Defining “Sustainable Engineering”:    a Comparative Analysis ofPublished Sustainability Principles      and Existing Cours...
Motivation	SEVERAL STATEMENTS OVER PAST DECADE AND A HALF ABOUT   NEED FOR ENGINEERS TO UNDERSTAND SUSTAINABILITY	        ...
Big picture: ASK project 	    Early question toward developing an  assessment framework for sustainability    knowledge of...
Goals of this presentation	What is the set of concepts, ideas, approaches,tools, methods, and philosophies that could be  ...
Goals of this presentation	 What is the set of concepts, ideas, approaches, tools, methods, and philosophies that could be...
Goals of this presentation	 What is the set of concepts, ideas, approaches, tools, methods, and philosophies that could be...
Goals of this presentation	 What is the set of concepts, ideas, approaches, tools, methods, and philosophies that could be...
Statements of Principles	•  Fifteen sets of sustainability principles :	   –  Engineering / Technical Context	      Chamea...
Statements of Principles	•  Fifteen sets of sustainability principles :	   –  Engineering / Technical Context	   –  Govern...
Statements of Principles	•  Fifteen sets of sustainability principles :	   –  Engineering / Technical Context	   –  Govern...
Statements of Principles	•  Fifteen sets of sustainability principles :	   –  Engineering / Technical Context	   –  Govern...
Collecting the principles	DfE	GC	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	                 Each set includes four              ...
Coding the principles	DfE	GC	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	                        ROYAL ACADEMY #9: 	              ...
Coding the principles	DfE	GC	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	                    Holistic Integration 	               ...
Coding the principles	DfE	GC	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	                       BELLAGIO #3: 	                    ...
Coding the principles	DfE	GC	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	                                   BELLAGIO #3: 	        ...
DfE	GC	        Coding the principles	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	                                     BELLAGIO #3:...
DfE	GC	      Coding the principles	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	                                       BELLAGIO #3:...
Coding the principles	DfE	GC	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	                                BELLAGIO #3: 	           ...
DfE	GC	          Coding the principles	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	                                          BELLA...
Coding the principles	DfE	GC	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	                                  BELLAGIO #3: 	         ...
Coding the principles	DfE	GC	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	                                   BELLAGIO #3: 	        ...
CH	                                         DfE	                                         GC	                              ...
DfE	GC	      Organizing themes	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	                     59 unique codes	                  ...
Organizing themes	DfE	GC	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	              Traditional Environmental 	              Sustai...
Organizing themes	DfE	GC	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	              Specific Things to Protect/              Improve...
Organizing themes	DfE	GC	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	              Ethics and Guiding Beliefs	              — inte...
Organizing themes	DfE	GC	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	              Social and Societal Aspects	              — dem...
Organizing themes	DfE	GC	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	              Engineering Design Criteria	              — hol...
Organizing themes	DfE	GC	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	              Business Perspectives and              values	 ...
Analyzing themes	DfE	GC	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	                        Traditional                        Env...
Perspectives of principles lists	Engineering and	   Technical	    Governmental 	 Industrial	 Educational	                 ...
Perspectives of principles lists	Engineering and	   Technical	    Governmental 	 Industrial	 Educational	                 ...
Sustainability engineering          courses	•  Search of publicly available catalog   language for sustain* in the course ...
Characteristics of self-identifiedsustainability engineering courses	DISCIPLINES	                           LEVEL	    Civil...
Principles themes in course         descriptions	THEMES IN TEN OR MORE (OF 174) COURSES: 	       Use of renewable / natura...
Thank you.	 This presentation is based on work supported by an NSF IEECI grant (#0935066). Any opinions, findings, and conc...
Comparison to broader themes of sustainability	DfE	GC	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	                Edwards’s “Seven...
Coding the principles	DfE	GC	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	                                  DESIGN for ENVIRONMENT ...
Coding the principles	DfE	GC	CH	RA	GE	NS	EC	CE	Be	Ba	IT	H	IF	A	S	                    Eliminate / minimize /	              ...
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Defining "sustainable engineering": a comparative analysis of published sustainability principles and existing courses

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Defining "sustainable engineering": a comparative analysis of published sustainability principles and existing courses

  1. 1. Defining “Sustainable Engineering”: a Comparative Analysis ofPublished Sustainability Principles and Existing Courses Stephen R. Hoffmann1, Alice L. Pawley1,2, Ranjani L. Rao3, Monica E. Cardella1,2, Matthew W. Ohland2 1Division of Environmental and Ecological Engineering; 2School of Engineering Education; 3Brian Lamb School of Communication Purdue University,West Lafayette
  2. 2. Motivation SEVERAL STATEMENTS OVER PAST DECADE AND A HALF ABOUT NEED FOR ENGINEERS TO UNDERSTAND SUSTAINABILITY 1999 statement on Sustainable Development: “ASEE believes that engineering graduates must be ASEE prepared by their education to use sustainable engineering techniques in the practice of their profession…” Code of Ethics Fundamental Canon 1: ASCE “Engineers shall…strive to comply with the principles of sustainable development” Code of Ethics Fundamental Canon 8: “Engineers shall consider environmental impact and ASME sustainable development in the performance of their professional duties.” Code of Ethics Professional Obligation 2: “Engineers are encouraged to adhere to the NSPE principles of sustainable development in order to protect the environment for future generations” Student Outcome Criterion 3(c) ABET “an ability to design … within realistic constraints such as … [list of eight including] … sustainability.”
  3. 3. Big picture: ASK project Early question toward developing an assessment framework for sustainability knowledge of engineering students: What is the set of concepts, ideas, approaches,tools, methods, and philosophies that could be included as the “necessary knowledge of sustainability” for all engineering students?
  4. 4. Goals of this presentation What is the set of concepts, ideas, approaches,tools, methods, and philosophies that could be included as the “necessary knowledge of sustainability” for all engineering students?
  5. 5. Goals of this presentation What is the set of concepts, ideas, approaches, tools, methods, and philosophies that could be included as the “necessary knowledge of sustainability” for all engineering students?   How do detailed statements ofsustainability principles define sustainability?
  6. 6. Goals of this presentation What is the set of concepts, ideas, approaches, tools, methods, and philosophies that could be included as the “necessary knowledge of sustainability” for all engineering students?   How do detailed What is included in statements of engineering coursesustainability principles titles and descriptions define sustainability? about sustainability?
  7. 7. Goals of this presentation What is the set of concepts, ideas, approaches, tools, methods, and philosophies that could be included as the “necessary knowledge of sustainability” for all engineering students?   How do detailed What is included in statements of engineering coursesustainability principles titles and descriptions define sustainability? about sustainability? How do these two data sets compare?
  8. 8. Statements of Principles •  Fifteen sets of sustainability principles : –  Engineering / Technical Context Chameau – keynote at ASEE Deans Inst. – 1999 Design for Environment – UNEP/CNRC – 1995 Principles of Green Chemistry – ACS – 1998 Principles of Green Engineering – 2003 Engr. for Sust. Devel. – Royal Academy – 2005 Sandestin Conference – 2003 –  Governmental Context –  Industrial Context –  Educational Context
  9. 9. Statements of Principles •  Fifteen sets of sustainability principles : –  Engineering / Technical Context –  Governmental Context Ahwahnee Principles – local govt. – 1991 Bellagio Principles – UN, assessment – 1996 Earth Charter – UN, Rio summit – 2000 Hannover Principles – urban design – 1992 –  Industrial Context –  Educational Context
  10. 10. Statements of Principles •  Fifteen sets of sustainability principles : –  Engineering / Technical Context –  Governmental Context –  Industrial Context CERES Principles – CSR – 1989 Interface – individual company statement Natural Step – corporate/societal – 1989 –  Educational Context
  11. 11. Statements of Principles •  Fifteen sets of sustainability principles : –  Engineering / Technical Context –  Governmental Context –  Industrial Context –  Educational Context ITESM Principles – individual university – 2005 Barcelona Principles – from International Conference on Engineering Education for Sustainable Development (EESD) – 2004
  12. 12. Collecting the principles DfE GC CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S Each set includes four to sixteen principles. Textual analysis with coding of principles into one or more codes.
  13. 13. Coding the principles DfE GC CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S ROYAL ACADEMY #9: “Guiding Principles of Engineering for Sustainable Development” original text: “Adopt a holistic ‘cradle-to-grave’ approach.” code: Holistic Integration and Design
  14. 14. Coding the principles DfE GC CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S Holistic Integration and Design RA 9: “Adopt a holistic ‘cradle-to-grave’ approach.” Ba4: [Today’s engineers must be able to] “apply a holistic and systematic approach to problem solving…” Ba13: [Engineering education…must] “strengthen systematic thinking and a holistic approach.” GE10: “Design…must include integration and interconnectivity…” S1: “Engineer…holistically, use systems analysis, and integrate environmental impact assessment tools.”
  15. 15. Coding the principles DfE GC CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S BELLAGIO #3: from UN, Focus on Assessment of progress toward sustainability original text: “ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS: a)  consider equity and disparity within the current population and between present and future generations, dealing with such concerns as resource use, over-consumption and poverty, human rights, and access to services, as appropriate. b)  consider the ecological conditions on which life depends c)  consider economic development and other, non- market activities that contribute to human/social well-being.
  16. 16. Coding the principles DfE GC CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S BELLAGIO #3: from UN, Focus on Assessment of progress toward sustainability original text: “ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS: a)  consider equity and disparity within the current population and between present and future generations, dealing with such concerns as resource use, over-consumption and poverty, human rights, and access to services, as appropriate. b)  consider the ecological conditions on which life Protection of depends c)  consider economic development and other, non- biosphere and market activities that contribute to human/social ecological systems well-being.
  17. 17. DfE GC Coding the principles CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S BELLAGIO #3: from UN, Focus on Assessment of progress toward sustainability original text: “ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS: a)  consider equity and disparity within the current population and between present and future generations, dealing with such concerns as resource use, over-consumption and poverty, human rights, and access to services, as appropriate. b)  consider the ecological conditions on which lifeResource conservation depends c)  consider economic development and other, non- market activities that contribute to human/social well-being.
  18. 18. DfE GC Coding the principles CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S BELLAGIO #3: from UN, Focus on Assessment of progress toward sustainability original text: “ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS: a)  consider equity and disparity within the current population and between present and future generations, dealing with such concerns as resource use, over-consumption and poverty, human rights, and access to services, as appropriate. b)  consider the ecological conditions on which life Promote human depends c)  consider economic development and other, non-welfare, basic human market activities that contribute to needs, quality of life human/social well-being.
  19. 19. Coding the principles DfE GC CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S BELLAGIO #3: from UN, Focus on Assessment of progress toward sustainability original text: “ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS: a)  consider equity and disparity within the current population and between present and future generations, dealing with such concerns as resource use, over-consumption and poverty, human rights, and access to services, as appropriate. b)  consider the ecological conditions on which life Intergenerational depends c)  consider economic development and other, non- component market activities that contribute to human/social well-being.
  20. 20. DfE GC Coding the principles CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S BELLAGIO #3: from UN, Focus on Assessment of progress toward sustainability original text: “ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS: a)  consider equity and disparity within the current population and between present and future generations, dealing with such concerns as resource use, over-consumption and poverty, human rights, and access to services, as appropriate. b)  consider the ecological conditions on which life Democracy / social depends c)  consider economic development and other, non-equity / justice / human market activities that contribute to human/social rights well-being.
  21. 21. Coding the principles DfE GC CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S BELLAGIO #3: from UN, Focus on Assessment of progress toward sustainability original text: “ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS: a)  consider equity and disparity within the current population and between present and future generations, dealing with such concerns as resource use, over-consumption and poverty, human rights, and access to services, as appropriate. b)  consider the ecological conditions on which life Eliminate poverty depends c)  consider economic development and other, non- market activities that contribute to human/social well-being.
  22. 22. Coding the principles DfE GC CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S BELLAGIO #3: from UN, Focus on Assessment of progress toward sustainability original text: “ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS: a)  consider equity and disparity within the current population and between present and future generations, dealing with such concerns as resource use, over-consumption and poverty, human rights, and access to services, as appropriate. b)  consider the ecological conditions on which life Economic viability depends c)  consider economic development and other, non- market activities that contribute to human/social well-being.
  23. 23. CH DfE GC GE RA S A Be EC H CE IF 160 principles NS IT Ba Organizing themes 59 unique codes
  24. 24. DfE GC Organizing themes CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S 59 unique codes organized into six “themes” 160 principles
  25. 25. Organizing themes DfE GC CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S Traditional Environmental Sustainability Goals — safety / toxicity / health — eliminate, minimize, manage waste — (design for) energy-efficient transportation, distribution — (design for) energy efficiency and conservation — use of renewable feedstocks and resources (non energy) — pollution prevention — use renewable / natural energy flows — appropriate use rates (e.g., for assimilation, regeneration, development of options)
  26. 26. Organizing themes DfE GC CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S Specific Things to Protect/ Improve — resource conservation — protection of biosphere / ecological systems — protection of human welfare, basic human needs, quality of life — protection of specific environmental features — environmental improvement — water resources protection
  27. 27. Organizing themes DfE GC CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S Ethics and Guiding Beliefs — intergenerational equity — personal educational values — right of co-existence (human and eco-) and co-respect — deontological principles of the engineering profession — personal ethical responsibility/ies — spiritual importance — precautionary principle — interdependence (ecological and human) — honesty of practice – alignment of principle and action
  28. 28. Organizing themes DfE GC CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S Social and Societal Aspects — democracy, social equity, justice, human rights — clear monitoring, reporting, sharing of information — stakeholder engagement — open communication — cultural and local awareness — elimination of poverty — physical spaces for social diversity — design for open space, public space — enhance formal education — non-violence and peace — globalization awareness — interaction of engineering, society — participation in policy-making
  29. 29. Organizing themes DfE GC CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S Engineering Design Criteria — holistic integration and design — economy of transition of feedstock to product — design for end-of-life, recyclability, degradation, and/or disassembly — large scale, longterm interconnected — long-term value, durability, reusability, and/or repairability — life-cycle thinking — innovation / major conceptual shift — design for modularity, flexibility — design for integration — consequences of design on use — risk reduction — balanced solutions — effective problem definition — worth using limited time, resources
  30. 30. Organizing themes DfE GC CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S Business Perspectives and values — economic viability — effective management, planning, and implementation — defined goals and objectives — appreciation of limitations — constant improvement — management responsibility — reframe and monetize pollution responsibility — triple bottom line — redesign of commerce system
  31. 31. Analyzing themes DfE GC CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S Traditional Environmental Specifics to Protect/ Improve Ethics/Beliefs Social/Societal Engineering Design Business Perspectives
  32. 32. Perspectives of principles lists Engineering and Technical Governmental Industrial Educational Traditional Environmental Specifics to Protect/ Improve Ethics/Beliefs Social/Societal Engineering Design Business Perspectives
  33. 33. Perspectives of principles lists Engineering and Technical Governmental Industrial Educational Traditional Environmental Specifics to Protect/ Improve Ethics/Beliefs Social/Societal Engineering Design Business Perspectives
  34. 34. Sustainability engineering courses •  Search of publicly available catalog language for sustain* in the course title or description. •  36 Universities in the US –  large, top-ranked, NSF support in sust. –  about 35% of all US Engr. undergrads •  174 courses identified
  35. 35. Characteristics of self-identifiedsustainability engineering courses DISCIPLINES LEVEL Civil and Environmental (38) Civil (27) Undergraduate (102) Engineering, no discipline (24) Mechanical (22) Materials (13) Environmental (12) Dual level (37) Chemical (9) Electrical (9) Biological (7) Graduate (48) Other, fewer than 5 each: Architectural, EPP, Tech., Aero., Agr., Energy, Ceramics, Engr. Mgmt., Industrial, Nuclear
  36. 36. Principles themes in course descriptions THEMES IN TEN OR MORE (OF 174) COURSES: Use of renewable / natural energy flows Pollution Prevention (Design for) energy efficiency and conservation Eliminate, minimize, manage waste Water resources protection Resource conservation most  least common Participation in policy-making more than 10 courses Interaction of engineering and society 3-9 courses Life-cycle thinking Economic viability
  37. 37. Thank you. This presentation is based on work supported by an NSF IEECI grant (#0935066). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions, or recommendations expressed arethose of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
  38. 38. Comparison to broader themes of sustainability DfE GC CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S Edwards’s “Seven Common Themes” 1.  Stewardship 2.  Respect for Limits 3.  Interdependence 4.  Economic Restructuring 5.  Fair Distribution 6.  Intergenerational Perspective 7.  Nature as Model and Teacher From Andres R. Edwards (2005), The Sustainability Revolution: Portrait of a Paradigm Shift, New Society Publishers.
  39. 39. Coding the principles DfE GC CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S DESIGN for ENVIRONMENT #4: from UN Environment Programme and CNRC original text: “Optimize production •  choose alternate production processes •  fewer production steps •  lower/cleaner production energy •  less production waste •  fewer/cleaner production consumables” codes: (Design for) energy efficiency and conservation c Eliminate / minimize / manage waste o d Economy of transition of feedstock to product e s
  40. 40. Coding the principles DfE GC CH RA GE NS EC CE Be Ba IT H IF A S Eliminate / minimize / manage waste GC1; GE2: “It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste…” IF1: “Eliminate all forms of waste in every area of business…” Economy of transition from feedstock to product GC8: “Unnecessary derivitization …should be minimized or avoided…” GE6: “Embedded entropy and complexity must be viewed as an investment when making design choices…”

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