Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy PlantsWaste-to-Energy and itscontribution to Renewable Energyacross EuropeJan Ma...
Waste Hierarchy adopted by EU within the Waste Framework DirectiveThe 5 step waste hierarchy            Preventionin the W...
Treatment of MSW in Europe EU27, 260 m tpa in 2009                                                              A large pa...
Treatment of MSW across Europe in 2009Source: EUROSTAT                        Graph created by CEWEP            Recycling ...
Alternative processing routes : variants of MBT ,    especially for situations with little / no source separation         ...
Waste to Energy in Europe(Incineration with Energy Recovery of MSW and comparable waste)  dominant route for the treatment...
Waste to Energy Cycle                                                                                 13                  ...
Heat vs Power production by WtE plants  across EU relative to EU R1 Criterion                                          300...
WtE plants can look pretty,   even in city centres !Spittelau, Vienna               AVR Rotterdam    17   WtE Capacity Eur...
WtE capacity growth in steps(includes MSW & comparable & dedicated RDF/SRF incin plants)Waste to Energy Capacity Developme...
EU 27 have ambitious targets for Renewable Energy  overall 20 % of consumption by 2020The gap to close is about 1500 TWh o...
Renewable Energy 2006 from Waste(all routes) for Europe in total                                       23Growth in Renewab...
Growth of Renewable Heat fromall routes for Europe in total                                                        25Commu...
Thank you for your attention !                                   CEWEP                                   Confederation of ...
EU Waste Incineration Directive: Emission Limit Values (ELV) for WtE incineration     Component                          L...
How much does Energy from Wastecontribute to the EU 27 binding targets?                                  2006             ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

RECUWATT Conference - Jan Manders lecture

909

Published on

SECTION I: THE NEW LEGAL FRAMEWORK AND WASTE MANAGEMENT
“Waste-to-Energy and its contribution to Renewable Energy in Europe” by
Mr. Jan Manders, Deputy President CEWEP (Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants), Netherlands

Published in: Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
909
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
61
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "RECUWATT Conference - Jan Manders lecture"

  1. 1. Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy PlantsWaste-to-Energy and itscontribution to Renewable Energyacross EuropeJan MandersDeputy President CEWEPMataro, 24 th March 2011 1CEWEPConfederation of European Waste-to-Energy PlantsCEWEP represents 390 of 440Waste-to-Energy plants across Europe.(60 mt of EU capacity of 73 mt in 2010)They thermally treat household andcomparable waste, which is not other-wise reused or recycled, andgenerate energy from it.In 2009 across Europe they supply: 30 TWh electricity and 55 TWh of heat. 2
  2. 2. Waste Hierarchy adopted by EU within the Waste Framework DirectiveThe 5 step waste hierarchy Preventionin the Waste FrameworkDirective helps to achieve Reusesustainable wastemanagement, Recyclingplacing prevention at thetop and disposal (such as Other recoverylandfilling) as the least e.g. energyfavoured option. recovery Disposal 3EU Landfill Directive Derogations: According to the For countries Landfill Directive that had 80% (1999/31/EC) landfilling in biodegradable 1995: municipal waste 50% Until 2013 going to landfills Greece, Poland must be reduced (base year 1995): United Kingdom to 50 % by 2009 and to 35% of the total amount by 2016. New Member states: Poor landfills are a threat to the 2014 Bulgaria environment: -- Contamination of water and soil 2017 -- Methane emissions (GHG) Romania -- Loss of materials
  3. 3. Treatment of MSW in Europe EU27, 260 m tpa in 2009 A large part of the EU27 waste is still wasted by putting it on landfills with negative effects on the environment. But waste is a precious resource which should be Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste in the EU 27 in 2008 utilised! Source: EUROSTAT 5Treatment of MSW in the EU 27 in 2008Source: EUROSTAT Recycling „Bio-Recyling“ Thermal Treatment Landfilling 6
  4. 4. Treatment of MSW across Europe in 2009Source: EUROSTAT Graph created by CEWEP Recycling „Bio-Recyling“ Thermal Treatment Landfilling100% 1 2 2 3 4 8 2 7 1 11 6 15 14 13 14 14 18 1790% 12 24 24 26 10 27 12 2 28 32 30 32 36 34 36 34 7 2 3480% 11 10 1 48 16 32 2470% 12 19 18 14 4 2 16 20 3 160% 14 14 9 17 28 18 11 24 1250% 40 34 99 100 20 95 96 92 18 83 8640% 82 82 78 75 75 36 4230% 62 62 62 48 49 52 48 49 35 45 4620% 39 38 34 32 2910% 14 17 4 1 1 1 5 0% 7 E… LU FR GR AT IT PT CZ LT MT FI RO BG NO DE SE DK BE UK ES IE EE SK CY LV NL SL PL HU CH Successful Strategy for Integrated Waste management in various West- European countries Domestic and Comparable Waste recycling textiles glass paper Separation at source packaging Organic Residual Waste Bulky Dom. Waste AD +Compost. WtE Separation Compost Energy Wood Biomass Energy Plants Rubble R landfill * Bottom ashes R RDF pellets cement kilns Residue material* backup etc. R Metals R 8
  5. 5. Alternative processing routes : variants of MBT , especially for situations with little / no source separation Paper, metals, plastics, etc Recycling Separation Fuel RDF Incineration Heat /M & Sorting preparationS combustible SRF ElectricityW Biological Residue Landfill Drying Organics Anaerobic Biogas Energy Digestion Composting Compost ? Meeting specs ? If not landfill Why were/are sorting & MBT variants for Residual Waste being considered ? (DE, AT, IT, ES, UK ) • Hope to avoid the investment of incineration plants. • Hope that RDF/ SRF would become « end of waste » general purpose fuel finding many applications The Reality is however: • MBT is only a pre-treatment • RDF is and will be waste, continuing to fall within EU waste emission legislation (WID, IED) • RDF fuel is finding application in cement kilns; potential for co-incineration in power plants is very limited • Majority of RDF is finding its way into dedicated incineration plants ( = WtE plant for residual MSW) 10
  6. 6. Waste to Energy in Europe(Incineration with Energy Recovery of MSW and comparable waste) dominant route for the treatment of residual waste (and of RDF or sorting residues) Fully proven and environmentally safe thanks to FGC About 71 million tonnes of capacity in operation in 2009 supplying about 30 TWh of electricity (8 million households) and about 55 TWh of heat. about 50 % of this energy is classified as renewable represents a net CO2 saving and avoids the use of fossil fuels elsewhere for energy production Typical Waste-to-Energy Plant Incineration/ Energy recovery Flue-gas cleaning Waste delivery 1. Tipping hall 8. DENOx catalyst 15. Primary air fan 2. Waste bunker 9. Economiser 16. Re-circulation fan 3. Grabs 10. Spray drier 17. Re-circulation to ECO 4. Feed chute 11. Fabric filter 18. Turbine and generator 5. Moving grate 12. Fan 19. Boiler water tank 6. Boiler 13. Stack 20. Residue silo 12 7. Electrostatic precipitator 14. Bunker air 21. Bottom ash bunker extraction
  7. 7. Waste to Energy Cycle 13 Agreed formulae within the WFD for the R1 Efficiency criterion Treatment of waste in a WtE plant is recovery if: An existing plant meets efficiency factor > 0,6 New plant (from 2009) meets efficiency factor > 0,65 Energy efficiency formulae: Energy produced – (Energy in added fuel + Energy import) 0,97* x (Energy in the waste + Energy in added fuel) Equivalency factor electricity production x 2,6 Equivalency factor heat exported x 1,1 * factor accounting for energy losses due to bottom ash and radiation 14
  8. 8. Heat vs Power production by WtE plants across EU relative to EU R1 Criterion 3000 Heat production kWh/t of waste 2500 Maxim is 2000 supp ati on of ly of h ea t 1500 Mi x of he R1=0,8 1000 at a nd Less po w er 500 efficient plants 0,6 Power only 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Power kWh/ ton of waste 15 Based on data from majority of CEWEP WtE plantsNet CO2 emissions from modern WtE plants A state-of- the art WtE plant saves CO2 in the range of 100 to 350 kg CO2 eq per tonne of waste processed *, depending on: • Waste composition (% biogenic) • Amount of heat and electricity supplied • Country Energy substitution mix If WtE replaces (poor) landfilling, then there would be additional savings of 200 to 800 kg CO2 /tonne waste * The more energy can be supplied as heat the higher the CO 2 savings
  9. 9. WtE plants can look pretty, even in city centres !Spittelau, Vienna AVR Rotterdam 17 WtE Capacity Europe by end of 2008 is 71 m tonnes. Arial
  10. 10. WtE capacity growth in steps(includes MSW & comparable & dedicated RDF/SRF incin plants)Waste to Energy Capacity Developmentwithin Europe Country Groups Likely developments Potential for expansion DE, NL, DK, SE, CH, A, BE Recent extensions Demand and Capacity in balance or slight overcapacity emerging FR, IT, ES, PT, IE Market opportunities, but complications due to local policies & preferences UK, CZ, PL, Major extension potential GR, new EU entrants Major potential, but various complications and hurdles despite EU support
  11. 11. EU 27 have ambitious targets for Renewable Energy overall 20 % of consumption by 2020The gap to close is about 1500 TWh of Renewable Energy 21 (at a flat – zero growth - EU energy consumption le vel of 13700 TWh)Energy from Waste as a source ofRenewable Energy• EU binding targets on RE : 20 % by 2020, differentiated by country• Major gap of 1500 TWh of RE to be filled by solar, wind, hydroelectric, biomass, waste• Renewable Energy from waste is « low hanging fruit » : easy-to-achieve, reliable and relatively cheap• CEWEP study shows that EfW might contribute 95 TWh, of which the largest contribution is through WtE, followed at a distance by SRF/RDF and LFG 22
  12. 12. Renewable Energy 2006 from Waste(all routes) for Europe in total 23Growth in Renewable Electricity fromall routes for Europe in total 24
  13. 13. Growth of Renewable Heat fromall routes for Europe in total 25Communication with stakeholders onWaste-to-EnergyCommunication with stakeholders is often the most important issue when considering investment in WtE:• Who are our stakeholders ? • Local community, neighbours • Politicians • Media • NGO’s and pressure groups • Authorities 26
  14. 14. Thank you for your attention ! CEWEP Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants Office in Brussels: Boulevard Clovis 12A B-1000 Brussels BELGIUM Tel.: +32 (0)2 770 63 11 Fax: +32 (0)2 770 68 14 e-mail: info@cewep.eu www.cewep.euJan.manders@efwc.nl 27Amount of MSW per capita in EU countries(total amount of waste leaving the household) Waste composition varies across Europe 28
  15. 15. EU Waste Incineration Directive: Emission Limit Values (ELV) for WtE incineration Component Limit value Period (Cd) and (Tl) 0,05 mg/m³ max 8 hours • (Hg) 0,05 mg/m³ max 8 hours (Sb), (As), (Pb), (Cr), (Co), (Cu), (Mn), (Ni), (V) 0,5 mg/m³ max 8 hours dioxins and furans, 0,1 ng/m³ max 8 hours (CO) 50 mg/m³ daily average value dust 10 mg/m³ daily average value (HCl), 10 mg/m³ daily average value (HF), 1 mg/m³ daily average value (SO2), 50 mg/m³ daily average value (No), (NO2) 29 (depending on plant size). 200 mg/m³ - 400 mg/m³ daily average valueMajor routes for Energy from Waste- Europe( based on MSW, CDM, but excl. Biomass and Agricultural waste)Route Current Where in Form of Status of Growth significance Europe ? energy technology potent.WtE from residual MSW OOOOO Throughout Power, Mature Yes,(incineration with energy recov) Heat regionalIncineration of RDF, SRF OOO DE, IT, AT,SE, Power, mature / regionalderived from MSW and CDM in ES, FI, UK Fuel BeingCement kilns, power plants etc replacer provenAnaerobic Digestion from O IT, ES, BE, biogas Proven / yessource-separated organic MSW D,FR, UK Power developingAnaerobic Digestion from O IT, ES, FR Biogas, Proven / regionalSorted organic fraction of MSW Power developing yesIncineration of Waste derived OO DE, NL, BE Power Proven Yes,Biomass ( eg wood) subsidised regionalLandfill Gas Extraction OO Throughout Power, Mature Yes, Western Eur biogas regionalGasification & Pyrolysis o few Power, Developing ? Syngas
  16. 16. How much does Energy from Wastecontribute to the EU 27 binding targets? 2006 2020 Comments Total EU 27 If no growth in Energy 13700 TWh 13700 TWh consumption ! consumption Total EU 27 1258 TWh 2735 TWh The gap is Renewable (8,5 %) Target 20 %: about 1500 TWh Energy Renewable Between Waste can contribution from 55 TWh 90 – 151 TWh potentiallly fill 95 Waste EU 27 from the gap of 1500 TWh Share Energy Between assuming Binding from Waste of 4,4 % 3,3 and 5,5 % EU Targets are Total RE achieved ! 31RE from waste is by far the cheapestform of Renewable Electricity ! * ** Source: EREF report 2009; * * Price level for WtE € 45 -65 €/ MWh. Only few % of WtE Electricity gets some Renew Subsidy* For LFG avg Feed in Tariff in EU: 71 € (incl minor subsidy) 32

×