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Outline of the presentation  SOME ENERGY AND                                    • Introduction  ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS     ...
Management of RW and     Outline of the presentation                            Biowaste• Introduction                    ...
Most developed countries lead incineration     Management of RW and                                                       ...
INCINERACIÓ A ESPANYA                                                  10 Plantes:              t/any % del total         ...
Most developed countries lead recycling in EU        Management of RW and                                                 ...
Renewable energy sources (RES)      Outline of the presentation                                                     Direct...
Recycling of biodegradable waste                                                                                       Rec...
(Körner, 2011)   (Körner, 2011)
Outline of the presentation                 Still a long way to go…• Introduction• Biowaste recycling: Energy, Material an...
Potential of bio‐waste contribution to                                                         Outline of the presentation...
Recycling of biodegradable waste                               Recyling of biowaste                                       ...
Results of the 20in2020 directive                      Outline of the presentation• In most of the countries (new) feed‐in...
Implementation in Europe      Grid injection:  A sustainable solution                           • Technology to upgrade bi...
Right now:   CHP the optimum                                                           Improving AD efficiency            ...
Improving AD efficiency                             Outline of the presentationADDITIVES IN THE DIGESTION MEDIUM          ...
Recap                                                  Recap• As in the case of residual waste thermal   valorization, bio...
• Thank you for listening!                    jmata@ub.edu
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RECUWATT Conference - Joan Mata lecture

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SECTION II: CLIMATE CHANGE AND WASTE MANAGEMENT
“Some energetic and environmental aspects regarding the recycling of bio-waste" by Mr. Joan Mata, Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Barcelona

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Transcript of "RECUWATT Conference - Joan Mata lecture"

  1. 1. Outline of the presentation SOME ENERGY AND • Introduction ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS • Biowaste recycling: Energy, Material and  OF BIOWASTE RECYCLING environmental aspects • Potential of biowaste recyclingJOAN MATADPT. ENGINYERIA QUÍMICA.  UNIVERSITAT DE BARCELONA • Biowaste AD • Improvements on Biowaste AD (grid injection  and process) • Conclusions
  2. 2. Management of RW and Outline of the presentation Biowaste• Introduction Residual waste Biowaste• Biowaste recycling: Energy, Material and  environmental aspects• Potential of biowaste recycling• Biowaste AD• Improvements on Biowaste AD (grid injection  and process)• Conclusions
  3. 3. Most developed countries lead incineration Management of RW and option in Europe BiowasteResidual waste Biowaste IA’s through LCA show  % Incinerat dels RSU the advantages of option A, that is the energy recovery alternative
  4. 4. INCINERACIÓ A ESPANYA 10 Plantes: t/any % del total Asturias 94600 4.3 Baleares 255000 11.6 Total   Catalunya Besos 328000 14,9 Catalunya Catalunya Tarragona 180000 8,2 719000 Catalunya Mataró 170000 7,7 32,6%% Incineració a Catalunya: 16,5% Catalunya Girona 41000 1,9 Galicia  550000 24,9% Incineració a Espanya*:    9,9% Madrid 299000 13,6 Melilla 46000 2,1% Incineració a UE15:         22,8% 242000 11,0 2205600 100,0 * Inclou Catalunya
  5. 5. Most developed countries lead recycling in EU Management of RW and Biowaste Residual waste Biowaste Recycling with% Reciclat dels RSU effects on energy, material  recovery and greenhouse gases  emissions
  6. 6. Renewable energy sources (RES)  Outline of the presentation Directive (2009/28/EC) ‐Targets• Introduction • Each Member State shall ensure mandatory national  target of at least a 20 % share of energy from • Biowaste recycling: Energy, Material and  renewable sources in 2020 (art. 3.1) environmental aspects • Each Member State shall ensure that the share of  energy from renewable sources in all forms of • Potential of biowaste recycling transport in 2020 is at least 10 % of the final  consumption of energy in transport in that Member • Biowaste AD State (art. 3.4)• Improvements on Biowaste AD (grid injection  • … the contribution made by biofuels produced from  wastes, residues, non‐food cellulosic material, and  and process) ligno‐cellulosic material shall be considered to be twice • Conclusions that made by other biofuels (art. 21.2)
  7. 7. Recycling of biodegradable waste Recyling of biowaste (new documents May 2010) • Communication from the Commission on  future steps in biowaste management in  the European Union ‐ COM(2010)235 final• Commission Staff Working Document Accompanying the Communication from the Commission on future steps in biowaste management in the  European Union ‐ SEC(2010) 577 final http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/compost/developments.htm (Zambrzycki,  2011)
  8. 8. (Körner, 2011) (Körner, 2011)
  9. 9. Outline of the presentation Still a long way to go…• Introduction• Biowaste recycling: Energy, Material and  environmental aspects• Potential of biowaste recycling• Biowaste AD Spain: Only AD sites are listed• Improvements on Biowaste AD (grid injection  Only 15-20% treating biowaste and process) 1,5 Mt 0,35 Mt 6 AD sites 30 AD sites• Conclusions (Gilbert, 2011)
  10. 10. Potential of bio‐waste contribution to  Outline of the presentation RES targets • Introduction• About 1/3 of the 2020 EU target to use  • Biowaste recycling: Energy, Material and  renewable energy in transport could be met  environmental aspects by using the biogas produced from biowaste as vehicle fuel  • Potential of biowaste recycling• Around 2% of the overall renewable energy  • Biowaste AD target could be met if all biowaste is turned  • Improvements on Biowaste AD (grid injection  into energy and process) • Conclusions
  11. 11. Recycling of biodegradable waste Recyling of biowaste • Recycling definition requires re‐use of • Basic options: materials, excludes use as a fuel.• Composting, AD and AD + Composting • AD can be counted as recycling only if • These options should be placed in accordance digestate is used on land. with economics and European legislative • AD aspects: regulations.  – Recyling <‐> LCA effects – Bioenergy <‐> GHG reduction ∙ CHP  ∙ GRID INJECTION  ∙ FUEL FOR VEHICLES
  12. 12. Results of the 20in2020 directive Outline of the presentation• In most of the countries (new) feed‐in tariffs  • Introduction were announced or introduced • Biowaste recycling: Energy, Material and • Some of the countries announced goals for  environmental aspects biogas • Potential of biowaste recycling• There is hardly any measure set for biogas as  • Biowaste AD transport fuel • Improvements on Biowaste AD (grid injection  and process) • Conclusions
  13. 13. Implementation in Europe Grid injection:  A sustainable solution • Technology to upgrade biogas to  • Biomethane has very low  biomethane is well proven  emissions (industrial level) • Car engines are less noisy • Currently main market for grid  • No distribution  injection is in Germany.  Market  infrastructure needed,  develops also in other European  grids are available countries now • Biomethane can be  • Grid injection of biomethane allows different ways of energetic blended at any ratio with  natural gas utilization.
  14. 14. Right now:   CHP the optimum Improving AD efficiency IMPROVEMENT OF FEEDSTOCK BIODEGRADABILITY Advantages: Drawbacks:  FEED STOCK PRE‐TREATMENTS   EFFECTS:• No upgrading is required • The grid structure  More efficient digestion (higher reduction of  needs significant  • Thermal, • Electricity will become an  VS). • Biological,  important vehicle fuel improvement Higher gas production (up to 30%) • Mechanical More stable Biological process (material more  • Utilisation of heat homogeneous, mixed) • Peak loads in the grid Gas injection into the grid and production of heat and electricity in densely populated areas.   (Wellinger, 2011)
  15. 15. Improving AD efficiency Outline of the presentationADDITIVES IN THE DIGESTION MEDIUM • Introduction • Digestion process (bacteria, archea,  enzymes involved, essential nutrients and  macronutirents) • Biowaste recycling: Energy, Material and  • Higher gas yield (up to 20%) environmental aspectsAD OPERATION CONTROL • Potential of biowaste recycling • Mixing, pumping. • Control, automation • Biowaste AD • HRT, temperature • Improvements on Biowaste AD (grid injection  • High efficiency CHP units. and process)DON’T FORGET THE CO‐DIGESTION OPTION • Conclusions
  16. 16. Recap Recap• As in the case of residual waste thermal  valorization, biowaste management has large  • Cost effective solutions such as excess heat effects on climate change. utilization, grid injection, biogas use in • Only 25% of the biodegrable waste potential is  transport and co‐digestion should be sought used. for.• Biowaste recyling through AD contributes to the  • There is still room for process and biogas  RES directive targets and WFD statements. production optimization• Large potential for CO2 savings (energy, nutrients,  C sequestration), soil improvement and recycling  • We should turn out as a competitive of N, P and Organic Matter). advantage biowaste recycling obligation.
  17. 17. • Thank you for listening! jmata@ub.edu
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