Social Protection to reduce HIV Risks and Mitigate Impacts
Social Protection to reduce HIV Risks and Mitigate Impacts Theme 2: AIDS, Community Resilience, and Social protection RENEWAL 2009 Regional Workshop Muldersdrift, South Africa, 4-5 April 2009
Main Projects Economic Strengthening for Families affected by HIV and AIDS (with JLICA) Effects of Cash Transfers and Community Mobilization on Vulnerability to HIV among young South African women (with RHRU)
What is JLICA?An independent, time-limited alliance of researchers, policymakers, practitioners, community leaders, activists, and people living with HIV.Dedicatedto improving the wellbeing of children, families and communities affected by HIV and AIDS.Justconcluded two year programme of research and analysis conducted by four thematic Learning Groups.Mobilised best available evidence to identify priority recommendations for policy and practice.Generated 50+ systematic reviews and other research products: available at http://www.jlica.org.
JLICA/RENEWAL Report “What is the Potential of Cash Transfers to Strengthen Families affected by HIV and AIDS? A review of the evidence on impacts and key policy debates” (Adato and Bassett 2008) “Offers the most comprehensive treatment of the topic in the literature and promises to advance relevant policy debates in a substantive manner” (JLICA Annual Report) Developed conceptual framework for understanding the role of different approaches to social protection in the context of HIV/AIDS
JLICA/RENEWAL Report, cont. Reviewed over 300 documents Included 20 cash transfer programs, 10 conditional in Latin America and Asia; 10 unconditional in Southern and East Africa (all those with quantitative impact assessments) Reviewed impacts on poverty, education, health and nutrition Reviewed policy issues on cash transfers in the context of HIV and AIDS, including: • Targeting • Conditionality • Complementary activities and services including: health and nutrition; ECD; livelihoods support; public works; microcredit; Education, Information and Communications; social welfare services, etc.
SOCIAL PROTECTION: OBJECTIVES AND INTERVENTIONS Lower capacities-----------------------------------------Higher capacities Faster to scale----------------------------------------------Slower to scale Lower inputs-----------------------------------------------Higher inputs Protective Preventative Promotional TransformationalSecure basic Reduce Enable people to Build, diversify, and Transformconsumption fluctuations in save, invest, and enhance use of institutions consumption accumulate assets and avert and through • Reduce access asset constraints relationships reduction reduction in risk • Economic • Directly provide or and income loan assets • Political variation • Build linkages with • Social institutions • Public works •Unconditional • Insurance (e.g. health, cash transfers asset) Conditional cash • Livelihoods support • Food Transfers • Savings and credit transfers Conditional food transfers • Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition • Child and adult education/skills • Early childhood development(Source: Adatoand Bassett 2008)
Selected Findings Critical to rapidly scale-up social protection for families affected by AIDS Cash transfers are effective at protecting human capital and should be scaled up in heavily AIDS-affected countries Heterogeneity of AIDS-affected families requires mix of social protection approaches Cash transfers are easier to scale up quickly, and require less recipient capacity, than other interventions
Selected Findings Cash transfers should be implemented in conjunction with non-mandatory complementary services appropriately tailored Strengthen service supply and quality, and pilot conditionality Gender dimensions need attention in program design Targeting of families and children should focus on poverty, with an HIV and AIDS lens, not AIDS-affected or orphans exclusively
Influence on JLICA PolicyRecommendations RENEWAL/JLICA report provides basis of JLICA final report’s key recommendations on social protection and income transfers: “Harness national social protection for vulnerable families as a critical lever to improve children’s outcomes in the context of HIV and AIDS” “Use income transfers as a ”leading edge” intervention to rapidly improve outcomes for extremely vulnerable children and families” (JLICA 2009: Home Truths: Facing the Facts on Children, AIDS, and Poverty)
Policy Outreach: Presentations of RENEWAL/JLICA project results OVC Working Group/USAID/PEPFAR meeting, Washington, DC, 2009 UNICEF, GTZ, JLICA, RIATT/CABA-WCAR-ILO Symposium Satellite session, ICASA, Dakar 2008 WFP Special Session on Nutrition and Food Security in HIV context, ICASA, Dakar 2008 Session on Children and AIDS, XVII IAC, Mexico City, 2008 WFP/FAO/RENEWAL Satellite session on Food Security, Livelihoods and HIV, at the XVII IAC, Mexico City, 2008 International Children & HIV/AIDS Symposium, Mexico City
Presentation of results, cont.: African Union Regional Experts Meetings on Social Protection, Kampala, Cairo, Dakar. National Institute of Mental Health meeting on Children Rendered Vulnerable by HIV/AIDS, NIMH, Rockville, MD. International Symposium: Meeting Children’s Needs in a World with HIV/AIDS, Harvard University, Boston USAID Seminar, Washington, DC, 2007 Keynote presentation at the DFID/JLICA/IATT meeting on Cash Transfer Programmes and Children Affected by HIV and AIDS, London, 2007 Several publications underway