RECOUP research - objectives, methods and preliminary findings (rate of return to education)

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This is a slide presentation by Prof. Christopher Colclough delivered at the FoE staff meeeting on 30 June 09, Cambridge. The presentation covers some broad aspects of RECOUP research and provides …

This is a slide presentation by Prof. Christopher Colclough delivered at the FoE staff meeeting on 30 June 09, Cambridge. The presentation covers some broad aspects of RECOUP research and provides highlights of its oreliminary findings focusing on the rates of return to education debate

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  • 1. Centre for Education and International Development Director: Christopher Colclough Deputy Director: Madeleine Arnot 1
  • 2. Centre for Education and International Development Established within the Faculty of Education to • Investigate the ways in which education contributes to the socioeconomic development of nations and the well-being of their peoples • Explain patterns of access to and outcomes of education in developing countries and to demonstrate how they can be improved Via research, teaching, dissemination and advisory work 2
  • 3. 3
  • 4. Research Consortium on Educational Outcomes and Poverty 2005-2010 (RECOUP)
  • 5. Partners • Centre for Education and International Development, University of Cambridge – lead partner • School of Social and Political Studies, University of Edinburgh • Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), University of Oxford • Collaborative Research and Dissemination (CORD), India • Mahbub Ul Haq Human Development Centre, Pakistan • Associates for Change, Accra, Ghana • Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya 5
  • 6. Research Objectives •To understand what explains the relationships between education and poverty •To understand how better outcomes of education can best be promoted •To elucidate how educational policy can be optimised to help achieve social and economic transformation 6
  • 7. Methods • The research agenda is being addressed via both quantitative and qualitative enquiries, and the generation of knowledge will be based upon new data collected by the consortium • A set of innovative household surveys are being conducted in the countries where our southern partners are based • Qualitative enquiries, with common designs, are also being conducted across each location 7
  • 8. Themes and Projects Social and human development outcomes of education • Disability and poverty study • Health and fertility study • Youth gender and citizenship study • Education and market outcomes • Skill acquisition and its impact on livelihoods • Outcomes from different national and international partnerships • Outcomes of Public private partnerships • Aid partnerships and educational outcomes 8
  • 9. Growth, Skills and Education The case so far: • Education is productive so it helps growth • Education at all levels brings personal returns, and highest at primary. Balance needed, but even primary level helps all society and directly helps the poor • Non-market effects and externalities (literacy, numeracy, health and fertility behaviour) are delivered even by primary and particularly for girls • So UPE is a pro-poor, pro-growth strategy 9
  • 10. Some Emerging Results In the context of educational expansion world-wide: • Certification provided by formal system remains powerful, even for minority groups such as the disabled, because it gives chance, however slim, of integration and social mobility • This is true too of training systems: eg apprenticeships in west Africa used as means of securing job access rather than self-employment; and in India both formal and informal skills training amongst the poor do not bring returns on their own. Other conditions are needed for training to bring returns. • Education thresholds for achieving behavioural change may be rising • The pattern of returns to education is changing 10
  • 11. Changing Patterns of returns to schooling Earnings concave mixed convex S1 S2 S3 S4 Years of schooling Relationships have been changing from concave towards convex. However, positive returns to primary still mean that primary schooling reduces poverty and supports growth. Other non-earnings benefits from literacy and numeracy probably remain strong. Source: Colclough, Kingdon and Patrinos 2009
  • 12. Do changes to the pattern of returns change the earlier logic? • Evidence that private returns to sec/higher ed are increasing, and often greater than those at primary • Evidence that some behavioural changes are increasingly associated with secondary • Why? Supply-side changes in quantity and quality reduce returns at primary and increase returns at higher levels 12
  • 13. Policy Choices in Education • Emphasis on quantity will not solve the quality crisis • True returns depend on costs, which are tiny for primary, very high for tertiary. Most data cover only the wage-employed. Returns in self-employment may be different, and higher for primary. • Where returns to primary remain positive, priority for EFA/primary remains necessary on poverty and growth grounds. Some obsolescence over time, but human capital, once given to the poor, cannot be taken away. Its advantage is there for life • High sec/tertiary returns may imply under-expansion and skill constraint. Increased supply may boost production and employment, thereby increasing opportunities for the poor. Balance obviously required • The rights case remains fundamental 13
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