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  • 1
  • JOURNEY FROM SUBSISTENCE TOCOMMERCIAL DAIRY FARM IN NEPALPresenterRiddhi ShresthaRoll No.: 25B.V.Sc. & A.H., 8th SEM, IAAS, Rampur, Chitwan2
  • ABSTRACTDairy farming is the major livestock component in Nepal. The major components oflivestock GDP are milk and milk products from buffalo and cattle (32.7% and 24.7%respectively). At present, the total annual milk production of Nepal is just over onemillion tons (70% from buffalo and 30% from cattle). The average growth rate of milkproduction from 1985 to 1995 was 2.4% and the population growth rate 2.9%. Thereare about 7 million cattle and 3.5 million buffalo in the country. The total population ofcattle in the country increased from about 6.5 million in 1991/92 to about 7 million in1998/99 with an average annual growth rate of just over 1%; and the buffalo populationfrom about 3.3 million in 1991/92 to about 3.5 million in 1998/99, with an averageannual growth rate of about 0.6%. Development of several dozen dairy co-operativesand big dairy firms such as Dairy Development Corporation (DDC), Chitwan Milk(Ltd), and Sujal Dairy in recent years is certainly appreciable. However, despite thesedevelopments, due to population increase, daily per capita milk production in Nepal isstagnant for the last 30 years, and is about 148 ml of fresh milk per capita perday, which is equivalent to a half-a-cup of tea. It is a well-known fact that Nepalfrequently depends on India to fulfill its deficit on domestic fresh milk supply.Key words: Subsistence dairy farm, Commercial dairy farm, Nepal3
  • Brief history of development of dairyfarming in NepalPrime Minister Jung Bahadur Rana initiateddairy development activity with theimportation of European cattle from the UKin 1917.The first Livestock Development Farm wasestablished in the Livestock ImprovementSection under the Department ofAgriculture in Singha Durbar, Kathmandu.4
  • Main development stages in Dairy Farming5
  • HMG established two dairy cattle farms,one in Jiri-Khimti andthe second at Khumaltarand three buffalo farms inTarahara,Rampur andPokhara..6
  • A number of improvedbuffaloes, especially Murrah andMurrah x local crosses, and cattlemainly Jersey, Holstein-Friesian, Brown Swiss and Ayrshirecrosses, have been importedfrom India, New Zealand and othercountries7
  • Though the Milch buffalo population is barely higher than thatof Milch cows, their volume of milk is more than double .8
  • Artificial insemination servicesfor cows and buffalo have beenwidened in 46 districts to cover12.26 percent of breeding cowsand buffaloes(ABD, 1996).9
  • Yak and chauries are raisedexclusively on grazing in themountains, with herds moving upand down according to theseason.10
  • Status of Milch animals in Nepal accordingto Ministry of Agriculture 19990100200300400500600Cow BuffaloNo.ofanimalsin1000Milch animalsMilch animals in 3 Geographical region of NepalMountainHillyTarai11
  • Milk production of Nepal according toMinistry of Agriculture,1999050100150200250300350400450500Cow BuffaloMilkproductionin1000tonsMilch animalsMilk production in 3 Geographical region in NepalMountainHillyTerai12
  • Subsistence dairy farming in NepalIntroductionOnly few number of animal rearing only tosustain life, mainly rear animals formilk(household purpose), for dung asfertilizer in organic field, for ploughing fieldand for dung as source of energy.13
  • Purpose of Subsistence dairy farm inNepalMilk for household purpose Milk for selling purpose14
  • Contd…For ploughing As transportation15
  • Contd…Dung as organic fertilizer Dung used as source of fuel16
  • Reasons for the subsistence dairyfarming in Nepal•Low economic status•Lack of awareness about thecommercialization of dairy firm•Unavailability of the adequate nutritious feedsupply•Lack of knowledge about the dairy cattlemanagement•Low animal productivity17
  • Commercialization of the dairy farm•Concept of Commercialization of the dairy farm wasinitiated after the initiation of the concept of modernmilk processing plant.•Modern milk processing began in the early nineteen-fifties with the introduction of Swiss alpine cheesemaking technology to the high mountains(Upadhyaya, 2001)• This led to the establishment of a cheese factory inLangtang, Rasuwa district, with financial assistance fromNew Zealand and technical assistance from FAO.18
  • Contd…• Around the same time, a small milk processingplant was established at Kharipati, Bhaktapur.These plants started milk processing andmarketing from 1958. By 1960 pasteurizedmilk in aluminium foil-capped bottles was onsale in Kathmandu (Upadhyaya, 2001).19
  • • A Dairy Development Corporation (DDC) wasestablished in 1969.20
  • • To meet the increasing demand for processedmilk and dairy products the DDC establishedmore milk supply schemes: Biratnagar MilkSupply Scheme (BMSS) in 1973 in the easternregion, Hetauda Milk Supply Scheme (HMSS)in 1974 in central region, Kathmandu MilkSupply Scheme (KMSS) in 1978 in centralregion, and Pokhara Milk Supply Scheme(PMSS) in 1980 in the western region.21
  • • In 1981 under the DDC, Milk Producers’Associations (MPAs) were established to increasethe participation of farmers in dairy developmentin an organized way. Later the MPAs weretransformed into Milk Producers’ Cooperatives(MPCs).• Presently there are about 1000 MPCs in Nepalproducing million liters of milk by rearingthousands of high milk yielding cows and buffalos22
  • Statistical data of cows and buffalosfrom 1996/97 to 2009/100200400600800100012001400No.ofanimalsin10000Chart Titlebufffalocattle23
  • Pattern of milking and non-milkinganimal in dairy farmMilkingcow14%Non-milkingcow86%no. of cowsMilking26%Non-milking74%Buffalos24
  • Potentials of dairy plant in Nepal25
  • Major issues in dairy development• Milk holidays• Calving pattern of buffaloes: major buffaloescalves during August to October during whichmost of the holidays take place. The breeding ofthe buffaloes should be changed to alter calvingtime and the milk holiday could be solved tosome extent.• High cost of production: due to dominant of noncommercial farmers• Poor quality of raw milk production• Shortage of trained personnel26
  • Future strategies in dairy farming inNepal• Supply of suitable improved dairy stock.• Adequate supply of feed and fodder throughout the year with emphasisgiven to nutritive balanced• fodder-based feeding systems.• From the point of total animal use buffaloes should be given priority.• Business alliances between commercial producers and private processorsshould be encouraged.• Elimination of milk holidays• Proper availabilities of the treatment facilities to diseased animals bystrengthening the animals health centers, DLSO and veterinarians• Provision for proper training about the dairy cattle rearing and itsmanagement to the farmers• Introducing the new and high yielding animals to the country27
  • Benefits of commercial dairy farm oversubsistence dairy farming•Few in number•Rearing with other livestock•No provision for cleanlinessto the shed so animal aremore prone to diseases•The income from the dairyfarm only sufficient for household purpose, no profitoriented•Feeding only by greenpasture or fodder or forage•Less concern about theanimal health•No provision for theincrement of the productivityof the animals28
  • Contd…•Large in number•Systematic in rearing•Provision to cleanliness soanimals are less prone todiseases•Mostly profit oriented sothe owners are much moreconcern to the incrementof the productivity of theanimals•Feeding on concentrateand fodder and forage tooso animals are in nutritiousorder29
  • ReferencesAnimal Breeding Division (ABD). 1996. Annual Report. Nepal Agricultural Research Council, AnimalBreeding Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal.Chapagain, D. P. 1995. Livestock in the Agriculture Perspective Plan. Proc. of the Second National AnimalScience Convention, Nepal Animal Science Association, Kathmandu.International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Mountain Environment and NaturalResources information Systems/Central Bureau of Statistics(ICIMOD/MENRIS/ CBS), 2003.MappingNepal Census Indicators 2001 and Trends.International Dairy Federation,2000. World Dairy Situation.Ministry of Agriculture. 1999. Statistical Information on Nepalese Agriculture. HMG Nepal Ministry ofAgriculture, Singhdurbar, Kathmandu, Nepal.National Milk Marketing and Strategy Study. 2001. National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), DanidaSupport Project, Harihar Bhawan, Lalitpur.Pradhan, D. R., H. R. Shrestha and R. G. Shrestha 2003. Dairy Technologies and Their Dissemination inNepal.Recent Spread and Impact of Agricultural Technologies in Nepal. Proc. of the Sixth National.OutreachResearch Workshop. Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Outreach ResearchDivision, Kathmandu ,NepalShrestha,H.R.2002. Small holder Dairy farming in Nepal: Characteristics,Constraints and DevelopmentOpportunities. Smallholder Dairy Farming Systems of the Hindu-kush-Himalayas.ICIMOD/ILRI,Kathmandu,Nepal,September 2002.Upadhyaya, R. M. 2001. Livestock Raising and Dairy Processing in Nepal – Present Status and FuturePotential.(Eds: Gyan L. Shrestha and Santosh P. Yadav). Green Energy Mission/ Nepal.30
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