Jo Vearey (FMSP-Wits & HEARD-UKZN), Scott Drimie (RENEWAL), Lorena Nunez (FMSP), Khangelani Moyo (FMSP) and Mthokozisi Hlengwa (HEARD-UKZN) RENEWAL Regional Workshop: November 9-11, 2010, Cape Town ember 9-11, 2010, Cape Town
Urbanisation, HIV and circular migration in South Africa: Urban informal settlements, health risks and HIV Interlinked livelihood systems Exploring the impact of HIV in urban, informal migrant households on linked, rural households: Johannesburg and rural kwaZulu-Natal Findings from research: 2008 household survey 2010 in-depth qualitative research (case-studies) Key messages for policy makers.
By 2030, 50% or more of the African population will be living in Urbanisation processes in South a city Africa • Urban population is stabilising at just over 60% (Bocquier) • Rural population has not decreased • Circular migration • Peripheral urban informal settlementsWorld Urbanization Prospects (2005 Revision), United Nations, Department ofEconomic and Social Affairs
Key Findings of 2008 surveyUrban migrants residing in peripheral informal settlements are part of an interlinked livelihood system that connects them with another place.This system involves various reciprocal relationships that change depending on the urban context and adapts to different shock and stressors.
An interlinked livelihood systemRemittances and networks of care connecturban migrants residing in peripheral informalsettlements with their (predominantly) ruralhome. CARE HIV ? GOODS FOOD $
In-depth exploration of the impact of HIV on interlinked livelihood systems that connect urban-rural households. Eight households in informal JHB and seven linked households in rural KZN. Five visits per household in JHB and one visit in KZN Multi-site research team: In-depth interviews, narrative interviews, food security assessments, household mapping, observation. A challenging methodology Identifying respondents/selection criteria, geography, HIV disclosure, hunger, unemployment, research ethics.
No longer appropriate to conceptualise rural – urban migration and urbanisation as a linear process There is a complex system of reciprocity between rural and urban areas The importance of an interlinked livelihood system between the city and another place (predominantly rural): These interlinked livelihood systems manifest in different ways in different cities; Rural-urban linkages; Remittances; The importance of ‘care as a commodity’. Sickness and HIV affect this livelihood system: Urban – rural linkages mitigate the ill health of urban migrants
Food security ComparisonJHB Food Livelihood KZN food Livelihoodparticipant security strategies Participant security strategies part time work & Old ageMaisy average child grant khwezi Average pension Child grant &Linda Good selling liquor Jabu Average piece jobs Taxi doorBonga Good husband income Zwe Poor operator part timeMano Good gardener Scavenging & Old ageNembo Poor selling liquor Khanya Very Poor pension laundry & Old ageNom Very Poor scavenging Rosaria Very Poor pensionMab Poor sell pillows Mpilo Very Poor Nothing cleaner Works forTAG Poor (municipality) Hari Good Cashbuild
Survival options in Sol Plaatjies1. Child support grant 2. Scavenging3. Fulltime employment 4. Informal (piece jobs)5. Part time formal work
Reflecting on Methods• Validating method (five visits in JHB and one visit in KZN)• Researchers in JHB & KZN experienced ethical dilemmas and the challenge of transcending the personal during fieldwork• Handling the fieldwork process and balancing participant expectations and need to obtain valid data proved onerous• Challenge of attaching meaning to disclosure in HIV sensitive community
Reflecting on Methods• Method used could be of great value in future research on the interlinked livelihood system
Policy Implications• In support of previous work, this study emphasises the need for urban and rural social and health systems to engage across the urban-rural continuum. Policy makers and programmers must engage in developing spatially-aware policies.• There is an urgent need to address the social security of urban and rural poor, including those residing in urban informal settlements.• Food insecurity is a challenge facing urban and rural poor households.• The experiences of people living with HIV in informal settlements must be incorporated into policy making and planning processes.• People living with HIV require support in “disclosing” their status to their partners.