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Chap4

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  • 1. ë.ç. Ä‰‡ÚÒÍËÈ ìèêÄÇãÖçàÖ Ñéëíìèéåé.ë. ŇÚÛÌÓ‚ë.ç. ç‡ÁËÌ Ç ëãéÜçõï àçîéêåÄñà-å.Ö. èÓıÓÓ‚ éççõï ëàëíÖåÄïÖ.Å. êӉ˘‚ çÄ éëçéÇÖ êéãÖÇéâ ÄÇíéêàáÄñàà ǂ‰ÂÌË ï‡‡ÍÚÂÌÓÈ ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸˛ ÒÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌ˚ı ËÌÙÓχˆËÓÌÌ˚ıÒËÒÚÂÏ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚ¸ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËfl ·Ó„‡ÚÓ„Ó ËÌÙÓχˆËÓÌ-ÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl Ò ÔÂ‰ӂ˚ÏË ÚÂıÌÓÎӄ˘ÂÒÍËÏË ‡Á‡·ÓÚ͇ÏË.ùÚÓ Ó·ÛÒÎÓ‚ÎÂÌÓ ÚÂÏ, ˜ÚÓ Ì‡fl‰Û Ò ÌÓ‚˚ÏË ‰‡ÌÌ˚ÏË Ë ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌÚ‡-ÏË ·Óθ¯Ó Á̇˜ÂÌË ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÏÂÚ¸ ̇΢ˠÓÒÓ·˚ı ÏÂÚÓ‰Ó‚ Ó·‡-·ÓÚÍË ËÌÙÓχˆËË, ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ Í ı‡ÌËÎË˘Û ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌÚÓ‚, ÒÚÛÍÚÛÌ˚ıË ÒÂχÌÚ˘ÂÒÍËı Ò‚flÁÂÈ Ò ÓÒڇθÌ˚ÏË ÍÓÏÔÓÌÂÌÚ‡ÏË ËÌÙÓχˆË-ÓÌÌÓÈ ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚. é‰ÌËÏ ËÁ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏ˚ı ÛÒÎÓ‚ËÈ ÙÛÌ͈ËÓÌËÓ‚‡ÌËfl Ú‡ÍÓÈ ÒËÒ-ÚÂÏ˚ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl Á‡‰‡˜‡ ‡Á„‡Ì˘ÂÌËfl ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ Í ÂÒÛÒ‡Ï ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚, Ú.Â.ÔÓ‰‰ÂʇÌË Ú·ÛÂÏÓ„Ó ÛÓ‚Ìfl ÍÓÌÙˉÂ̈ˇθÌÓÒÚË, ˆÂÎÓÒÚÌÓÒÚËË ‰ÓÒÚÛÔÌÓÒÚË ‰‡ÌÌ˚ı. éÚÏÂÚËÏ, ˜ÚÓ ÔÓ‰ ÂÒÛÒ‡ÏË ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚ ÔÓÌË-χ˛ÚÒfl Ì ÚÓθÍÓ Ò‡Ï‡ ËÌÙÓχˆËfl, ÌÓ Ë Ò‚Ó·Ó‰ÌÓ ÏÂÒÚÓ Ì‡ ‰ËÒ-͇ı, ÔÓˆÂÒÒÓ Ë Ú.‰. ëÔˆËÙËÍÓÈ Ú‡ÍËı ÒËÒÚÂÏ ‚ ̇ÛÍÂ Ë Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌËË fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl·Óθ¯Ó ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Ó Î˛‰ÂÈ, ÌÂÔÓÒ‰ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ‚ӂΘÂÌÌ˚ı ‚ ÔÓ‰„Ó-ÚÓ‚ÍÛ ÒÓ‰ÂʇÌËfl (‡‚ÚÓ˚, ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎË ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚), Ë Ì fl‚Îfl˛˘Ëı-Òfl ÒÓÚÛ‰ÌË͇ÏË ‚·‰Âθˆ‡ ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚ (ËÌÒÚËÚÛÚ, ÛÔ‡‚ÎÂÌËÂ), ÍÓÚÓ-˚ ڇÍÊ ÔËÌËχ˛Ú Û˜‡ÒÚË ‚ ÔÓ‰„ÓÚÓ‚Í χÚÂˇÎÓ‚, ̇ÔËÏÂ‰‡ÍÚÓÒ͇fl ÒÎÛÊ·‡. ÅÓΠÚÓ„Ó, ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎflÏË ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚ ÏÓ„ÛÚ·˚Ú¸ ‰Û„Ë ËÌÙÓχˆËÓÌÌ˚ ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚, Ò ÍÓÚÓ˚ÏË ÓÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÎflÂÚ-Òfl Ó·ÏÂÌ ËÌÙÓχˆËÂÈ. èË ˝ÚÓÏ Ó·˚˜ÌÓÈ Ô‡ÍÚËÍÓÈ ‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘Â‚ÂÏfl fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË web-ËÌÚÂÙÂÈÒÓ‚ ‰Îfl ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ Í ÒËÒ-ÚÂÏÂ, ˜ÚÓ ‰‡ÂÚ ÏÌÓ„Ó ÔÂËÏÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ ‚ ‚ˉ ÛÌË‚Â҇θÌÓÒÚË, ‚ÓÁ-ÏÓÊÌÓÒÚË Û‰‡ÎÂÌÌÓÈ ‡·ÓÚ˚, ËÌÚÂ‡ÍÚË‚ÌÓÒÚË.138
  • 2. ìÔ‡‚ÎÂÌË ‰ÓÒÚÛÔÓÏ ‚ ÒÎÓÊÌ˚ı ËÌÙÓχˆËÓÌÌ˚ı ÒËÒÚÂχı ä·ÒÒ˘ÂÒÍË ÏÓ‰ÂÎË ‡Á„‡Ì˘ÂÌËfl ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ Í ÂÒÛÒ‡Ï Ç Ò‡ÏÓÏ Ó·˘ÂÏ ‚ˉ ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ Í ÂÒÛÒ‡Ï ÏÓÊÌÓ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ‚ ‚Ë-‰Â χÚˈ˚, Á‡‰‡˛˘ÂÈ ÒÓÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌË ÒÛ·˙ÂÍÚÓ‚ Ë Ó·˙ÂÍÚÓ‚. ä ÒÛ·˙-ÂÍÚ‡Ï ÓÚÌÓÒflÚÒfl ‡‚ÚÓËÁÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎË ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚, Ô˘ÂÏÓ‰ËÌ ÙËÁ˘ÂÒÍËÈ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂθ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍËÏÒÛ·˙ÂÍÚ‡Ï ‚ ÍÓÌÚÂÍÒÚ ‡Á„‡Ì˘ÂÌËfl ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ (̇ÔËÏÂ, ÂÒÎË ÓÌ‚Ó¯ÂÎ ‚ ÒËÒÚÂÏÛ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‡Á Ò ‡Á΢Ì˚ÏË Ô‡‚‡ÏË ËÎË Á‡ÔÛÒÚËÎÔÓ„‡ÏÏÛ ÓÚ ËÏÂÌË Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ËÁ ‚ËÚۇθÌ˚ı ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎÂÈ). é·˙ÂÍ-Ú‡ÏË fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ‚Ò‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌ˚ ÂÒÛÒ˚ ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚: ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌÚ˚, ·‡Á˚‰‡ÌÌ˚ı, Û·Ë͇ÚÓ˚, Ù‡ÈÎ˚, ‚̯ÌË ÛÒÚÓÈÒÚ‚‡ Ë Ú.‰. ä Ó·˙ÂÍÚ‡ÏÏÓ„ÛÚ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚ¸Òfl Ë ÒÎÓÊÌ˚ ÒÚÛÍÚÛ˚, ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡˛˘Ë ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂ-ÎÂÈ ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚, Ëı „ÛÔÔ˚, Ó„‡ÌËÁ‡ˆËË Ë Ú.Ô. Ç Ï‡Úˈ ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ ͇-ʉÓÏÛ ÒÛ·˙ÂÍÚÛ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÒÚÓ͇, ‡ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÛ — ÒÚÓηˆ. ç‡ ËıÔÂÂÒ˜ÂÌËË Û͇Á˚‚‡˛ÚÒfl Ô‡‚‡ ̇ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl (‡ÚË·ÛÚ˚ ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡),ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÒÛ·˙ÂÍÚ ËÏÂÂÚ Ô‡‚Ó ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰ËÚ¸ ̇‰ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÓÏ. (äÓ̘-ÌÓ, ‰Îfl Í‡Ê‰Ó„Ó ÚËÔ‡ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÓ‚ ̇·Ó ‰ÓÔÛÒÚËÏ˚ı ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ Ò‚ÓÈ,̇ÔËÏÂ, ‰Îfl ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌÚÓ‚ — ˜ÚÂÌËÂ, Á‡ÔËÒ¸, ÏÓ‰ËÙË͇ˆËfl, ÒÓÁ-‰‡ÌËÂ, ÛÌ˘ÚÓÊÂÌËÂ, ˜¸ ˉÂÚ Ó ÔÓ‰ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚Â ÔÓÎÌÓ„Ó Ì‡·Ó‡‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ, Ô‡‚‡ ̇ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌË ÍÓÚÓ˚Â Ò ‰‡ÌÌ˚Ï Ó·˙ÂÍÚÓÏ ËÏÂ-ÂÚ ‰‡ÌÌ˚È ÒÛ·˙ÂÍÚ.) é‰Ì‡ÍÓ ÔflÏÓÈ ÔÛÚ¸ ‡ÎËÁ‡ˆËË ÔÓÎÌÓÈ Ï‡Úˈ˚ ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ ‚ Â-‡Î¸Ì˚ı ÒËÒÚÂχı ÌÂÔËÂÏÎÂÏ: ‚ ˝ÚËı ÒËÒÚÂχı ÙÛÌ͈ËÓÌËÛ˛Ú ÒÓÚ-ÌË Ë Ú˚Òfl˜Ë ÒÛ·˙ÂÍÚÓ‚, ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflfl ‡Á΢Ì˚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ̇‰ ‰ÂÒflÚ͇-ÏË Ë ÒÓÚÌflÏË Ú˚Òfl˜ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÓ‚. èÓÎÌÓ ˜ËÒÎÓ ˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚÓ‚ ÚËÔ˘ÌÓÈχÚˈ˚ ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ ·Û‰ÂÚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ÎflÚ¸ ÏËÎΡ‰˚, ˜ÚÓ ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ ÌÂ-ÔËÂÏÎÂÏÓ Í‡Í Ò ÚÓ˜ÍË ÁÂÌËfl ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰ËÚÂθÌÓÒÚË, Ú‡Í Ë Ò ÚÓ˜ÍËÁÂÌËfl ÔÓ‰‰ÂʇÌËfl  ˆÂÎÓÒÚÌÓÒÚË Ë ‡ÍÚۇθÌÓÒÚË. é‰ÌËÏ ËÁ ÔÛÚÂÈ ¯ÂÌËfl Û͇Á‡ÌÌÓÈ ÔÓ·ÎÂÏ˚ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ‡-ÎËÁ‡ˆËfl ˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚÓ‚ χÚˈ˚ ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ ÔÓ ÏÂ ̇‰Ó·ÌÓÒÚË Ì‡ ÓÒÌÓ-‚ ‡ÚË·ÛÚÓ‚, ÔËÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÏ˚ı Ó·˙ÂÍÚ‡Ï Ë ÒÛ·˙ÂÍÚ‡Ï ÔÓ Ô‡‚Ë·Ï,ÓÔ‰ÂÎflÂÏ˚Ï Ú‡Í Ì‡Á˚‚‡ÂÏ˚ÏË «ÔÓÎËÚË͇ÏË ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡». ä·ÒÒ˘ÂÒÍËÏË ÔÓÎËÚË͇ÏË ÍÓÌÚÓÎfl ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡, ÓÔËÒ‡ÌÌ˚ÏË ‚«é‡ÌÊ‚ÓÈ ÍÌ˄» åËÌËÒÚÂÒÚ‚‡ Ó·ÓÓÌ˚ ëòÄ Ë ¯ËÓÍÓ ËÒ-ÔÓθÁÛÂÏ˚ÏË ‚Ó ÏÌÓ„Ëı ÓÔÂ‡ˆËÓÌÌ˚ı ÒËÒÚÂχı, fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl χÌ- 139
  • 3. é·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÔÓÚ‡Î˚ êÓÒÒËË. Ç˚ÔÛÒÍ 1‰‡ÚÌÓ ÛÔ‡‚ÎÂÌË ‰ÓÒÚÛÔÓÏ (MAC) Ë ‰ËÒÍˆËÓÌÌÓ ÛÔ‡‚ÎÂÌˉÓÒÚÛÔÓÏ (DAC). èË̈ËÔ˚, Ô‡ÍÚË͇ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl, ÔÂËÏÛ˘Â-ÒÚ‚‡ Ë Ì‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÍË ˝ÚËı Í·ÒÒ˘ÂÒÍËı ÒËÒÚÂÏ ÛÔ‡‚ÎÂÌËfl ‰ÓÒÚÛÔÓÏÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓ ÓÔËÒ‡Ì˚ ‚ [2]. ëΉÛÂÚ Á‡ÏÂÚËÚ¸, ˜ÚÓ ÔflÏÓ ÔËÏÂÌÂ-ÌË ‰‡ÌÌ˚ı ÏÂÚÓ‰Ó‚ Ì ÒÓ‚ÒÂÏ „Ó‰ËÚÒfl ‰Îfl ÒÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌ˚ı ËÌÙÓ-χˆËÓÌÌ˚ı ÒËÒÚÂÏ. å‡Ì‰‡ÚÌÓ ËÎË ÔËÌÛ‰ËÚÂθÌÓ ÛÔ‡‚ÎÂÌË ‰ÓÒÚÛÔÓÏ ÓËÂÌÚË-Ó‚‡ÌÓ ‚ ÔÂ‚Û˛ Ó˜Â‰¸ ̇ ÒÓı‡ÌÂÌË ÒÂÍÂÚÌÓÒÚË ‰‡ÌÌ˚ı, ÒÓ‰Â-ʇ˘ËıÒfl ‚ ÒËÒÚÂÏÂ. Ç Ò‡ÏÓÏ ÔÓÒÚÓÏ ‚ˉ ˝ÚÓÚ ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰ Ò‚Ó‰ËÚÒfl Í‡Á‰ÂÎÂÌ˲ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎÂÈ (ÒÛ·˙ÂÍÚÓ‚) Ë ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌÚÓ‚ (Ó·˙ÂÍÚÓ‚) ̇ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÛÓ‚ÌÂÈ ÒÂÍÂÚÌÓÒÚË (̇ÔËÏÂ: ÓÚÍ˚Ú˚ χÚÂˇÎ˚ —‰Îfl ÒÎÛÊ·ÌÓ„Ó ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl — ÒÂÍÂÚÌÓ — ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ ÒÂÍÂÚÌÓ).èÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂθ Ò Á‡‰‡ÌÌ˚Ï ÛÓ‚ÌÂÏ ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ ÏÓÊÂÚ ˜ËÚ‡Ú¸ ‚Ò ‰ÓÍÛ-ÏÂÌÚ˚ Ò‚ÓÂ„Ó ËÎË ·ÓΠÌËÁÍËı ÛÓ‚ÌÂÈ ÒÂÍÂÚÌÓÒÚË, ‡ ̇ Á‡ÔËÒ¸ÂÏÛ ‰ÓÒÚÛÔÌ˚ ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌÚ˚ Ò‚ÓÂ„Ó Ë ·ÓΠ‚˚ÒÓÍËı ÛÓ‚ÌÂÈ (ÔË ˝ÚÓÏÔÓÒΠÁ‡ÔËÒË ËÌÙÓχˆËË ‚ ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌÚ ·ÓΠ‚˚ÒÓÍÓ„Ó ÛÓ‚Ìfl Ó̇ÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚÒfl ̉ÓÒÚÛÔÌÓÈ ÔËÒ‡‚¯ÂÏÛ). чÌ̇fl ÒËÒÚÂχ Ò ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚-ÏË ÏÓ‰ËÙË͇ˆËflÏË ÔËÏÂÌflÂÚÒfl ‚ ‚ÓÂÌÌ˚ı Ë „ÓÒÛ‰‡ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ıÒËÒÚÂχı, ÌÓ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ̉ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ „Ë·ÍÓÈ. ÑËÒÍˆËÓÌÌÓ ËÎË ÔÓËÁ‚ÓθÌÓ ÛÔ‡‚ÎÂÌË ‰ÓÒÚÛÔÓÏ (DAC)ÓÒÌÓ‚˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ̇ ÔÓÌflÚËflı ‚·‰Âθˆ‡ Ó·˙ÂÍÚ‡ Ë ÒÔËÒ͇ ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ ÍÓ·˙ÂÍÚÛ. ÑÎfl ÔÓÎÛ˜ÂÌËfl ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ëı Ô‡‚ ‰Îfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ Ì‡‰Ó·˙ÂÍÚÓÏ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂθ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ·˚Ú¸ Û͇Á‡Ì ‚ ÒÔËÒÍ ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ (ACL)Í ˝ÚÓÏÛ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÛ ÎË·Ó ÔÂÒÓ̇θÌÓ, ÎË·Ó ‚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ „ÛÔÔ˚ ÔÓθÁÓ-‚‡ÚÂÎÂÈ, ‰Îfl ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ‡Á¯ÂÌ˚ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ë ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ̇‰Ó·˙ÂÍÚÓÏ. èË ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚ËË ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎfl ËÎË Â„Ó „ÛÔÔ˚ ‚ ÒÔËÒÍÂÔË ‰ÓÒÚÛÔÂ Í Ó·˙ÂÍÚÛ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl Ô‡‚‡, ÔËÏÂÌflÂÏ˚ ÔÓ ÛÏÓÎ-˜‡Ì˲. ëËÒÚÂχ ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡, ·ÎËÁ͇fl Í ÓÔËÒ‡ÌÌÓÈ, ‡ÎËÁÓ‚‡Ì‡ ‚ Ù‡È-ÎÓ‚˚ı ÒËÒÚÂχı Windows 2000 Ë Windows XP, ·ÓΠӄ‡Ì˘ÂÌ̇fl‚ÂÒËfl ‚ÒÚ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ Ù‡ÈÎÓ‚˚ı ÒËÒÚÂχı Unix, Ú‡Ï ÒÔËÒÓÍ ‰ÓÒÚÛ-Ô‡ Ó„‡Ì˘ÂÌ Ó‰ÌËÏ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎÂÏ (‚·‰ÂθˆÂÏ Ù‡È·) Ë Ó‰ÌÓÈ„ÛÔÔÓÈ. èÓ‰‰ÂʇÌË ÔÓÎÌÓχүڇ·Ì˚ı ÒÔËÒÍÓ‚ ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ ÒÌËʇÂÚÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰ËÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸ DAC-ÒËÒÚÂÏ ÔÓ ÏÂ ۂÂ΢ÂÌËfl ˜ËÒ· ÔÓθ-ÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎÂÈ, ‡ ÛÂÁ‡ÌÌ˚ ÒÔËÒÍË ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ Ì ӷÂÒÔ˜˂‡˛Ú ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰Ë-ÏÛ˛ „Ë·ÍÓÒÚ¸ ‰‡ÌÌÓÈ ÒıÂÏ˚.140
  • 4. ìÔ‡‚ÎÂÌË ‰ÓÒÚÛÔÓÏ ‚ ÒÎÓÊÌ˚ı ËÌÙÓχˆËÓÌÌ˚ı ÒËÒÚÂχı é‰ÌËÏ ËÁ ̉ÓÒÚ‡ÚÍÓ‚ DAC-ÒËÒÚÂÏ (ÔÓ Ò‡‚ÌÂÌ˲ Ò MAC)fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚Ë Ò‰ÒÚ‚ ÒÎÂÊÂÌËfl Á‡ ÔÂ‰‡˜ÂÈ ËÌÙÓχˆËË.ë‰ÒÚ‚‡ ÔÓËÁ‚ÓθÌÓ„Ó ÛÔ‡‚ÎÂÌËfl ‰ÓÒÚÛÔÓÏ Ì ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÔÓϯ‡Ú¸‡‚ÚÓËÁÓ‚‡ÌÌÓÏÛ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂβ Á‡ÍÓÌÌ˚Ï Ó·‡ÁÓÏ ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÚ¸ ÒÂÍ-ÂÚÌÛ˛ ËÌÙÓχˆË˛ Ë Á‡ÚÂÏ Ò‰Â·ڸ  ‰ÓÒÚÛÔÌÓÈ ‰Îfl ‰Û„Ëı, ÌÂ-‡‚ÚÓËÁÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ı ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎÂÈ. ç‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÍË ÔËÏÂÌÂÌËfl Í·ÒÒ˘ÂÒÍËı ÏÓ‰ÂÎÂÈ ‡Á„‡Ì˘ÂÌËfl ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ ‚ ËÌÙÓχˆËÓÌÌ˚ı ÒËÒÚÂχı àÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË Í·ÒÒ˘ÂÒÍËı Ò‰ÒÚ‚ ‡Á„‡Ì˘ÂÌËfl ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡,‡ÎËÁÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ı ‚ ‡Ï͇ı éë Ë ëìÅÑ, Ó͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ ÌÂ-‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚Ï ‰Îfl ˝ÙÙÂÍÚË‚ÌÓ„Ó Ë Ì‡‰ÂÊÌÓ„Ó ÙÛÌ͈ËÓÌËÓ‚‡ÌËflËÌÙÓχˆËÓÌÌ˚ı ÒËÒÚÂÏ. è˂‰ÂÏ ÚÓθÍÓ ‰‚‡ Ù‡ÍÚÓ‡, ÍÓÚÓ˚ÂÓ·˙flÒÌfl˛Ú Ô˘ËÌ˚ Û͇Á‡ÌÌ˚ı fl‚ÎÂÌËÈ. ÇÓ-ÔÂ‚˚ı, ËÌÙÓχˆËÓÌÌ˚ ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚, Ò ÚÓ˜ÍË ÁÂÌËfl ÓÔÂ‡ˆË-ÓÌÌÓÈ ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚, fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl Ó‰ÌÓÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂθÒÍËÏË, Ú.Â. ‚Ò ÔÓˆÂÒÒ˚‡·ÓÚ‡˛Ú ÓÚ Îˈ‡ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó, Í‡Í Ô‡‚ËÎÓ, ÌÂÔË‚Ë΄ËÓ‚‡ÌÌÓ„Ó, ÔÓθ-ÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎfl, ÍÓÚÓ˚È ÌË ‚ ÍÓÂÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Ì ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ fl‚ÎflÚ¸Òfl ‚·‰ÂθˆÂÏËÌÙÓχˆËÓÌÌÓ„Ó ı‡ÌËÎˢ‡. ùÚËÏ ‰ÓÒÚË„‡ÂÚÒfl ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚È ÛÓ-‚Â̸ ·ÂÁÓÔ‡ÒÌÓÒÚË ÒÓ ÒÚÓÓÌ˚ ÓÔÂ‡ˆËÓÌÌÓÈ ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚, ̇ÔËÏÂ „‡-‡ÌÚËÓ‚‡ÌÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË ÏÂÒÚ‡ ̇ ‰ËÒ͇ı, Á‡„ÛÁ͇ ÔÓˆÂÒÒÓ‡.ï‡ÌËÎˢ ËÌÙÓχˆËË Á‡˜‡ÒÚÛ˛ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl „ÂÚÂÓ„ÂÌÌ˚Ï — ÍÓÏ·Ë-̇ˆËÂÈ Ù‡ÈÎÓ‚Ó„Ó ı‡ÌËÎˢ‡ ‰Îfl ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌÚÓ‚ Ë ·‡Á˚ ‰‡ÌÌ˚ı ‰Îflı‡ÌÂÌËfl ÏÂÚ‡‰‡ÌÌ˚ı ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚, Ë ‡ÒÔÓ·„‡ÂÚÒfl ̇ ‡ÁÌ˚ı ÒÂ‚Â-‡ı. Ç·‰ÂθˆÂÏ ı‡ÌËÎˢ‡ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÒÔˆˇθÌ˚È ÌÂÔË‚Ë΄Ë-Ó‚‡ÌÌ˚È ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂθ, ÍÓÚÓ˚È ËÏÂÂÚ Ô‡‚Ó Ì‡ ÏÓ‰ËÙË͇ˆË˛. ֢ ӉÌËÏ Ù‡ÍÚÓÓÏ, Á‡ÚÛ‰Ìfl˛˘ËÏ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË Í·ÒÒ˘Â-ÒÍËÏ ÒıÂÏ ÍÓÌÚÓÎfl ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡, fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ̇΢ˠ·Óθ¯Ó„Ó ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ-‚‡ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÓ‚ ‚ àë, ÚÂ·Û˛˘Ëı Ó„‡Ì˘ÂÌËfl ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡. ç‡ÔËÏÂ, ‰Îfl ‚‰ÂÌËfl ͇ڇÎÓ„‡ ÂÒÛÒÓ‚ Ú·ÛÂÚÒfl ÍÓÌÚÓÎËÓ-‚‡Ú¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl Í‡Í Ì‡‰ ÓÚ‰ÂθÌ˚ÏË ÒÚÛÍÚÛÌ˚ÏË ˜‡ÒÚflÏË Í‡Ú‡ÎÓ„‡,Ú‡Í Ë Ì‡‰ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸˛ ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ Í ÂÒÛÒ‡Ï, ÔËÔËÒ‡ÌÌ˚ı Í ‡ÁÌ˚Ï‚ÂÚÍ‡Ï Í‡Ú‡ÎÓ„‡. ä‡Í Ô‡‚ËÎÓ, ‡·ÓÚ‡ ̇‰ ͇ڇÎÓ„ÓÏ ‚‰ÂÚÒfl ‰‡Í- 141
  • 5. é·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÔÓÚ‡Î˚ êÓÒÒËË. Ç˚ÔÛÒÍ 1ÚÓÒÍÓÈ „ÛÔÔÓÈ, ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ Í‡Ê‰˚È ‰‡ÍÚÓ ӷ·‰‡ÂÚ ‡ÁÌÓÈ Í‚‡-ÎËÙË͇ˆËÂÈ, ÍÓÏÔÂÚÂ̈ËÂÈ Ë ÛÓ‚ÌÂÏ ÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÒÚË. é„‡ÌË-˜ÂÌË ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ÔÂÒΉÛÂÚ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ˆÂÎÂÈ: • ÍÓÌÙˉÂ̈ˇθÌÓÒÚ¸, ‰‡ÍÚÓ ÏÓÊÂÚ ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸ ÚÓθÍÓ ÒÓÒ‚ÓËÏË Û·Ë͇ÏË; • ˆÂÎÓÒÚÌÓÒÚ¸, ÒÚÛÍÚÛ‡ ͇ڇÎÓ„‡ ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ ËÁÏÂÌÂ̇ ÚÓθ-ÍÓ Ó˜Â̸ ÍÓÏÔÂÚÂÌÚÌ˚ÏË ‰‡ÍÚÓÓÏ. ÑÛ„ÓÈ ÔËÏÂ — „ËÒÚ‡ˆËfl ‡‚ÚÓ‡ ‚ ÒËÒÚÂÏÂ. éÔËÒ‡ÌË ÏÓ‰ÂÎË ÓÎÂ‚Ó„Ó ‡Á„‡Ì˘ÂÌËfl ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ 燘ÌÂÏ Ò ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ÚÂÏËÌÓ‚, ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÏ˚ı ‚ RBAC. ä ÌËÏÓÚÌÓÒflÚÒfl: ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎË (users), Ó·˙ÂÍÚ˚ (objects), ÓÎË, ÔË‚Ë΄ËË,Ô‡‚‡ Ë ÒÂÒÒËË. èÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎË Ë Ó·˙ÂÍÚ˚ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ÔÓÌËχ˛ÚÒfl ‚ Ó·˚˜ÌÓÏ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÂ, Ú.Â.Í‡Í ‡‚ÚÓËÁÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎË ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚ Ë Í‡Í ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚Ó ÙË-Á˘ÂÒÍËı Ë Îӄ˘ÂÒÍËı Ó·˙ÂÍÚÓ‚, ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ Í ÍÓÚÓ˚Ï „ÛÎËÛÂÚÒfl ÒÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ RBAC. èË‚Ë΄Ëfl — ˝ÚÓ ÏËÌËχθÌÓ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ ‡ÚÓχÌÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ-‚Ë ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎfl, ÍÓÚÓÓ Ú·ÛÂÚ ÚÓ„Ó ËÎË ËÌÓ„Ó ‡Á„‡Ì˘ÂÌËfl‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ Í ˝ÚÓÏÛ ‰ÂÈÒڂ˲. Ç ÔË̈ËÔ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ Ó·˙‰ËÌÂÌË ÌÂ-ÒÍÓθÍËı Ú‡ÍËı ‡ÚÓχÌ˚ı ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ ‚ Ó‰ÌÛ ÔË‚Ë΄˲, ÌÓ ÚÓθÍÓÔË ÛÒÎÓ‚ËË, ˜ÚÓ ‚Ó ‚ÒÂı ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌ˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËflı ·Û‰ÂÚ Ú·ӂ‡Ú¸ÒflËÏÂÌÌÓ Ú‡Í‡fl ÍÓÏ·Ë̇ˆËfl ÔÓÒÚÂȯËı ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ. é·˙ÂÍÚ˚ ӷ·‰‡-˛Ú ‡ÚË·ÛÚ‡ÏË, ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÙË„ÛËÓ‚‡Ú¸ ‚ Ô‡‚Ë·ı, ÒÓÒÚ‡‚Îfl-˛˘Ëı ÚÛ ËÎË ËÌÛ˛ Óθ. êÓθ — ˝ÚÓ Ì‡·Ó Ô‡‚ËÎ (Ô‡‚), ÓÔ‰ÂÎfl˛˘Ëı, ͇ÍËÏË ÔË‚Ë-΄ËflÏË Ë Ì‡‰ ͇ÍËÏË Ó·˙ÂÍÚ‡ÏË ·Û‰ÂÚ Ó·Î‡‰‡Ú¸ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂθ, ÍÓÚÓ-ÓÏÛ ÔËÒ‚‡Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl ‰‡Ì̇fl Óθ. è‡‚Ë·, ÒÓÒÚ‡‚Îfl˛˘Ë Óθ, ÏÓ-„ÛÚ ·˚Ú¸ ‡Á¯‡˛˘ËÏË (‡Á¯‡Ú¸ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌË ͇ÍÓ„Ó-ÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl̇‰ ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓÈ „ÛÔÔÓÈ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÓ‚) ËÎË Á‡Ô¢‡˛˘ËÏË (Á‡ÔÂ-˘‡Ú¸ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌË ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ëı ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ).142
  • 6. ìÔ‡‚ÎÂÌË ‰ÓÒÚÛÔÓÏ ‚ ÒÎÓÊÌ˚ı ËÌÙÓχˆËÓÌÌ˚ı ÒËÒÚÂχı è‡‚‡ (Ô‡‚Ë·) — ÒÓÒÚ‡‚̇fl ˜‡ÒÚ¸ ÓÎË, ÓÔ‰ÂÎflÂÚ ÔË‚ËÎÂ-„˲, ÔÓ‰ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚Ó Ó·˙ÂÍÚÓ‚, ӷ·‰‡˛˘Ëı ‰‡ÌÌÓÈ ÔË‚Ë΄ËÂÈ, Ë‡Á¯ÂÌË ËÎË Á‡ÔÂÚ Ì‡ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌË ‰‡ÌÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. ëÂÒÒËfl — ÔÓ‰ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚Ó ‡ÍÚË‚ËÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ı ‚ Ú˜ÂÌË ÌÂÍÓÚÓÓ-„Ó ËÌÚÂ‚‡Î‡ ‚ÂÏÂÌË ÓÎÂÈ ‰‡ÌÌÓ„Ó ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎfl. ìÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ÎÂÌËÂÒÂÒÒËË RBAC ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ ÚÓθÍÓ ÔÓÒΠ„ËÒÚ‡ˆËË ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎfl ‚ÒËÒÚÂÏÂ. ÄÍÚË‚‡ˆËfl ͇ÍËı-ÎË·Ó ÓÎÂÈ ‚Ì ÒÂÒÒËË Ì‚ÓÁÏÓÊ̇. éÍÓÌ-˜‡ÌË ÒÂÒÒËË ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰ËÚ¸Òfl fl‚Ì˚Ï Ó·‡ÁÓÏ Ò‡ÏËÏ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡-ÚÂÎÂÏ ËÎË ÒËÒÚÂÏÓÈ RBAC ÔÓ ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËË ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓ„Ó ËÌÚÂ‚‡Î‡‚ÂÏÂÌË, ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚ËË ‡ÍÚË‚ÌÓÒÚË Ë Ú.‰. é‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ‚˚ÔÓÎ-ÌflÚ¸Òfl ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÒÂÒÒËÈ ‰Îfl Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó Ë ÚÓ„Ó Ê ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎfl. ëËÒÚÂχ RBAC ÙÛÌ͈ËÓÌËÛÂÚ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ. ê‡Á‡·ÓÚ˜ËÍÓÏ ÔËÎÓÊÂÌËÈ, ‚˚ÔÓÎÌfl˛˘Ëı ‡Á΢Ì˚ ÓÔÂ‡-ˆËË Ì‡‰ Ó·˙ÂÍÚ‡ÏË ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚, ÒÓ‚ÏÂÒÚÌÓ Ò ‡‰ÏËÌËÒÚ‡ÚÓÓÏ RBACË ÍÓÌÒÚÛÍÚÓ‡ÏË ÓÎÂÈ RBAC ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÒÔËÒÓÍ ÔË‚Ë΄ËÈ. äÓÌÒÚÛÍÚÓ‡ÏË ÓÎÂÈ ‡Á‡·‡Ú˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ·Ë·ÎËÓÚÂ͇ ÓÎÂÈ ‰‡Ì-ÌÓÈ ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚. ÑËÒÔÂÚ˜Â‡ÏË Ô‡‚ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎÂÈ Í‡Ê‰ÓÏÛ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂβ ÒËÒ-ÚÂÏ˚ ÒÚ‡Ú˘ÂÒÍËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ ÔËÒ‚‡Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl ̇·Ó ÓÎÂÈ. ë‡ÁÛ ÔÓÒΠ‡‚ÚÓËÁ‡ˆËË ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎfl ‚ ÒËÒÚÂÏ ‰Îfl ÌÂ„Ó ÒÓÁ‰‡-ÂÚÒfl ÒÂÒÒËfl ‡·ÓÚ˚ Ò RBAC. çÓ‚˚ ÒÂÒÒËË ÒÓÁ‰‡˛ÚÒfl fl‚Ì˚Ï Ó·‡ÁÓÏÔÓ ÍÓχ̉ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎfl ËÎË ÌÂfl‚Ì˚Ï Ó·‡ÁÓÏ ÔÓ ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËË ÔÂ-‰˚‰Û˘ÂÈ ÒÂÒÒËË, ÂÒÎË ‡·ÓÚ‡ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎfl Ò ÒËÒÚÂÏÓÈ ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇÂÚÒfl. èË ÔÓÔ˚ÚÍ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎfl ‚˚ÔÓÎÌËÚ¸ ͇ÍÓÂ-ÎË·Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ̇‰ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÓÏ, ÍÓÌÚÓÎËÛÂÏ˚Ï RBAC, ÔÓ‰ÒËÒÚÂχ RBAC ‚˚ÔÓÎ-ÌflÂÚ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘Ë ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl: • ÔÓ‚ÂflÂÚ, fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÎË ‰‡ÌÌÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‰ÓÔÛÒÚËÏ˚Ï ‰Îfl ‰‡Ì-ÌÓ„Ó ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎfl ‚ ‡Ï͇ı ÚÂÍÛ˘ÂÈ ÒÂÒÒËË RBAC Ò Û˜ÂÚÓÏ ‡ÚË·Û-ÚÓ‚ Ó·˙ÂÍÚ‡ ̇ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl Ó·‡˘ÂÌËfl; • ÂÒÎË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚ıÓ‰ËÚ ‚ Ó‰ÌÛ ËÁ ÓÎÂÈ, ÔËÒ‚ÓÂÌÌ˚ı ‰‡ÌÌÓ-ÏÛ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂβ, — ÓÌÓ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚÒfl; • ‚ ÔÓÚË‚ÌÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂθ ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÚ ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËÂ Ó ÌÂ-‰ÓÔÛÒÚËÏÓÒÚË ‰‡ÌÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ̇‰ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÓÏ. 143
  • 7. é·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÔÓÚ‡Î˚ êÓÒÒËË. Ç˚ÔÛÒÍ 1 îÛÌ͈ËÓÌËÓ‚‡ÌË ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚ RBAC ËÎβÒÚËÛÂÚ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘‡flÒıÂχ. êËÒ. 1. ëıÂχ ÙÛÌ͈ËÓÌËÓ‚‡ÌËfl ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚ RBAC ã„ÍÓ ‚ˉÂÚ¸, ˜ÚÓ ‚ ‡Ï͇ı ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚ ÓÎÂÈ ÏÓÊÌÓ ‚ÓÒÔÓËÁ‚ÂÒÚËÍ‡Í Ï‡Ì‰‡ÚÌÛ˛, Ú‡Í Ë ‰ËÒÍÂÚÌÛ˛ ÔÓÎËÚËÍÛ ‡Á„‡Ì˘ÂÌËfl ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡Í ÂÒÛÒ‡Ï. ëڇ̉‡Ú [4—6], „·ÏÂÌÚËÛ˛˘ËÈ ÚÂÏËÌÓÎӄ˲, ÔË̈ËÔ˚Ë ÙÛÌ͈ËÓ̇θÌÓÒÚ¸ Ó΂ÓÈ ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚ ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡, ‡Á‡·ÓÚ‡Ì ç‡ˆËÓ-̇θÌ˚Ï ËÌÒÚËÚÛÚÓÏ Òڇ̉‡ÚÓ‚ Ë ÚÂıÌÓÎÓ„ËÈ ëòÄ Ë Ì‡ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ̇ÒÚ‡‰ËË ‡ÒÒÏÓÚÂÌËfl. íÂÏ Ì ÏÂÌ ÓÌ ÛÊ ¯ËÓÍÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl‡Á‡·ÓÚ˜Ë͇ÏË ËÌÙÓχˆËÓÌÌ˚ı ÒËÒÚÂÏ.144
  • 8. ìÔ‡‚ÎÂÌË ‰ÓÒÚÛÔÓÏ ‚ ÒÎÓÊÌ˚ı ËÌÙÓχˆËÓÌÌ˚ı ÒËÒÚÂχı ê‡Á‰ÂÎÂÌË ÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÒÚË ‚ ÒËÒÚÂÏ RBAC ÖÒÚÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚Ï Ó·‡ÁÓÏ ÒËÒÚÂχ ÓÎÂ‚Ó„Ó ‡Á„‡Ì˘ÂÌËfl ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ÔÓÁ‚ÓÎflÂÚ ‡ÒÔ‰ÂÎflÚ¸ ÔÓ·ÎÂÏ˚ ‡Á‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÒÚË ÏÂÊ-‰Û ‡‰ÏËÌËÒÚ‡ÚÓ‡ÏË Ë ÔË‚Ë΄ËÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ÏË ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎflÏË ÒËÒ-ÚÂÏ˚. ç‡ÔËÏÂ, ‚ Ô‡‚Ë·ı ÔËÒ‚ÓÂÌËfl ÓÎÂÈ ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ Û͇Á‡ÌÓ,˜ÚÓ ‚ ÒËÒÚÂÏ ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌ ÚÓθÍÓ Ó‰ËÌ ‡‰ÏËÌËÒÚ‡ÚÓ‚ÂıÌÂ„Ó ÛÓ‚Ìfl — ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÔÓÔ˚Ú͇ ÔËÒ‚ÓÂÌËfl ‰‡ÌÌÓÈ ÓÎË‚ÚÓÓÏÛ ÒÛ·˙ÂÍÚÛ Á‡‚Â¯ËÚÒfl ÌÂÛ‰‡˜ÂÈ. ÑÛ„ÓÈ ÔËÏÂ — ÏÓÊÂÚ·˚Ú¸ ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÓ ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Ó ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎÂÈ, Ë„‡˛˘Ëı ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌ-ÌÛ˛ Óθ. чÌÌ˚ ӄ‡Ì˘ÂÌËfl ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰flÚÒfl ÒÚ‡Ú˘ÂÒÍËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ,Ú.Â. ‚ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ ÔËÒ‚ÓÂÌËfl ÓÎË ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂβ, ‰Ó ÚÓ„Ó, Í‡Í ÓÌ ÏÓ-ÊÂÚ ‚ÓÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‰‡ÌÌ˚ÏË Ô‡‚‡ÏË. ë‡Ï˚Ï ‚‡ÊÌ˚Ï ÔËÏÂÓÏ ÒÚ‡Ú˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó ‡Á‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌ-ÌÓÒÚË fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl Á‡ÔÂÚ Ì‡ ÒÓ‚Ï¢ÂÌË ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚ı ÓÎÂÈ, ̇ÔË-ÏÂ, Á‡ÔÂÚ ÒÓ‚Ï¢ÂÌËfl ÙÛÌ͈ËÈ ÍÓÌÒÚÛÍÚÓ‡ ÓÎÂÈ Ë ‰ËÒÔÂÚ˜Â‡(‡ÒÔ‰ÂÎËÚÂÎfl) ÓÎÂÈ. Ä̇Îӄ˘Ì˚È ÔËÏÂ ËÁ ÒËÒÚÂÏÌÓ„Ó ‡‰-ÏËÌËÒÚËÓ‚‡ÌËfl ÓÔÂ‡ˆËÓÌÌ˚ı ÒËÒÚÂÏ, ÓÒ̇˘ÂÌÌ˚ı ÒËÒÚÂÏÓÈRBAC, — Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ‡Á‰ÂÎÂÌË ÙÛÌ͈ËÈ ÒËÒÚÂÏÌÓ„Ó ‡‰ÏËÌËÒÚ-‡ÚÓ‡ Ë ‡‰ÏËÌËÒÚ‡ÚÓ‡ RBAC. ëËÒÚÂχ ÒÚ‡Ú˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó ‡Á‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÒÚË ‰ÓÔÓÎÌflÂÚÒfl·ÓΠ„Ë·ÍÓÈ ÒËÒÚÂÏÓÈ ‰Ë̇Ï˘ÂÒÍËı Ó„‡Ì˘ÂÌËÈ. ç‡ÔËÏÂ, ‚ ÒË-ÒÚÂÏ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ Ó„‡Ì˘ÂÌËfl ̇ ˜ËÒÎÓ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎÂÈ, ÍÓ-ÚÓ˚Ï ÔËÒ‚ÓÂÌ˚ Ú ËÎË ËÌ˚ ‡‰ÏËÌËÒÚ‡ÚË‚Ì˚ ÓÎË, ÌÓ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÛ-˘ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ Ó„‡Ì˘ÂÌË ̇ ˜ËÒÎÓ Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ ÙÛÌ͈ËÓÌËÛ˛˘Ëı‡‰ÏËÌËÒÚ‡ÚÓÓ‚. í‡Í, ‚ ÒËÒÚÂÏÛ ÏÓÊÂÚ ‚ÓÈÚË ÚÓθÍÓ Ó‰ËÌ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡-ÚÂθ Ò Ô‡‚‡ÏË „·‚ÌÓ„Ó ‡‰ÏËÌËÒÚ‡ÚÓ‡, ‰‡ÍÚÓ‡ ‡Á‰Â· ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌ-ÚÓ‚ Ë ‰‡ÊÂ Ò Ô‡‚‡ÏË Ì‡ ‰‡ÍÚËÓ‚‡ÌË ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌÓ„Ó ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌÚ‡.ëÚ‡Ú˘ÂÒÍËÂ Ë ‰Ë̇Ï˘ÂÒÍË Ô‡‚Ë· ‡Á‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÒÚËÏÓ„ÛÚ ÒÓÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ ‰Û„ Ò ‰Û„ÓÏ. äÓÌÙÎËÍÚ˚ ÓÎÂÈ ‚ ÒËÒÚÂÏ RBAC äÓÌÙÎËÍÚ˚ ÓÎÂÈ ‚ ÒËÒÚÂÏ RBAC ‚˚Á˚‚‡˛ÚÒfl ÔËÒ‚ÓÂÌËÂÏÓ‰ÌÓÏÛ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂβ ÓÎÂÈ, ÒÓ‰Âʇ˘Ëı Ô‡‚Ë· ÔÓÚË‚ÓÔÓÎÓÊ- 145
  • 9. é·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÔÓÚ‡Î˚ êÓÒÒËË. Ç˚ÔÛÒÍ 1ÌÓ„Ó Á͇̇ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÂθÌÓ Ó‰ÌËı Ë ÚÂı Ê ÔË‚Ë΄ËÈ. ÇÓÁÏÓÊÌ˚ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘Ë ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰˚ Í ‡Á¯ÂÌ˲ ËÎË Ì‰ÓÔÛ˘ÂÌ˲ ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ıÍÓÌÙÎËÍÚÓ‚. ç‰ÓÔÛ˘ÂÌË ÍÓÌÙÎËÍÚÓ‚ äÓÌÙÎËÍÚ˚ ÓÎÂÈ ‚ ÒËÒÚÂÏ RBAC ÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚flÚÒfl Ì‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌ˚ ‚ÔË̈ËÔÂ, ÂÒÎË ‚Ò ÓÎË ÒÚÓflÚÒfl ËÁ Ô‡‚ËÎ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó Á͇̇: ÚÓθÍÓ‡Á¯‡˛˘Ëı ËÎË ÚÓθÍÓ Á‡Ô¢‡˛˘Ëı. (ëËÒÚÂχ ÓÎÂÈ, ÔÓÒÚÓ-ÂÌ̇fl ÚÓθÍÓ ËÁ Á‡Ô¢‡˛˘Ëı Ô‡‚ËÎ ‚ÌÛÚÂÌÌ Ì ÔÓÚË‚Ó˜Ë-‚‡, ÌÓ ÙÛÌ͈ËÓÌËÓ‚‡ÌË ‚ ÌÂÈ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎfl ‚˚„Îfl‰ËÚ ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌ-ÌÓ ÌÂÂÒÚÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ.) Ç ·Ë·ÎËÓÚÂÍ ÓÎÂÈ, ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ÎÂÌÌÓÈ ÚÓθÍÓ ËÁ‡Á¯‡˛˘Ëı Ô‡‚ËÎ, ÔËÒ‚ÓÂÌË ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂβ ¢ ӉÌÓÈ ÓÎËÔË‚Ó‰ËÚ ÚÓθÍÓ Í ‡Ò¯ËÂÌ˲ Â„Ó Ô‡‚ ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ Ë Ì ̇Í·‰˚‚‡-ÂÚ Ó„‡Ì˘ÂÌËÈ Ì‡ ÛÊ Ëϲ˘ËÂÒfl. ê‡Á¯ÂÌË ÍÓÌÙÎËÍÚÓ‚ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ ÒÚ‡Ú˘ÂÒÍËÏË Ë ‰Ë̇Ï˘Â-ÒÍËÏË ÒÔÓÒÓ·‡ÏË. èÂ˜ËÒÎËÏ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌ˚ ÔÛÚË Ëı ‡Á¯ÂÌËfl: ÒÚ‡Ú˘ÂÒÍË • ‡Á‰ÂÎÂÌË ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎfl ̇ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÒÛ·˙ÂÍÚÓ‚ (Ò ÌÂÁ‡‚Ë-ÒËÏ˚ÏË ÎÓ„Ë̇ÏË), Ò ·ÂÒÍÓÌÙÎËÍÚÌ˚ÏË Ì‡·Ó‡ÏË ÓÎÂÈ; • ‚‚‰ÂÌË ÒÚ‡Ú˘ÂÒÍÓÈ (̇ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ ÔËÒ‚ÓÂÌËfl ÓÎË) ÔÓˆÂ-‰Û˚ ÓÚÏÂÌ˚ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ËÁ ÍÓÌÙÎËÍÚÛ˛˘Ëı Ô‡‚ËÎ; ‰Ë̇Ï˘ÂÒÍË • ‡ÍÚË‚‡ˆËfl ‚ ‡Ï͇ı Ó‰ÌÓÈ ÒÂÒÒËË ÚÓθÍÓ Ì ÔÓÚË‚Ó˜˂Ó-„Ó ÔÓ‰ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚‡ ÔËÒ‚ÓÂÌÌ˚ı ‰‡ÌÌÓÏÛ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂβ ÓÎÂÈ; • ÔÂÂÍβ˜ÂÌË ÏÂÊ‰Û ÒÂÒÒËflÏË — ÔË ‡ÍÚË‚‡ˆËË ÓÎË, ÒÓ-‰Âʇ˘ÂÈ ÔÓÚË‚Ó˜ËÂ Ò Ó‰ÌÓÈ ËÁ ÛÊ ‡ÍÚË‚ËÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ı, ÚÂÍÛ˘‡flÒÂÒÒËfl Á‡‚Â¯‡ÂÚÒfl, ËÁ Ì ËÒÍβ˜‡ÂÚÒfl Óθ Ò ÔÓÚË‚Ó˜ËÂÏ,‚Íβ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ÌÓ‚‡fl Óθ, Ë ‰Îfl ÔÓÎۘ˂¯Â„ÓÒfl ̇·Ó‡ ÓÎÂÈ ÒÓÁ‰‡-ÂÚÒfl ÌÓ‚‡fl ‚ÂÒËfl RBAC. ìÓ‚ÌË ÒËÒÚÂÏ Ò Ó΂˚Ï ‡Á„‡Ì˘ÂÌËÂÏ ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ ç‡ ‰‡ÌÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú 4 ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ÛÓ‚Ìfl ÒËÒÚÂÏRBAC [4].146
  • 10. ìÔ‡‚ÎÂÌË ‰ÓÒÚÛÔÓÏ ‚ ÒÎÓÊÌ˚ı ËÌÙÓχˆËÓÌÌ˚ı ÒËÒÚÂχı 1. ŇÁÓ‚˚È ÛÓ‚Â̸ (Core RBAC). Ç ÒËÒÚÂχı ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÛÓ‚Ìfl: • ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎË ÔÓÎÛ˜‡˛Ú Ô‡‚‡ ˜ÂÂÁ ÔËÒ‚ÓÂÌÌ˚ ËÏ ÓÎË; • ÔÓ‰‰ÂÊË‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌË ÏÌÓ„ÓÂ-ÍÓ-ÏÌÓ„ËÏ ÏÂÊ‰Û ÔÓθ-ÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎflÏË Ë ÓÎflÏË; • ÔÓ‰‰ÂÊË‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌË ÏÌÓ„ÓÂ-ÍÓ-ÏÌÓ„ËÏ ÏÂÊ‰Û Ô‡-‚‡ÏË Ë ÓÎflÏË; • ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚÒfl ‡ÍÚË‚‡ˆËfl ÓÎÂÈ Ì‡ ÒÂÒÒ˲. 2. àÂ‡ı˘ÂÒÍËÈ RBAC. чÌÌ˚È ‚‡ˇÌÚ ÒÓ‰ÂÊËÚ ·‡ÁÓ‚˚ÈÛÓ‚Â̸ RBAC ÔÎ˛Ò ÔÓ‰‰ÂÊÍÛ ËÂ‡ı˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚ ÓÎÂÈ. 3. RBAC Ò ÔÓ‰‰ÂÊÍÓÈ ÒÚ‡Ú˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó ‡Á‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ÍÓÌÙÎËÍÚÓ‚.ëÓÒÚÓËÚ ËÁ ·‡ÁÓ‚Ó„Ó ÛÓ‚Ìfl Ë ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚ ‡Á¯ÂÌËfl ÍÓÌÙÎËÍÚÓ‚ ÏÂ-Ê‰Û ÓÎflÏË. 4. RBAC Ò ÔÓ‰‰ÂÊÍÓÈ ‰Ë̇Ï˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó ‡Á‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ÍÓÌÙÎËÍÚÓ‚:̇˷ÓΠÔÓÎ̇fl ÒËÒÚÂχ, ÒÓÒÚÓfl˘‡fl ËÁ RBAC ·‡ÁÓ‚Ó„Ó ÛÓ‚Ìfl, ÒË-ÒÚÂÏ˚ ÔÓ‰‰ÂÊÍË ËÂ‡ı˘ÂÒÍËı ÓÎÂÈ Ë ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚ ‰Ë̇Ï˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó‡Á¯ÂÌËfl ÍÓÌÙÎËÍÚÓ‚ ÏÂÊ‰Û ÓÎflÏË. èËÏÂ˚ ‡ÎËÁ‡ˆËË ÒËÒÚÂÏ Ò Ó΂˚Ï ‡Á„‡Ì˘ÂÌËÂÏ ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ ÅÓθ¯ËÌÒÚ‚Ó ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ÔËÏÂÓ‚ ÓÚÌÓÒflÚÒfl Í ÓÔÂ‡ˆËÓÌÌ˚ÏÒËÒÚÂχÏ, ‚ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ RBAC ‡ÎËÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ·ÓΠ„Ë·ÍËÂÔ‡‚Ë· ‰ÓÒÚÛÔ‡ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÚÂÎÂÈ éë Í ÂÒÛÒ‡Ï ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚ (Ù‡ÈÎ‡Ï Ë‚Ì¯ÌËÏ ÛÒÚÓÈÒÚ‚‡Ï), ˜ÂÏ ‚ ‡Ï͇ı Òڇ̉‡ÚÌÓÈ ‰ËÒÍÂÚÌÓÈ ÏÓ-‰ÂÎË: • ˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚ˚ RBAC ·˚ÎË ‚‚‰ÂÌ˚ Ò éë Solaris ̇˜Ë̇fl Ò ‚Â-ÒËË 8.0; • ̇ ÓÒÌÓ‚Â RBAC ·˚Î ‡Á‡·ÓÚ‡Ì Á‡˘Ë˘ÂÌÌ˚È ÒÂ‚ÂÌ˚ȉËÒÚË·ÛÚË‚ OC Linux — ALT Linux «Castle». èËÏÂ˚ ÔËÏÂÌÂÌËfl ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚ ÓÎÂ‚Ó„Ó ‡Á„‡Ì˘ÂÌËfl ‰ÓÒ-ÚÛÔ‡ ‚ Ó·˘Â‰ÓÒÚÛÔÌ˚ı ËÌÙÓχˆËÓÌÌ˚ı ÒËÒÚÂχı ‚ÒÚ˜‡˛ÚÒfl „Ó-‡Á‰Ó ÂÊÂ. ŇÁÓ‚‡fl ÏÓ‰Âθ RBAC (Core RBAC) ·˚· ‡Á‡·Óڇ̇‚ ‡Ï͇ı „‡ÌÚÓ‚ êîîà 99-07-90068 Ë 02-07-90222 ̇ ÓÒÌÓ‚Â ·‡Á˚‰‡ÌÌ˚ı PostgreSQL. ç‡ Â ÓÒÌÓ‚Â ·˚ÎË ‡ÎËÁÓ‚‡Ì˚ ËÌÙÓχˆË-ÓÌÌ˚ ÒÂ‚Â˚ «ç‡Û˜ÌÓÈ ëÂÚË» (www.nature.ru, phys.web.ru, stu-dents.web.ru, www.astronet.ru) Ë î‰Â‡Î¸Ì˚ ӷ‡ÁÓ‚‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÔÓ-Ú‡Î˚ (www.humanities.edu.ru, www.en.edu.ru Ë www.ecsocman.edu.ru). 147
  • 11. é·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÔÓÚ‡Î˚ êÓÒÒËË. Ç˚ÔÛÒÍ 1 ãËÚÂ‡ÚÛ‡[1] RBAC NIST http://csrc.nist.gov/rbac/.[2] Sandhu R., Samarati P. Access Control: Principles and Practice,IEEE Communications. 1994. Vol. 32. N 9.[3] Osborn S., Sandhu R., Munawer Q. Configuring Role-Based AccessControl to Enforce Mandatory and Discretionary Access ControlPolicies // ACM Transactions on Information and Systems Security(TISSEC). 2000. Vol. 3. N 2.[4] Proposed voluntary consensus standard for role based access controlhttp://csrc.nist.gov/rbac/rbac-std-ncits.pdf.[5] A Proposed Standard for Role Based Access Control (PDF) /D. Ferraiolo, R. Sandhu, S. Gavrila et al. // ACM Transactions onInformation and System Security. 2001. Vol. 4. N 3. Draft of a consensusstandard for RBAC http://csrc.nist.gov/rbac/rbacSTD-ACM.pdf.[6] RBAC LIST (Laboratory for Information Security Technology, GeorgeMason University) http://www.list.gmu.edu/.