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  • 1. Economics of Polish Jews from 1937-1947<br />Rebecca Holliday<br />Fall 2010<br />History 300. 101<br />Dr. Neverdon-Morton<br />1<br />
  • 2. Thesis<br /> The damaging effects of the German occupation in Poland during World War II caused the economic downfall of Poland’s Jewish community as well as the mass post war migration.<br />2<br />
  • 3. Findings: Pre-War Jewish Status<br />Shtetl<br /><ul><li>Jewish community, similar to a village but on a much larger scale and inhabits only Jewish residents. Village = on average, 5-20 homes; Shtetl = about 2, 500 people.
  • 4. Health Care centers, Schooling, Trading and business ventures with non-Jew persons.</li></ul>80% of Warsaw’s Factories controlled by a Jew.<br />Including meat shops, textile mills and small shops<br />Why Poland?<br />3<br />Above: Goldblum Family in front of their kosher butcher shop in Katowice, 1937. (United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archives # 29649).<br />To the Left: The Littman family, Jewish, poses in a boat in Poland circa 1938. <br />Both pictures show some of the freedoms Jews had in pre-war Poland. These freedoms were later annexed. (United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archives #48945)<br />
  • 5. Findings: Invasion Route and Tactics<br />1934- following World War I, Hitler signs a nonaggression pact with Poland.<br />August 1939 (1 month before German Invasion of Poland)- Ribbentrop-Molotov Agreement.<br /><ul><li>Divided Poland between Germany and USSR at the Bug River. Designed to keep USSR from interfering with German invasion.
  • 6. German invades Poland September 1, 1939.</li></ul>4<br />“ German invasion of Poland, September 1939.” German Invasion of Poland: Jewish Refugees, 1939 — Map. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.<br />
  • 7. Findings: Nazi Occupation > Polish Economics<br />5<br /><ul><li>Anti-Semitism negatively effecting Jewish business ventures.
  • 8. Bombing of Synagogues and schools.
  • 9. Dramatic decline in the Jewish Population of Poland
  • 10. Wealthy, intelligent and those holding political office specifically targeted before any other Jew.
  • 11. Introduction of Death Camps (Auschwitz, most infamous)
  • 12. Forced into hiding.</li></ul>Click Here >>>>>><br />Above: Corpses piled in a cart in Warsaw ghetto. Living in the ghetto, Jews were no longer guaranteed the rights to a proper Jewish burial. <br />Deceased Jews were typically piled in this manner and either dumped into a pit that was already burning, or placed into ovens. (USHMM Photo Archive #69982)<br />“Public Service Broadcast by Ignace Jan Paderewski”<br />
  • 13. Ghetto Life<br />Refers to the 6,000 Jews freed with the assistance of Oscar Schindler.<br />Joined Nazi party in 1939.<br />Took prisoners from Plaszon Camp in Warsaw, allowed them to work at his camp supposedly manufacturing German war shells.<br />Provided healthcare, bigger food rations and safety.<br />6<br />Schindler’sJews<br />Above: Destruction of Warsaw Ghetto, 1943. (National Archives ARC Identifier 540124 / Local Identifier 238-NT-282).<br />
  • 14. Research<br />Challenges<br />Locating Census Data about Jewish unemployment rates, revenue generated from businesses, housing after the war.<br />Finding government data pertaining to Economy of Poland during World War II (not just Jewish)<br />Finding course of travel and resources for those Jews who escaped during the war. <br />Locating multiple Resource centers close to Maryland.<br />How to limit a topic.<br />Select a thesis that successfully argues my topic.<br />Save all work frequently and to multiple places.<br />How to locate the facts and use them in a scholarly manner.<br />How to use an Archival resource center.<br />Examine all documents before drawing conclusions. <br />7<br />What I’ve Learned<br />
  • 15. Questions<br />Did the actions of the Holocaust influence or nurture the intellectualism of the surviving Jewish population?<br />Process of Jewish communal rise back to a sense of normality?<br />Forces advanced Germany’s technology beyond U.S. and other fighting forces?<br />Psychological state of Hitler how it influenced his decision making capabilities? An attempt to cover up things he hated about himself? Did he intend to start a World War?<br />Economic growth of Polish Jew immigrants in America and those in Poland from 1947- present?<br />8<br />
  • 16. The Next Step: Additional Sources to Examine<br />American census data, following World War II, on the economics of European Immigrants.<br />Locate and Visit Polish Archival centers, in Poland.(long term goal)<br />Examine the Great Axis Powers.<br />9<br />
  • 17. Bibliography<br /><ul><li>A cart filled with corpses of Jews who died in Warsaw ghetto, awaiting mass burial at the Jewish cemetery.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archives # 69982. Courtesy of Guenther Schwarberg. Copyright United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. November 7, 2010.
  • 18. “ German invasion of Poland, September 1939.” German Invasion of Poland: Jewish Refugees, 1939 — Map. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_nm.php?ModuleId=100055 93&MediaId=431>.
  • 19. “Izak and TolaGoldblum pose with their daughter Salusia in the doorway of their kosher butcher shop in Katowice.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archives # 29649. Courtesy of Sally Goldblum Wasserman. Copyright United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. November 6, 2010.
  • 20. “Jewish civilians. Copy of German photograph taken during the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto, Poland, 1943.” National Archives ARC Identifier 540124 / Local Identifier 238-NT-282. December4, 2010.
  • 21. “Oscar Schindler.” Oscar Schindler. <http://www.auschwitz.dk/schindler2.htm>. November 8, 2010.</li></ul>10<br />
  • 22. Bibliography (continued)<br /><ul><li>Perlberger, Mina. “Mina Perlberger Papers: Buried alive: A Diary.” 1984. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, RG- 02.054; Acc. 1990.329
  • 23. “Public Service Broadcast by Ignace Jan Paderewski, 05/16/1941.” The National Archives. ARC Identifier 2184706 / Local Identifier 56.58. <http://arcweb.archives.gov/arc/action/ShowFullRecordDigital?initpagemodel=on&mn=resultsDetailPageModel&goto=1&sort=&%24searchId=7&%24showFullDescriptionTabs.selectedPaneId=&%24digiDetailPageModel.currentPage=0&%24resultsPartitionPageModel.targetModel=true&%24resultsSummaryPageModel.pageSize=10&%24partitionIndex=0&%24digiSummaryPageModel.targetModel=true&%24submitId=5&%24resultsDetailPageModel.search=true&%24digiDetailPageModel.resultPageModel=true&%24resultsDetailPageModel.currentPage=0&%24showArchivalDescriptionsTabs.selectedPaneId=digital&%24resultsDetailPageModel.pageSize=1&%24resultsSummaryPageModel.targetModel=true&%24sort=RELEVANCE_ASC&%24resultsPartitionPageModel.search=true&%24highlight=false&tab=init/showFullDescriptionTabs/details>. 4 December 2010.
  • 24. Rubin, Jack. Oral History Interview. Helen Sollins. Jewish Museum of Maryland OHV 0017, 8: Communication Artifact. 8 May 1996.
  • 25. “The Littman Family poses in a boat in prewar Poland.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archives #48945. Courtesy of Halina Peabody. Copyright of United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. </li></ul>11<br />

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