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Inventory of ghg uk overview
 

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    Inventory of ghg uk overview Inventory of ghg uk overview Presentation Transcript

    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisInventory of Greenhouse GasesUK
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisBackground – Agriculture• Agriculture is estimated to be responsible for:– ca. 8% of UKs total GHG emissions• ca. 60% of UKs total nitrous oxide emissions (IPCC)• ca. 40% of UKs total methane emissions (IPCC)• UK complies with Kyoto• LCTP – contribute to 80% reduction in GHGs by 2050– ca. 85% of UKs total ammonia emissions• National emissions ceiling target – Gothenburg protocol• IPPC (Pig and Poultry units)– ca. 60% (E&W) of nitrate transfers to inlandwatercourses• NVZ action plan
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisBackground – UK agricultural emissions02004006008001000199019911992199319941995199619971998199920002001200220032004200520062007200820092010ktCH4CH4 emissionsEnteric Manure management02004006008001000Enteric Waste Field burningCH4,kt1990 2010Decrease -19.8%
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisBackground – UK agricultural emissions01020304050607080ktN2ON2O emissionsAnimals N2O, kt Direct N2O, kt Indirect N2O, kt Field burning, kt010203040506070Animals Direct Indirect Field burningN2O,kt1990 2010Decrease -19.5%
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisBackground – UK agricultural emissions0% 1%1%5%6%7%9%20%22%28%1%N2O emissionsfrom agriculture in 2010(total 90.5 kt N2O)HistosolsImproved grasslandN fixing cropsAtmospheric depositionAnimal waste management systemsAnimal manure applied to soilCrop residuesGrazingSynthetic fertilisersLeachingand runoffSewage sludgeLEACHFERT GRAZ
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisBackground – UK emissions – method CH4Source Category (IPCC table) Method Emission Factors4A Enteric fermentation IPCC T1IPCC T2 (cattle)CS, D4B Manure management IPCC T1IPCC T2(cattle,lamb,deer)CS, D4C Rice cultivation NA NA4D Agricultural soils NA NA4E Prescribed burning ofsavannasNA NA4F Field burning of agriculturalresiduesNA NAT1 – Tier 1; T2 – Tier 2; T3 – Tier 3; CS – Country Specific
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisBackground – UK emissions – method N2OT1 – Tier 1; T2 – Tier 2; T3 – Tier 3; CS – Country SpecificSource Category (IPCC table) Method Emission Factors4A Enteric fermentation NA NA4B Manure management IPCC T1 CS, D4C Rice cultivation NA NA4D Agricultural soils IPCC T1CSCS, D4E Prescribed burning ofsavannasNA NA4F Field burning ofagricultural residuesNA NA
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisBackground – UK emissions – Tier 1• EmissionsEm(g,s) = A (corrected)  EFWhere:Em (g,s) = Emission of gas g from source s (kg g yr-1)A = Activity data (animal numbers, fertiliser use, etc) for sources(data corrected for volatilisation for example)EF = Emission factor of gas g from source s (kg g/kg s or number)
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisBackground – N cycle
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisGHG platform aimsTo develop an improved inventory tool that willbetter represent UK (and DA) agricultural practicesand conditions and be capable of monitoring progressagainst targets• development of specific emission factors• derivation of activity data• definition and inclusion of mitigation practices• quantification of uncertainties• documentation and archiving
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisAC0112AC0115MethaneAC0116Nitrous OxidePrioritisation PrioritisationMeasurement MeasurementProxies ProxiesModelling ModellingAssessmentDevelopmentVerificationRequirementsand StructureEmissions FactorSynthesisFarm PracticeSynthesisAgriculture, Soilsand Climate DataUncertaintyAnalysisAC0114Data MiningData Management and ArchivingPlatform projects• £12.6M onthree projects• 5 years• Multiplepartners
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisActivities across the projects Prioritisation Measurement Data gathering/Proxies Modelling Uncertainty analysis/Verification Data Management and Archiving Knowledge ExchangeAC0112AC0115MethaneAC0116Nitrous OxidePrioritisation PrioritisationMeasurement MeasurementProxies ProxiesModelling ModellingAssessmentDevelopmentVerificationRequirementsand StructureEmissions FactorSynthesisFarm PracticeSynthesisAgriculture, Soilsand Climate DataUncertaintyAnalysisAC0114Data MiningData Management and ArchivingWithin thethemes of
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisPrioritisation Defining inventory requirements Prioritising the measurement programme
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisDefining inventory requirementsProposed Structure and Calculation Methodology• Defining boundaries• Specifying emission sources• Linkages with otherInventory sectors
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisActivity dataEmission factorsINPUT DATABASE Enteric fermentation – CH4 Manure management – CH4 Manure management – N2O Soils – N2OMODEL ENGINEAlgorithms for:UNFCCC IPCC reportDevolved administrationreportsSector reportsOUTPUTSDefining inventory requirements
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesis• Collate existing data sets• Identify key uncertainties and knowledge gaps• Review proposed work programmePrioritising measurement programmeN2O field measurement sites
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisData gathering/Proxies Farm Practice Data Developing proxies for estimating emissions
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisFarm practice data• Great challenges in obtaining required data• Lot of activity engaging with national statistics andindustry data sources• Farm practice review report
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisProxies• Not everything can be measured! – how else to monitor change• Assess proxies for N2O from soils and CH4 from enteric fermentation• Link with modelling activitiesN2ONational/regional scale – e.g. OECD N balance, N use efficiencyFarm scale – e.g. farm gate N balance, uptake of mitigations,Field scale – e.g. soil characteristics, crop yieldsCH4e.g. diet characteristics, fed conversion efficiency
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisExperimentation Collating existing data Initiating new experiments Methane emission factors Nitrous oxide emission factors
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisCollating/reviewing existing experimental data• Database compilation- Completed and on-going UK experiments- Assess quality and compliance of data• Literature review- Structured, standard protocol- UK and international- Emission factors, Mitigation practices- Assess quality and compliance of dataAuthors Year Title Journal Volume PagesIPPCCOMPLIANT(√/X)CountryEmissionfactorUnit Error on EFError typerecordedStatistical methods used Collection method notes from publication Calculation method notes from publicationChirinda et al 2010Emissions of nitrous oxide from arable organic and conventionalcropping systems on two soil typesAgri, Ecosyst andEnv 136 199-208 √ Denmark 0.56kgN2O100/kgNmultiple linear regression - PROC MIXED of SAS-96. Prior to analysis they were log transformedwhen needed in order to obtain variancehomogeneity and normal distributionmonitored 365 days Sept 07 (following sowing) till sept 08 (harvest). Fan used to facilitate mixingin chamber headspace. Deployment time usually 1.5hrs, measurements with chamber inter-sectionsextended to max 3hrs. Foulum chambers - 0.75x0.75m; Flakkebjerg - 0.6x0.6m base. Gas samplestaken through septum, evac vials, 09.00-14.00 each sampling day. 1st sample taken immediatelyafter installing cover. GC and ECD (GC-14B Shimadzu - Flakkebjerg; Chrompack CP9001-Foulum)Fluxes calc by linear regression taking air temp into account; alldata were checked for linearity by visual inspection during dataanalysisAbdalla et al 2010Emissions of nitrous oxide from Irish arable soils: effects of tillageand reduced N input Nut.Cycl. Agroeco 86 53-65 x Ireland 0.42 % 0.41 SEChecked for normal dist. Log transformed whereapplic. 1 and 2 way analysis of variance applied toflux. Multiple regressionN2O measured using Smith et al (95). Chambers - 52x52x15cm high square collar insertedpermanently into soil over which 50x50x30cm high lid with plastic septum could be sealed. Gaslinearity in chamber was tested. After lids in place an initial gas sample taken, 2nd and 3rd at30/60min. sampled every weekand more intensively during fert periods. Samples taken in morningbetween 9-11am. Samples taken with syringe after flushing syringe and mix air within chamber; theninjected to pre-evac vials. GC 14B Shimadzu with ECD.EFs calc according to equation with assumes 10% of applied N islost from soil through ammonia volatilisation (IPCC 2001b)de Klein et al 2006Restricted autumn grazing to reduce nitrous oxide emissions fromdairy pastures in Southland NZAgriculture,Ecosystems andEnvironment 112 192-199 x NZAir tight lid, 30min centre bung fitted, gas sample taken througha septum in lid, 10mL headspace flushed 4 times through a6mL septum-sealed glass tube. 2nd gas sample taken 30minlater. N2O - gas chromatograph. 2003 samples stored for7months - no sign of leakageWeekly N2O rates calc for each soil cover from the increase in N2O conc of the headspace over time.Cumulative N2O then calc by averaging N2O emission rate of the 3/4 soil covers per plot, followedby linear interpolation of the weekly msmts over time. Average N2O emis for each treatment was calcfrom the geometric means of the intergrated emis, then log-transformed and ANOVA of randomisedblocks to determine differences btw treatments for each yr as well as for the 3yr periodBrucek, P., Simek,M., Hynst, J 2009Long-term animal impacts modifies potential production of N2O frompasture soil Biol.Fert Soils 46 27-36 xCzechRepublicStatistica 8 software. Significance of treatment effects was tested using one-way or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey test.Pearson correlation coefficient calc for testing relationship between N2O andCO3M edium sized, non-vented, manually closed chambers (each = 0.076m2 basal area, 15dm3 volume).Chamber in 2 parts, bottom - collar of galvanised steel 14cm high and internal diameter 31cm, it wasinserted 5cm into soil. Headspace gas samples collected at the time of deployment and after60min. Gas samples analysed HP 5890 gas chromatograph equiped with Porapak Q column andelectron capture detectorReference N2O
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisMethaneMethod development• Novel techniques for enteric methane estimation• Large-scale online monitoring (online measurement from dairy cows inmilking parlours and beef cattle in over-feeder hoodsProtocols• Common animal breeds and common diets across sites• Calibration of measuring equipment by National PhysicalLaboratory• Engagement with GRATraining and knowledge exchange• SF6 workshop• Intake measurement workshop• Technical support knowledge exchange meetings
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisMethane - sourcesEnteric fermentation Sheep Beef DairyBody size, breed, genotype, diet, physiological stageChamberstudiesSF6 at grazing
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisMethane - sourcesManure managementCharacterisation of manures from UK livestock:- volatile solids content, VS- methane producing potential, Bo0123450 10 20 30 40 50 60Methane(Litres)Time (Days)BlankCellulosestandardCattle 1Cattle 2Cattle 3Estimation of methane conversion factor at storage, MCF:- slurries, temperature effect- FYM
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisMethane – measurements - BoIPCC Tier 2 approach:MCFx67.0xBx365x oVSEFMS Predicted max values: 2.462.37Preliminary data
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisNitrous oxideProtocols• Standard operating practices across all sites• Ring-tests for analytical techniques• Engagement with GRATraining and knowledge exchange• Autochamber training day
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisNitrous oxide - measurementsEmissions from soilsN2O field measurement sites Grassland ArableFertiliser - Type, grassland/tillage, rates, timings, nitrification inhibitorGrazing returns - Dung & urine, 3 times of yearManure - Slurry/FYM/Poultry, application method, timing
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisNitrous oxide - measurementsLaboratory studyThe effect of soil properties, moistureand temperature on the efficacy of thenitrification inhibitor dicyandiamideLeached NNitrous oxide emissions fromleached nitrate
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisNitrous oxide - methodsStatic chamberFast chamberAutochamber
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisNitrous oxide - urineTreatments:Urine / Artificial urine / Urine + DCD / Control
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisNitrous oxide - urine• Results-spring (application 15/5/2011, kg N/ha):Treatment kg N/haPreliminary data
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisNitrous oxide - urine• Results-summer (application 3/7/2011, kg N/ha):Treatment kg N/haPreliminary data
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisModelling Methane Nitrous oxide Farming systems
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisModellingMethaneStatistical approach to estimating EFfrom diet/production parametersNitrous oxideMechanistic approaches using DNDC and DayCentNot everything can be measured!Interpolation, extrapolation, accounting for biasDry matter intake (kg/d)0 10 20 30Methane(MJ/d)05101520253035Col 11 vs Col 15 - BELTSVILLECol 11 vs Col 15 - CEDARCol 11 vs Col 15 - LELYSTADCol 11 vs Col 15 - WAGENINGEN-500501001502002503003504004505001 31 61 91 121 151 181 211 241 271 301 331 361gN/ha/dayJ dayN2O fluxes; Rowden 2006 Plot 3UKdndc ObservedFarming systemsDisaggregation of national statistics to populate inventory structures- livestock numbers and linkages (e.g. dairy, beef systems)- soils, land use, drainage, N to crops
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisUncertainties/Verification Quantifying uncertainties Verifying inventory outputs
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisUncertainty Analysis Quantify uncertainties in the existing and improvedinventories Quantify uncertainties for specific source/sector uncertainties• Protocol developed – Monte Carlo analysisProbability distribution functionsrequired for all input data
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisVerificationWhite dots are static chambersMeasurement scaleComparison betweenchambers and micro-met fornitrous oxideLong-termLong-term continuousmeasurements at Easter BushNational scale verificationTall towers at MaceHead and AngusInverse modellingusing NAMES
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesis Producing a technical specification for a Greenhouse GasAgricultural Emissions Inventory Data Model – Reportabout to be delivered- data types- key properties- Relationships Development of data archiveData Management and Archiving
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisKnowledge ExchangeStakeholder workshopGRA Technology workshop, Reading
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisKnowledge Exchange Press releasesProject flyers
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisKnowledge Exchange Website
    • &&InveN2OryInveN2OryResearCH4ResearCH4SynthesisSynthesisOrganisations involved:ADAS, AFBI, CEH, Keith Smith, Met Office, RRes, SRUC,University of Aberdeen, UEAThis work was funded by:Defra, the Scottish Government, DARD, and the Welsh Governmentas part of the UKs Agricultural GHG Research Platform project(www.ghgplatform.org.uk).