Session 9 12.15_a.geurouali_estimates of methane emission from the camel (camelius dromedarius) compared to dairy cattle (bos taurus).
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Session 9 12.15_a.geurouali_estimates of methane emission from the camel (camelius dromedarius) compared to dairy cattle (bos taurus).

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Session 9 12.15_a.geurouali_estimates of methane emission from the camel (camelius dromedarius) compared to dairy cattle (bos taurus). Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Estimates of methane emission from the camel (Camelius dromedarius) compared to dairy cattle (Bos taurus) Guerouali, A. and Laabouri, F. Hassan II Agronomic and Veterinary Institute, Rabat, Morocco
  • 2. Plan of the presentation • General information about the camel population • Adaptation to desert environment and nutrients requirement • The bad news about the camel population of Australia • Mesurements of methane emission in the camel compared to dairy cattle • Data discussion and conclusion
  • 3. -No water in the hump but energy -Heat Stress Tolerance -Body temperature variation (36 to 42 °C) -Huge water intake when dehydrated
  • 4. Variations in water requirements in camel and cattle with respect to environmental temperature ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---Species Water requirements Urine losses Water requirements at 15 °C at 15°C at 30°C -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Dairy cattle 40 l/d 25 l/d 120 l/d Lactating camel 10 l/d 4 l/d 20 l/d --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  • 5. -Digestive trial in the field and Indirect calorimetry with face mask
  • 6. Energy requirements for maintenance and growth in the camel compared to sheep and cattle • ENERGY REQUIREMENT FOR MAINTENANCE OF CAMEL MEm = 306 KJ/ kg0.75(camel) → 1kg of DM/100kg LBW MEm = 380 KJ/ kg0.75(sheep) 25% higher MEm = 440 kj/ kg0.75(cattle) 45% higher • EFFICIENCY OF ENERGY UTILIZATION FOR GROWTH Kf = 61% (camel) Kf = 56% (sheep) Inferior by 18% Kf = 42% (cattle) Inferior by 31%
  • 7. Kill a camel to stop pollution? That is precisely what Australia is considering. The suggestion came from Northwest Carbon Pty Ltd (Tim Moore, 2010) to Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (ADCCEE).
  • 8. Considering the camel one of the country's biggest greenhouse gas emitters, the Northwest company proposed the shooting of camels from a helicopter or rounding them up and send them to a slaughterhouse.
  • 9. As scientists working on camel physiology and concerned with animal welfare and protection, we developed this study with an objective: dealing with animal welfare and protection, we developed a trial To measure for the first time methane emissions in the camel To compare them to methane emissions in dairy cattle receiving the same diet expressed in: - liter/day - liter/kg of dry matter intake.
  • 10. Animals used in the experimentation 8-13 years x7 Average Body Weight = 409 kgs Dry and non pregnante animals 8 -10 years x7 Average Body Weight = 441 kgs Dry and non pregnante animals
  • 11. Feeding Ration used in the trial: 3 kgs of lucerne hay 2 kgs of barley grains Free access to water 4.5 kgs of DMI
  • 12. Figure 1: The face mask system used to measure methane emission in camel and dairy cow
  • 13. Figure 2: a camel wearing a mask for measurement of methane emission shown with a companion to reduce the stress on the experimental animal .
  • 14. Figure 3: Methane emissions in dairy cattle and its variations over time (5mm/min) Camel Figure 4: Methane emissions in camel and its variations over time (5mm/min)
  • 15. Methane emission in the camel An average of 18 eructation cycles per hour, covering 90% of the methane produced. While the rest of the methane produced (10%) is emitted through respiration
  • 16. Table 1: Estimates of methane production in seven camels expressed in liters per day and in liters per kg of dry matter intake Camels Methane Production (liters/day) Methane Production (liters/kg of DMI) 1 52,75 12,04 2 77,24 17,63 3 57,67 13,16 4 73,81 16,85 5 72,82 16,62 6 62,39 14,24 7 69,74 15,92 Mean 66,63 15,20 Deviation Standards 8,47 1,93
  • 17. Methane emission in dairy cattle Vache An average of 54 eructation cycles per hour, covering 85% of the methane produced. While the rest of the methane produced (15%) is emitted through respiration
  • 18. Table 2: Estimates of methane production in seven dairy cows expressed in liters per day and in liters per kg of dry matter intake Dairy cows Methane Production (liters/day) Methane Production (liters/kg of DMI) 1 148,75 33,96 2 157,82 36,03 3 303,06 69,19 4 200,10 45,68 5 219,27 35,82 6 159,90 36,50 7 Mean 167,46 193,76 38,23 42,20 Deviation Standards 50,41 11,56
  • 19. Some digestive and metabolic particularities in camel may explain this difference in methane production: The camel has lower feed intake with smaller forestomach made of tree compartments only. Différente strains of bacteria and less protozoa in the digestive tract. Higher buffering capacity for acids in the rumen but very high sensitivity to urea feeding. Higher level of glycemia (1.5 g/l) compared to horses (1g/l) and cattle (.5 g/l). The importance of VFA in the glucide metabolism of the camel. Lower production of acetate in camel compared to cattle with tha same diet .
  • 20. conclusions Methane production was measured in camel and dairy cattle receiving the same diet and the data indicated that dairy cattle produce three times more methane that camel Some digestive and metabolic particularities of each species may explain the difference Other solutions to reduce the green house gases should be proposed than the eradication of the camel population of Australia.
  • 21. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION