"0(#$"%39$< California  State  Poly.  U.,  Pomona G 6-A+9)-4$-%"0(+4?9)A$4$-% of  the  texts  paired  those  terms  with  a  form  of  sustainability.  Use  of  the  memos   or  notes  on   each  article  both   at   the  global  level   as  well  as   the   Number of Carnegie  Mellon  University D9)%$,%+)-()#(;"%$9(9$<)39,$< Braden  Allenby,   Jim  Mihelcic,   Reference G D UG principles ,7E6B@*495*?F6569>*=:6=G@ other  definitions  of  word  sustain  and  its  forms  were  manually  excluded.paragraph  by   paragraph   level,  third  in  discussion   with   the  other  coder,   Cornell  University G U U I-%$9:$-$9"%+)-"0($H3+%& 2 Arizona  State   University  of  and  fourth  to  recode  the  article  based  on  the  discussion).    After  reading   Georgia  Institute  of  Technology Published  formal  statements  of  principles  of   University South  Florida Year D$9<)-"0($.3,"%+)-"0(A"03$<( 2 2 G+:/%()#(,)2$*+<%$-,$(1$,)("-.(/34"-5("-.(,)29$<?$,% 3 Iowa  State  University sustainabilityabout  40  papers,  they  felt   they  had  reached  saturation   as   no  new  codes   James  Madison  University U =$)-%)0):+,"0(?9+-,+?0$<()#($-:+-$$9+-:(?9)#$<<+)- D$9<)-"0($%/+,"0(9$<?)-<+@+0+%&12+$<5 3were  being  identified.     This   process   generated   10   themes   which  deal   Kansas  State  University U !?+9+%3"0(+4?)9%"-,$ D9$,"3%+)-"9&(?9+-,+?0$ Focus on engineering and/or technical context of sustainability Massachusetts  Inst.  of  Technology J.-L. Chameau, Dean, Keynote presentation on “Criteria ofwith   broader   socio-­‐econo-­‐environ-­‐mental   contexts   in   which   I-%$9.$?$-.$-,$(1$,)("-.(/34"-5 J)-$<%&()#(?9",%+,$("0+:-4$-%()#(?9+-,+?0$("-.(",%+)- Georgia Tech College of sustainable technologies,” at ASEE 1999 10 [9] Michigan  Technological  Universityengineering  is  practiced  and  taught.   Missouri  Univ.  of  Science  and  Tech. G D U G U !8B64:*495*!8B6=74:*$@A=B7@ =$4),9",&(<),+"0($H3+%&(K3<%+,$("-.(/34"-(9+:/%< 4 Engineering Engineering Deans Institute 1. Sustainability  in  opposition  to  status  quo  in  industry;   North  Carolina  A&T D U L0$"9(4)-+%)9+-:(9$?)9%+-:("-.(</"9+-:()#(+-#)94"%+)- !%"C$/)0.$9($-:":$4$-% 2 United Nations Environment Programme Andy  Lau,   Jean  MacGregor,   Design for Environment and Canadian Natural Resources Council, ~1995 7 [10] 2. The  super-­‐engineer  versus  the  traditional  engineer;   North  Carolina  State  University M?$-(,)443-+,"%+)- L30%39"0("-.(0),"0(";"9$-$<< focus on industry and manufacturing design Penn  State   Washington  Center   Ohio  State  University G U for  Improving  the   3. Sustainability  as  normalized  or  soft;   Pennsylvania  State  University 60+4+-"%+)-()#(?)A$9%& Principles of Green University D/&<+,"0(<?",$<(.$<+:-$.(#)9(<),+"0(.+A$9<+%& 2 American Chemical Society 1998 12 [11] Quality  of   4. Engineers  as  problem  definers  or  problem  solvers;   Polytechnic  Univ.  of  Puerto  Rico U =$<+:-(#)9()?$-(<?",$(?3@0+,(<?",$ 6-/"-,$(#)94"0($.3,"%+)- 2 Chemistry Undergraduate   5. Convention  vs  modernity  in  engineering  practice  and  education;   Purdue  University Principles of Green Journal article, authors = P.T. Anastas and D U N)-2A+)0$-,$("-.(?$",$ O0)@"0+7"%+)-(";"9$-$<< Engineering J. B. Zimmerman 2003 12 [12] Education,   6. Connections  with  diversity  and  feminist  engineering;   San  Jose  State  University G U I-%$9",%+)-()#($-:+-$$9+-:("-.(<),+$%& Evergreen  State   Stanford  University G D U D"9%+,+?"%+)-(+-(?)0+,&24"C+-: Engineering for Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) 2005 12 [13] College 7. The  idea  of  employability,  with  sustainability   making  an   engineer   Texas  A&M  University U ,9>69==369>*.=@6>9*0367=364 Sustainable Development more  or  less  employable;     University  of  California,  Berkeley J)0+<%+,(+-%$:9"%+)-("-.(.$<+:- 2 3 Expert conference on Green Engineering, 6,)-)4&()#(%9"-<+%+)-()#(#$$.<%),C(%)(?9).3,% 3 3 Sandestin Conference 2003 9+ [14] heavily Chemical Eng. John  Petersen,  Oberlin  College 8. Sustainability  as  a  value/ethic;   University  of  California,  San  Diego GDU =$<+:-(#)9($-.2)#20+#$(9$,&,0"@+0+%&(.$:9"."%+)-("-.8)9(.+<"<<$4@0& P"9:$(<,"0$(0)-:(%$94(+-%$9,)--$,%$.-$<< 4 2 Focus on governmental context of sustainability Cynthia  Murphy,   john  Petersen University  of  Central  Florida Center  for  Energy   9. Interdisciplinary  nature  vs  sustainability  as  a  discipline;    and P)-:2%$94(A"03$(.39"@+0+%&(9$3<"@+0+%&("-.8)9(9$?"+9"@+0+%& Oberlin  College G University  of  Colorado,  Boulder G D U P+#$2,&,0$(%/+-C+-: Ahwahnee Principles Local Government Commission 1991 15 [15] and  Environmental   10. Techno-­‐centered  view  of  sustainability.   I--)A"%+)-(8(4"K)9(,)-,$?%3"0(,/"-:$(</+#% University  of  Florida United Nationas, Assessment of progress =$<+:-(#)9(4).30"9+%&("-.(>0$*+@+0+%& =$<+:-(#)9(+-%$:9"%+)- Bellagio Principles 1996 10 [16] Resources,  We   refer   to   themes   as   polarities   when   they   present   themselves   as   University  of  Illinois,  Urbana toward sustainability G L)-<$H3$-,$<()#(.$<+:-()-(?9).3,%(3<$ University  of  Texas-­‐ University  of  Michigan D U G+<C(9$.3,%+)- Earth Charter UN Rio Earth Summit 2000 16 [17]concepts   that   are   in   opposition   that   yet   need   to   co-­‐exist.   In   the   axial   Q"0"-,$.(<)03%+)-< Hannover Principles Design for sustainability 1992 9 [18] Austin   University  of  Minnesota,  Twin  Cities 6##$,%+A$(?9)@0$4(.$>+-+%+)-coding   phase,     we   grouped   ten   themes/polarities   into   sub-­‐groups,   University  of  Puerto  Rico,  Mayaguez Q$(;)9%/($*?$-.+%39$()#(0+4+%$.(%+4$(9$<)39,$< Focus on industrial contexts of sustainabilitymade   sense   of   relationships   between   themes   within   sub-­‐groups   and   University  of  Texas,  Arlington G D U F@69=@@*D=3@A=B76;=@*495*H4:F=@ 6,)-)4+,(A+"@+0+%& CERES Principles Corporate Social Responsibility 1989 10 [19]generated   three   meta-­‐themes   that   encompassed   the   smaller   themes.   University  of  Texas,  Austin U 6##$,%+A$(?0"--+-:(4"-":$4$-%("-.(+4?0$4$-%"%+)- 2 Individual company statement / corporate =$>+-$.(:)"0<("-.()@K$,%+A$< Interface ? 7 [20] Linda  Vanasupa,   University  of  Washington 2 response to sustainability Tom  Seager,We  use  an  ecofeministic  framework  to  understand  these  meta-­‐themes: Virginia  Tech E??9$,+"%+)-()#(0+4+%"%+)-< Non-profit for corporate and societal Calpoly-­‐SLO L)-<%"-%(+4?9)A$4$-% Natural Step 1989 4 [21] Arizona  State   1. Sustainability  as  ammunition  for  the  future  engineer,  or   the   Washington  State  University G R"-":$4$-%(9$<?)-<+@+0+%& G$#9"4$(4)-$%+7$(?)003%+)-(9$<?)-<+@+0+%& response to SD University idea  that  sustainability  could  be  an  important  tool  in  the  skill  sets   Selection:   1)   among   the   20   largest   programs,   in   terms   of   S9+?0$(@)%%)4(0+-$ G$.$<+:-()#(,)44$9,$(<&<%$4 Focus on educational contexts of sustainability total   number   of   undergraduate   engineering   students;   (2)   ITESM (Monterrey of  the  future  engineer.   among  the  20  largest  programs,  in  terms  of  total  number  of   #E=<=@*A3=@=97*69*B8F3@=@I*JF7*987*A369B6A:=@ University / educational, learning outcomes 2005 12 [22] G D U L0+4"%$("-.(,0+4"%$(,/"-:$ Institute of Technology) Sub   themes:   a)   Super   engineer   versus   traditional   engineer;   b)   engineering  BS   degrees  awarded;  (3)  in  the  top  10  of  the  US   News  and  World  Report   ranking  of  the  best  undergraduate   DU N"%+)-"0(!$,39+%& From International Conference on U E??9)?9+"%$(=$<+:- Convention   versus   modernity,  c)   Employability,   d)   Engineers   as   engineering   programs;   or   (4)   site   of   an   NSF   award   in   Engineering  Education  with  the  word  “sustain”  or  one  of  its   G D U Q3+0.+-:(=$<+:-(2(J+:/(D$9#)94"-,$(=$<+:- Barcelona Principles Engineering Education for Sustainable 2004 15 [23] D U J34"-(D)?30"%+)-(=&-"4+,< problem   definers   versus   problem   solvers,   e)   Sustainability   as   a   variations  in  the  project  title  or  summary. Development (EESD) ‘problem’  that  can  be  solved  by  technology;   About  the  RIFE  Group 2. Sustainability  (in)  disciplined?   5.  Framework  development:  under  construction! Through emergent coding, we then developed a series of specific codes that described the principles, and organized them into the six themes. The first pass through the data established the the  Research  in  Feminist  Engineering  Group  (RIFE).   We  are   This   meta-­‐theme   emphasizes   the   ecofeministic   theme   of   inter-­‐ This  should  be  work  that  the  broader  community  thinks  about  and  contributes  to!     wovenness   as   opposed   to   traditional   discipline   based   silos.     It   What  a provisional set of codes, with free editing, combination, and creation of new codes as We  are  a  diverse  set  of   researchers  in  the  School  of   Engineering  Education  at  Purdue  University.     What  are  your  thoughts  about  what  we  should  include? bout   necessary.24-26 The entire data set was reanalyzed using the provisional codes, to ensure that We  blend  feminist  theory  and  methods  with  engineering  educational  research  questions. all includes:   a)   Sustainability   as   a   discipline   by   itself;   b)   this  ref principles fit into the codes as edited. Some codes are similar, and some certainly overlap We  try  to  do  things  a  little   differently  than  a  conventional  research  model.     We  want   to  empower   Sustainability   as   a   component   of   existing   disciplines;   c)   erence conceptually. The standard for combining or keeping separate two related codes was appliedpeople   in   our   diverse   community..   From   developing   action-­‐research   collaborations   with   in u’ve   ? professors,   to  looking  for  projects   to   benePit   our  local   community,  we   want   to  try   to   involve   as   Sustainability  as  an  interdisciplinary  concept;  d)  Sustainability  as   Yo the context of educational assessment: for two closely related ideas, if we considered it possible different  people  as  possible.   many   tten   normalized  versus  soft;  and   for a student to be able to demonstrate understanding or learning of one code without necessarily forgo Dina  Banerjee,   Jordana  Hoegh,   Ranjani  Rao,  M.S. 3. Sustainability  as  engineering  conscience.   being able to demonstrate understanding of the other, the two concepts remained as separated Ph.D,  Sociology M.S.,  Sociology Communication ut  or     What  about   PhD  student codes. The process resulted in 59 codes sorted into the six themes. (Table 2) Postdoc  on   PhD  student abo This   theme   emphasizes   the   value   based   and   ethical   realms,   in   RA  on  ADVANCE ADVANCE RA  on  IEECI-­‐ASK RIFE  2009-­‐pres RIFE  2008-­‐pres RIFE  2010-­‐pres. ssed... which   sustainability   operates.   Subthemes   include:   (a)   this  idea...? mi Canek  Phillips,  M.S. Sustainability   in   opposition   to   status   quo   in   industry,   (b)   Engineering  Education Lindsey  Nelson RA  on  CAREER Sustainability  as  a  value.   Engineering   Marisol  Mercado   Santiago Katie  Morley Aero/Astro  Engr To  join   Education Engineering  Educ. Undergraduate RIFE  Fall  2011 PhD  student PhD  student URA  on  What  is At  University  of   RA  on  ADVANCE  Engineering  to  you? Sussex  2010-­‐11 RIFE  2010-­‐present RIFE  2008-­‐present