Peter Bradley - The Development of Commercial Local Area Resource and Emissions Modelling (Nov 2012)
Sustainable business and organisations:The Development of Commercial Local Area Resource and Emissions Modelling. Peter Bradley RESOLVE 27/11/12.
Emissions accounting and reporting gaps• The presentation addresses the vexed issue of operationalising environmental reporting and resource efficiency.• UK GHG, waste and water use targets: action required;• Some progress but many businesses are not accounting and reporting in the required manner, let alone referencing wider targets;• Detailed government and non government datasets on GHG emissions, wastes and water use do not exist to fill the gaps;
Methodological gaps• Gaps between ‘micro’ and ‘macro’ top down models.• Lack of an environmental input-output modelling perspective consistent with life cycle analysis, that can inform sustainable procurement of business.
Resource efficiency andenvironmental reporting Need for a ‘champion’ Need for environmental Development of networks credentials in business Avoiding diversion from Need for support in acting core business Elements of need: businessDifficulty in understanding Infrastructure supportimportance of acting Need to encourage changes in More quantitative data to help behaviour businesses benchmark The need for scale Elements of need: business
Resource efficiency andenvironmental reporting To aid sectors realisation of economic and environmental benefits To help ensure that national To provide understanding & targets are met reports of businesses impacts and opportunities Elements of need: Governmentidentify the importance of acting To provide and prioritise and changes in community support to businesses behaviour and To facilitate economies of scale To develop and prioritise infrastructure to aid business resource efficiency Elements of need: government
RESOLVE modelsOutput: direct SELMAand indirect Estimation of embodiedemissions GHG emissions attributableattributable to to final demand (excludinghouseholds exports) at the nationalconsumption and level.lifestyle choices Output: direct and indirect GHG emissions, wastes CLARE and water use LARA Estimation of estimated for Estimation of direct & indirect GHG businesses direct & indirect resource emissions, wastes and & emissions attributable water use resulting from to households at businesses activities a local level at a local level Output: direct and indirect household resource use and emissions
Definition of direct and indirect• Direct: those emissions and water use occurring on site• Indirect: broadly, those emissions and water use generated off site but within the supply chain of the business• Broadly in line with Publicly Available Specification 2050 (BSI 2008);
Specific objectives of CLARE GHG1. Direct for Individual waste businesses water GHG2. Direct for all businesses in an area3. Indirect for one business or all businesses in an area
CLARE Applications: Educates business on their impact and the expected changes to be achievedBreaking downof targets Provides businessidentifies, an with a startingobligation benchmark Estimates for individual business Enables national or Allows local sector specific targets authorities to put into to be broken down by action efficient ‘soft business, to a locality, regulation & progress and individual monitoring’ business targets to be set.
CLARE Applications: Allows efficient estimation in specific areas and by whom, of use for planning infrastructure and strategy Provides localAllows local authorities with angovernment to estimation of GHGgo further than emissions, wastesjust waste Estimation for and water use in adiversion business within an given area area Tool potentially Allows targets and enables businesses priorities to be set for of a local area to be specific areas confronted with their impacts as a group of leaders
CLARE PerspectivesProduction perspective: emissions and water use thatdirectly arise from direct activity in different sectors;Provision perspective: emissions and water use thatoccur upstream of a business in order to provide theinputs to a businesses production.
Framework and methods CLARE EIO CLARE-direct CLARE-indirect Estimates of GHG emissions, wastes and water use for business in a local area Copyright of University of Surrey and ONS
System diagram of CLARE– direct Business Structure Annual Respondents Data- UK emissions & Database base turnover (or GVA) by sector Number of employees Average annual turn-(size band) and SIC code of Emissions over (or GVA) per employee per £1M turnover (or GVA) business in a specific for SIC sector employee geographical for SIC coded sectors size band (£M) location Turnover of the business (o) Emissions of a SIC coded business (o) within a specific area Copyright of University of Surrey and ONS
System diagram of CLARE- indirect Total embodied indirect Total turnover Annual Respondents Business Structure emissions attributable to the for the sector or sub sector Database Database sector from environmental from the Annual Business input-output EnquiryNumber of employees (size Average £ turnover per band) and SIC code of a employee for a size band business in a specific business of a specific geographical sector location Total estimated £ of Embodied indirect emissions turnover for business (o), per £ of turnover which has a specific SIC sector and size band Embodied indirect Emissions of business (o) in a specific geographic location for a year Copyright of University of Surrey and ONS
Case study: carbon(e) and food waste for Hospitality, Southampton 2004
Scenario: A restaurant’s food waste 60 50 40 Indirect food wasteTonnes (tonnes) 30 20 Direct food waste 10 (tonnes) 0 Retaurant business with 25 employees
Elements of need that can be addressed ? Need for a ‘champion’ Need for environmental credentials in business x Development of networks Avoiding diversion from Need for support in acting core business Elements of need: business ? Difficulty in understanding Infrastructure support importance of acting Need to encourage changes in ? More quantitative data to help behaviour businesses benchmark The need for scale Elements of need: business
Elements of need that can be addressed To aid sectors realisation of economic and environmental benefits To help ensure that national To provide understanding & targets are met reports of businesses impacts and opportunities ? Elements of need: Government identify the importance of acting To provide and prioritise and changes in community behaviour and ? support to businesses To facilitate economies of scale To develop and prioritise infrastructure to aid business resource efficiency Elements of need: government
DiscussionTwo key contributions:1. A new model2. A new perspective.Bridging the gap: CLARE enables efficient estimationof very detailed direct and indirect emissions estimates,with coverage of all relevant businesses in an area.Bridging the gap: Estimates comparable acrossdifferent entities, using consistent data, methods andsystem boundaries and a transparent approach;
The new modelProvides detail and coverage and accounts forproduction as well as provision impactsWithout detail and coverage – cannot effectively engagerecognition and action of businesses in an areaWithout detail and coverage – cannot prioritise products,businesses, areas and inform local planning activitiesCLARE estimate – not a substitute for actualmeasurement and reporting
The new perspectiveProvides an understanding of the amount of upstream(indirect) emissions embodied in purchases (of inputs)by a business; the indirect carbon(e) added whensummed up.Identifies the amount of indirect emissions that abusiness can have influence over via sustainableprocurement.Production + provision perspective = total emissionsattributable to production.
The new perspectiveComplements the production and consumption andshared responsibility perspectives, but provides a moreholistic picture, consistent with LCA and specific tosustainable procurement.Care must however be taken when applying acrossdifferent sectors - risk of double counting if estimatesfrom different sectors are combined. See Bradley et al(2012a):
Next stepsExtend the model to estimate upstream emissionsemitted within the reference jurisdiction;Apply the water model in conjunction with local wateravailability data to inform potential local resource‘bottlenecks’Use CLARE to provide the basis for new systems ascalled for by Jones (2009) and Lamberton (2005);Apply the provision perspective to other sectors
Acknowledgments"This work contains statistical data from ONS which isCrown copyright and reproduced with the permission ofthe controller of HMSO and Queens Printer for Scotland.The use of the ONS statistical data in this work does notimply the endorsement of the ONS in relation to theinterpretation or analysis of the statistical data. This workuses research datasets which may not exactly reproduceNational Statistics aggregates.”I wish to thank the Engineering and Physical SciencesResearch Council and the Economic and SocialResearch Council for their funding of my work.
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Journal papersBradley P, T Jackson, A Druckman (2012a). “Commercial local area resource and emissions modelling – navigating towards new perspectives and applications”. Journal of Cleaner Production (accepted and in Press).Bradley P., M. Leach and J. Torriti (2012b). “A review of the costs and benefits of demand response for electricity in the UK”. Energy Policy (accepted and in Press). Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.09.039Bradley P., C. Thomas, A. Druckman and T. Jackson. (2009) “Accounting for Waste: comparative analysis within the UK.” Institution of Civil Engineers, Journal of Waste and Resource Management. Vol. 162, issue 1 pp. 5-13.Druckman A, P. Bradley, E. Papathanasopoulou, T. Jackson (2008). “Measuring progress towards carbon reduction in the UK”. Ecological Economics vol. 66 issue 4, pp. 594-604.
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