Bilbao, March 8, 2012       How can we manage Europe’s    terrestrial greenhouse gas balance?                    Jean-Fran...
Outline1.   Context: climate negotiations and food security2.   International and European research programing3.   The lan...
Agriculture, Forestry and Land Use (AFOLU)account for one third of global greenhouse gas emissions     89 % of the global ...
Lifecycle analysis of products leading  to GHG emissions and removals              Cross-sectoral and cross-boundaries view
Climate negotiations• In 2007, the EU commited to an overall 20 %  reduction in GHG emissions in 2020 (compared  to 1990)•...
Livestock, a threat to climateLivestock emits: 1/3 of anthropogenic CH4 (enteric fermentation)                 2/3 of anth...
(J Delincé, 2011)
(from Tara Garnett, Food Climate Research Network, UK)
Role of food habits                  DUALINEPoor food habits could lead to lower GHG emissions for women (not for men)
Outline1.   Context: climate negotiations and food security2.   International and European research programing3.   The lan...
Global Research Alliance  Livestock Research Group  Croplands Research Group  Paddy Rice Research Group
Joint Programing in ResearchAgriculture and Climate Change          (FACCE JPI)                                 www.faccej...
FACCE-JPIScoping Mitigation                   National                   National                 inventories             ...
ICOS – Infrastructure for aCarbon Observation System
ANAee                Analysis of EcosystemsA large European infrastructure on (agro) ecosystems
AnimalChange (FP7)Global and regional livestock storylines and scenarios under climate    changeDetailed assessment of mit...
EC FP7 ANIMALCHANGE partners
Direct GHG emissions from livestock                    2.8                                                     Animal food...
Direct GHG emissions per unit food protein                             GHG per animal protein                            M...
Outline1.   Context: climate negotiations and food security2.   International and European research programing3.   The lan...
Towards a full accounting of GHG fluxesfrom agriculture, forestry and land use?• Inventories                  • Unknowns  ...
Land and oceans store carbon                           Large interannual                           variability in global  ...
An assessment of the continental carbon          balance of Europe                               1000 km          Upscalin...
Land based carbon sequestration     in Europe (2000-2004)                UNCERTAINTY                  (Schulze et al., Nat...
Land based greenhouse gas balance in    Europe including C sequestration                                           UNCERTA...
Summary of the continentalgreenhouse gas balance for EU 25• The land surface sink reaches -111 Million  tonnes of carbon p...
Outline1.   Context: climate negotiations and food security2.   International and European research programing3.   The lan...
Ecosystem flux measurements
Simultaneous measurementsof CO2 and H2O   exchanges
Components of a managed ecosystem             carbon budgetNEE: Net Ecosystem Exchange, balanceNBP: Net Biome Productivity...
The balance between gross photosynthesis (GPP),  plant (Ra) and soil organism (Rh) respiration       in contrasted Europea...
The balance between carbon and other greenhouse    gases in contrasted European ecosystems                        Sink    ...
Dissolved organic C leaching             (Kindler et al., Global Change Biol., 2011)
EU25 terrestrial greenhouse gas balance* including C sequestration          GHG balance of agriculture in EU25 including C...
The GHG balance of the agriculture sector in Europe                   GHG balance of agriculture in EU25 including C seque...
Outline1.   Context: climate negotiations and food security2.   International and European research programing3.   The lan...
The C balance of  a grassland   ecosystem                                                NEE                              ...
C sequestration in a temperate pasture                                  (tC ha-1 yr-1)        CH4                   Herbiv...
Carbon sequestration (NBP) at 10       European grassland sites                                 Carbon sink            -  ...
Disturbance induced changes in C cycling           (Klumpp, Falcimage & Soussana, 2007, AGEE; Klumpp, Soussana & Falcimagn...
Separating direct role of disturbance from plant traits: Response & Effect    C sequestration (gC m-2)                    ...
Disturbance increase: a cascade of effects.                                                                               ...
Climate x management interactions for                                       0.1                                       80  ...
Annual C balance of 28                           grassland sitesC source                                                  ...
Simple C cycle model (5 state variables, 3 soil parameters)                               Ecosystem respiration, Reco   GP...
Best fit for turnover of slow C                                 Turnover rate (Kslow) of slow                             ...
Simulated vs. measured            annual C sequestrationC balance is inferred from GPP, climate, management and soil texture
Carbon and GHG balance of grazingsystems (grassland and farm buildings)                                                   ...
Carbon balance of EU grazing systems                (1987-2007)                                                           ...
Greenhouse gas balance of EU grazing       systems (1987-2007)                                 IPCC Tier 1                ...
Outline1.   Context: climate negotiations and food security2.   International and European research programing3.   The lan...
Mitigation options in New Zealand(Ag-Research, NZ)
Marginal Abatement Cost Curves         (Moran et al., 2011, J. Agric. Economics)
A model of GHG and C sequestration        in livestock farms (FARMSIM)               Gaseous losses     Fixation     Atmos...
Summary: greenhouse gas balance per unit area    of grasslands and of livestock farms                 SINK                ...
Outline1.   Context: climate negotiations and food security2.   International and European research programing3.   The lan...
Did the 2003 European heatwave         lead to a CO2 concentration?Summer temperature anomaly   Vegetation anomaly in July...
Net Primary Productivity change in 2003            vs. 1998-2002       Summer                                    AnnualOn ...
Possible knock-on effects of extreme climatic events                                Heat                                 H...
Impacts of climate variability andextremes on the C cycle in grasslands        Interannual variability   Agricultural     ...
What are the impacts of summer                  heat and drought extremes?C, controlCX, Control and extreme(‘summer 2003’ ...
End of heat wave    Two months after heat wave                     Mediterranean                                          ...
Concluding comments (1/2)1.   Soil carbon needs to be accounted to achieve a consistent GHG     balance in the agriculture...
Concluding comments (2/2)7. Carbon sequestration should be sustained over several     decades to be effective.8. Therefore...
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Soussana jean francois

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presentación Keynote en el workshop REMEDIA 2012 sobre reducción de gases de efecto invernadero en el sector agroforestal

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  • FAO 18 % of global anthropogenic GHG emissions, but including all pre-chain emissions FAO report did not account for changes in soil C (ie C sequestration) apart from land use changes caused by deforestation GGELS 9-13 % of European GHG emissions, still with lifecycle analysis
  • Of all global CO2 emission less than half accumulates in the atmosphere where it contributes to global warming. The remainder is sequestered in oceans and terrestrial ecosystems such as forests and grasslands. Stimulating this free service of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems is considered one of the main, immediately available ways of mitigating climate change.
  • in the EU-Integrated Project CarboEurope, eesearchers from 17 European countries cooperating have compiled the first comprehensive greenhouse gas balance of Europe. In this study we made two independent estimates: one based on what the atmosphere sees and one based on what terrestrial ecosystems see. You can see here the distribution of the ecosystem based carbon sink in Europe (cold colors), which is obtained from atmospheric measurements. Please note the high uncertainty.
  • In this second map, we can see the balance between the carbon sink and the non CO2 emissions as methane, mainly from enteric fermentation and manures and as N2O mainly from agricultural soils and N fertilizers. The balance is expressed as carbon in CO2 equivalents (over a 100 yr time horizon). This new calculation of Europe’s greenhouse gas balance shows that emissions of methane and nitrous oxide tip the balance and eliminate Europe’s terrestrial sink of greenhouse-gases. The uncertainty is also very high with these atmosphere based calculations.
  • Now, we turn to the full land based GHG balance of EU 25 over the 2000-2004 time period, with its detailed breakdown estimated from ecosystem measurements. First, we can focus on land based carbon sequestration (mainly in forest biomass, short-term, in forest soils and grasslands. Croplands and peatlands which are exploited are sources of carbon. Second, there is a small C sequestration caused by LUC, which is compensated by carbon exported from Europe by food trade. Finally, large emissions as methane and as N2O mostly compensate C sequestration, leading to a small net GHG source;
  • Calculer l’intervalle de confiance de ces régressions. S’
  • We can calculate with such methods the full balance of a livestock system, combining grazing and cutting. Carbon accumulates
  • Carbon negative soils imply net N mineralization which will release some N2O. For 10g C/m/year, with a soil C:N ratio of 12 this means 0.833 gN mineralized, of which 0.01 will go to N2O, this translates into 0.00833 gN2O-N, or 3,9 gCO2-equivalents emitted as N2O. Hence, this adds about 1 g CO2-C equivalents, or 10 % more.
  • N2O considering liquid slurry only. 10 times less if solid. See fraction of liquid and solid… Additional N2O from organic soils not considered
  • Soussana jean francois

    1. 1. Bilbao, March 8, 2012 How can we manage Europe’s terrestrial greenhouse gas balance? Jean-François Soussana
    2. 2. Outline1. Context: climate negotiations and food security2. International and European research programing3. The land based carbon and GHG balance of Europe4. Comparing arable, pasture and forest systems5. GHG balance of grazing systems6. The GHG balance of farms7. Vulnerability to climate change
    3. 3. Agriculture, Forestry and Land Use (AFOLU)account for one third of global greenhouse gas emissions 89 % of the global technical mitigation potential in agriculture would be through soil carbon sequestration (IPCC, 2007)
    4. 4. Lifecycle analysis of products leading to GHG emissions and removals Cross-sectoral and cross-boundaries view
    5. 5. Climate negotiations• In 2007, the EU commited to an overall 20 % reduction in GHG emissions in 2020 (compared to 1990)• Agriculture is committed to a 10 % reduction with variable share of efforts across countries• Modest progress in the UN climate negotiations: International exchanges of views (SBSTA) on the role of agriculture have been decided in Durban
    6. 6. Livestock, a threat to climateLivestock emits: 1/3 of anthropogenic CH4 (enteric fermentation) 2/3 of anthropogenic N2O, the great majority from manure 9 % of anthropogenic CO2 (deforestation) (FAO, 2006)Global production of meat and milk are projected to more than double by 2050Food labels in some countries providing carbon ‘footprints’
    7. 7. (J Delincé, 2011)
    8. 8. (from Tara Garnett, Food Climate Research Network, UK)
    9. 9. Role of food habits DUALINEPoor food habits could lead to lower GHG emissions for women (not for men)
    10. 10. Outline1. Context: climate negotiations and food security2. International and European research programing3. The land based carbon and GHG balance of Europe4. Comparing arable, pasture and forest systems5. Vulnerability to climate change6. The GHG balance of farms
    11. 11. Global Research Alliance Livestock Research Group Croplands Research Group Paddy Rice Research Group
    12. 12. Joint Programing in ResearchAgriculture and Climate Change (FACCE JPI) www.faccejpi.com 12
    13. 13. FACCE-JPIScoping Mitigation National National inventories inventories MRV MRV Storylines, Storylines, ICOS, ICOS,Policy optionsPolicy options inventories inventories Conceptual Conceptual Framework Framework LCAs LCAs Technical Technical Consumer Consumer measures measures behaviours behaviours Farming Farming Systems, Systems, Land use Land use
    14. 14. ICOS – Infrastructure for aCarbon Observation System
    15. 15. ANAee Analysis of EcosystemsA large European infrastructure on (agro) ecosystems
    16. 16. AnimalChange (FP7)Global and regional livestock storylines and scenarios under climate changeDetailed assessment of mitigation and adaptation options for Europe, Brasil and three regions in AfricaTechnical potential, economical potential, barriers to implementationField, animal, farm and regional scale modelling
    17. 17. EC FP7 ANIMALCHANGE partners
    18. 18. Direct GHG emissions from livestock 2.8 Animal food and GHG emissions 2.6 2.4 Animal food Direct GHG emissions from livestock Direct GHG emissions per unit animal food protein 2.2Standardized data 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 Year
    19. 19. Direct GHG emissions per unit food protein GHG per animal protein Mean GHG per food protein GHG per plant protein
    20. 20. Outline1. Context: climate negotiations and food security2. International and European research programing3. The land based carbon and GHG balance of Europe4. Comparing arable, pasture and forest systems5. Vulnerability to climate change6. The GHG balance of farms
    21. 21. Towards a full accounting of GHG fluxesfrom agriculture, forestry and land use?• Inventories • Unknowns – CH4: enteric – How do emission fermentation; manure factors vary? management – Is there a role of – N2O: agricultural soils; climatic variability? manure management. – Are soils sources or – Forest carbon stock sinks of carbon under changes constant management? – Soil C stock change through land use change and => Improve scientific management understanding
    22. 22. Land and oceans store carbon Large interannual variability in global land C sink (Canadell et al.,2007, PNAS)
    23. 23. An assessment of the continental carbon balance of Europe 1000 km Upscaling 10 km Prediction ha Downscaling dmµm Verification CarboEurope IP Funded and coordinated by the European Commission DG XII Research
    24. 24. Land based carbon sequestration in Europe (2000-2004) UNCERTAINTY (Schulze et al., Nature Geosciences, 2009)
    25. 25. Land based greenhouse gas balance in Europe including C sequestration UNCERTAINTY* CH4 and N2O fluxes are expressed as carbon in CO2-equivalents with a greenhousewarming potential of 100 year horizon (Schulze et al., Nature Geosciences, 2009)
    26. 26. Summary of the continentalgreenhouse gas balance for EU 25• The land surface sink reaches -111 Million tonnes of carbon per year, which is 11% of the CO2 emitted by fossil fuels.• However, since the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide are relatively higher in the European Union the land surface emerges as a greenhouse gas source of 34 Million tonnes of carbon per year.• This effectively increases the emissions from fossil fuel burning by another 3%. (Schulze et al., Nature Geosciences, 2009)
    27. 27. Outline1. Context: climate negotiations and food security2. International and European research programing3. The land based carbon and GHG balance of Europe4. Comparing arable, pasture and forest systems5. Vulnerability to climate change6. The GHG balance of farms
    28. 28. Ecosystem flux measurements
    29. 29. Simultaneous measurementsof CO2 and H2O exchanges
    30. 30. Components of a managed ecosystem carbon budgetNEE: Net Ecosystem Exchange, balanceNBP: Net Biome Productivity, C Atmospheric C balance
    31. 31. The balance between gross photosynthesis (GPP), plant (Ra) and soil organism (Rh) respiration in contrasted European ecosystems Sink Source GPP Ra Rh Cropland Grassland Forest C balance: NEP -1500 -1000 -500 0 500 1000 1500 -2 -1 g C m yr (After Schulze et al., Nature Geosciences, 2009)
    32. 32. The balance between carbon and other greenhouse gases in contrasted European ecosystems Sink Source Cropland Grassland NEP Harvest Forest Manure Fire DOC/DIC GHG balance Other GHG -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 g C m-2 yr-1 (After Schulze et al., Nature Geosciences, 2009 & Siemens et al. Global Change Biology, in press)
    33. 33. Dissolved organic C leaching (Kindler et al., Global Change Biol., 2011)
    34. 34. EU25 terrestrial greenhouse gas balance* including C sequestration GHG balance of agriculture in EU25 including C sequestration Forest biomass Forest soil Grassland Cropland SINK SOURCE Peatlands Land use change Carbon trade balanceCarbon to rivers and seas Fossil fuel agriculture CH4 agriculture CH4 wetlands N2O agriculture GHG flux -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 Megatons C per year * CH4 and N2O fluxes as carbon in CO2-equivalents with a GHG warming potential of 100 year horizon
    35. 35. The GHG balance of the agriculture sector in Europe GHG balance of agriculture in EU25 including C sequestration N2O CH4 agricultureFossil fuel agriculture Drained peat Cropland Grassland -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 Mt C yr-1 Grassland C sequestration would play a significant role for the European agriculture sector (After Schulze et al., 2009 Nature Geosciences)
    36. 36. Outline1. Context: climate negotiations and food security2. International and European research programing3. The land based carbon and GHG balance of Europe4. Comparing arable, pasture and forest systems5. Carbon balance of grasslands6. Vulnerability to climate change7. The GHG balance of farms
    37. 37. The C balance of a grassland ecosystem NEE (NBP)Carbon balance (Net Biome Productivity) :NBP = (NEE - FCH4-C) + (Fmanure - Fharvest – Fanimal-products) – Fleach (Soussana et al., 2010, Animal)
    38. 38. C sequestration in a temperate pasture (tC ha-1 yr-1) CH4 Herbivore CO2 respiration Gross primary 0.2 2.1 19 productivity Herbivore Grazing Vegetation Végétation 3 7 +0.05 0 Shoot 0.7 Animal respiration excreta Root turnover Rhizodeposition 9 Litter Soil 9.2 Soil C sequestration: +0.5 Below-ground respiration DOC, DIC ?Sown grassland with intensive grazing (Soussana et al., Soil Use Manag., 2004)
    39. 39. Carbon sequestration (NBP) at 10 European grassland sites Carbon sink - Carbon source -• The less carbon is used, the more is returned to the soil, which increases C sequestration• Nitrogen supply also favours carbon sequestration (Soussana et al. Agriculture, Ecosys. Environment, 2007)
    40. 40. Disturbance induced changes in C cycling (Klumpp, Falcimage & Soussana, 2007, AGEE; Klumpp, Soussana & Falcimagne, 2007, Biogeosciences) Soil C sequestrationGrassland mesocosm experiment (g C m-2 yr-1)) A trade-off between abovegroundproduction and belowground C sequestration Cutting disturbancei) Disturbance reduces mean residence time of C Above-ground net primaryn soil fractions >200 µ productivity (g C m-2 yr-1) Compressor MRT= 22 month Cutting CO2 scrubber disturbance MRT = 31 month Steady state 13CO2 labelling
    41. 41. Separating direct role of disturbance from plant traits: Response & Effect C sequestration (gC m-2) b2, direct disturbance effect aE2, trait mediated effect Root density (Klumpp & Soussana, Global Change Biol., 2009)
    42. 42. Disturbance increase: a cascade of effects. Disturbance 5. Change in plant species 1. Photosynthesis and root composition biomass declines 2. Decline in fungi and 4. Increase in N available increase in Gram+ bacteria for plants and in 0.60 aboveground production.Fraction of total PLFA 1.0 0.50 LL 0.40 0.8 fungal LH gram- 0.30 0.6 gram+ NNI 0.20 0.4 0.10 LL LH 0.2 Disturbance treatment 2.5 0.0 LL 2.0 LH 2003 a a mg C g-1 soil a fPOM old 1.5 a 1.0 b b a 0.5 b 3. Acceleration of unlabelled 0.0 POM decomposition 0 5 10 15 20 25 Month after start of 13C labelling Klumpp, Fontaine, Soussana, Journal of Ecology (2009)
    43. 43. Climate x management interactions for 0.1 80 Reco (gC m ² week ) -1 c. 60 annual C sequestration - 40 20 0 Extensive management sequesters more C in wet -20 years, but is less resilient to drought than intensive GPP (gC m ² week ) -1 I nt ensive -40 plot Ext ensive plot management:High st ock ing densit y : 1 LSU ha - 1 Low st ock ing densit y: 0.5 LSU ha -1 - -60 N, P, K fer t iliser No f er t iliser supply Extensive: higher LAI and ET, less available N. -80 d. -100 Laqueuille site, INRA 100 Cumulative NEE (gC m-²) 0 SOURCE -100 -200 -300 -400 SINK e. Summer droughts -500 1000 f. Water fluxes 800 Latent Heat (W m ) -2 600 400 200 0 250 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 g. 200 (Klumpp et al., Global Change Biol., 2011)
    44. 44. Annual C balance of 28 grassland sitesC source C sink (n=110 site years, mean ± s.e) 21 sites out of 28 were, on average, C sinks for the atmosphere Leaching of dissolved carbon (DOC, biogenic DIC, 4 sites): 29 gC m -2 yr-1 (Kindler et al., 2011, GCB)
    45. 45. Simple C cycle model (5 state variables, 3 soil parameters) Ecosystem respiration, Reco GPP Ra Rh-animal Rh-litter Rh-active Rh-slow (1-K1)GPP (d+k CH4)Cintake f(T,P) (1-K2) f(T,P) (1-K2) K2 f(T,P) kslow Cplant Clitter Cactive Cslow Cpassive 1 f(T,P) K2 f(T,P) K22 f(T,P) kstab Cintake (1-d-kCH4)Cintake Measured Cexport Cimport Modelled (Soussana et al., in preparation)
    46. 46. Best fit for turnover of slow C Turnover rate (Kslow) of slow C declines with N availability This is consistent with the priming effect and is not accounted for by classical soil models. n=15, r2 = 0.81, P< 0.0001
    47. 47. Simulated vs. measured annual C sequestrationC balance is inferred from GPP, climate, management and soil texture
    48. 48. Carbon and GHG balance of grazingsystems (grassland and farm buildings) At barn FN2O FCO2 FCH4 Fanimal-products FCO2@barn Fanimal-products@barn FCH 4@barn Flabile C losses 290 5 5 98 9 47 Fharvest FN2O Fmanure@barn 43 237 83 Fmanure IPCC, Tier 1 17 17 NCS = 50 NCS@barn = 23 10 Attributed NCS = 73 (gC m-2 yr-1) Fleach Extensive pastures (n=3): 320 gCO2 equivalents m-2 yr-1 (sink) Intensive meadows (n=3): -272 gCO2 equivalents m-2 yr-1 (source) (Soussana et al., 2007, AGEE; Soussana et al., 2010, Animal)
    49. 49. Carbon balance of EU grazing systems (1987-2007) 1.0 0.9 Cumulated relative frequency 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 -250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 -2 -1 NBP (gC m yr ) Source Sink Source Sink(permanent grasslands) (Soussana et al., in preparation)
    50. 50. Greenhouse gas balance of EU grazing systems (1987-2007) IPCC Tier 1 For CH4 and N2O (permanent grasslands) Sink CO2 equivalents Source
    51. 51. Outline1. Context: climate negotiations and food security2. International and European research programing3. The land based carbon and GHG balance of Europe4. Comparing arable, pasture and forest systems5. The GHG balance of farms6. Vulnerability to climate change
    52. 52. Mitigation options in New Zealand(Ag-Research, NZ)
    53. 53. Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (Moran et al., 2011, J. Agric. Economics)
    54. 54. A model of GHG and C sequestration in livestock farms (FARMSIM) Gaseous losses Fixation Atmospheric Gaseous lossesLifecycle (C, N) (C, N) deposition (N) (C, N) IPCCanalysis Tier 2 Inputs Cattle housing Energy Feed Animals Manure Animal & straw produce Feed & bedding stores stores Pastures Fertilizer Meadows Arable Crop Seed crops produce Irrigation (N) Runoff (C, N) Leaching (N) Grassland and crop models A dynamic model coupling lifecycle analysis and carbon sequestration (Salettes et al., 2004; Schils et al., 2007; Duretz et al., 2009)
    55. 55. Summary: greenhouse gas balance per unit area of grasslands and of livestock farms SINK SOURCE
    56. 56. Outline1. Context: climate negotiations and food security2. International and European research programing3. The land based carbon and GHG balance of Europe4. Comparing arable, pasture and forest systems5. Carbon balance of grasslands6. The GHG balance of farms7. Vulnerability to climate change
    57. 57. Did the 2003 European heatwave lead to a CO2 concentration?Summer temperature anomaly Vegetation anomaly in July 2003(July 2003, MODIS)
    58. 58. Net Primary Productivity change in 2003 vs. 1998-2002 Summer AnnualOn average, the 2003 heat spell, combined with the drought, caused a195 and 77 gC m-2 yr-1 decline in ecosystem photosynthesis andrespiration, respectively. (Ciais et al., Nature 2005)
    59. 59. Possible knock-on effects of extreme climatic events Heat Heat Drought Drought Reduced GPP, Reduced GPP, Xylem embolism Xylem embolism Reduced reserves Reduced reserves Frost damage Frost damage Reduced foliage Reduced foliage Pests and insects damages Pests and insects damages Tree mortality Tree mortalityIncreased C Forest decline, Wildfires Forest decline, Wildfireslosses Change in land use: forest Misadaptation? Change in land use: forest to fallow or rangeland to fallow or rangeland
    60. 60. Impacts of climate variability andextremes on the C cycle in grasslands Interannual variability Agricultural Greenhouse gas management emissions
    61. 61. What are the impacts of summer heat and drought extremes?C, controlCX, Control and extreme(‘summer 2003’ heat wave)T, average year in the 2050’sTX, extreme year in the 2050’s Automated rain shelters Passive IR Active regulated IR
    62. 62. End of heat wave Two months after heat wave Mediterranean C MedlyDactylis glomerata T C Temperate Ludac T + X - X + X - X
    63. 63. Concluding comments (1/2)1. Soil carbon needs to be accounted to achieve a consistent GHG balance in the agriculture, forestry and land use sector2. Forestry has attracted more efforts so far, but is vulnerable to climate extremes (e.g. storms, fires and droughts)3. Soil carbon sequestration requires advanced verification methods, which are still lacking in real farm conditions4. There are multiple trade-offs between agricultural production, carbon sequestration and N2O and CH4 emissions. Agricultural systems will need to be gradually optimized in each European region.5. Mitigation strategies could be based on the eco-efficiency of farms, that is their net GHG emissions per unit of food, feed or fiber product.6. Uncertainties scale up with the length of the food supply chains. There is no consensus yet on lifecycle analyses for long supply chains like livestock production.
    64. 64. Concluding comments (2/2)7. Carbon sequestration should be sustained over several decades to be effective.8. Therefore, mitigation and adaptation to climate change need to be addressed consistently9. In addition, there are trade-offs between mitigation, adaptation, food security, land use and biodiversity. We try to address these multiple constraints

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