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Creating Jobs In Ghana UKFIET OXCON 2009 (education, skills, jobs, development, Africa)
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Creating Jobs In Ghana UKFIET OXCON 2009 (education, skills, jobs, development, Africa)

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Poverty has halved in Ghana over the period from 1991 to 2005. We use the household surveys to investigate possible mechanisms which led to this outcome. In particular how was it linked to the ...

Poverty has halved in Ghana over the period from 1991 to 2005. We use the household surveys to investigate possible mechanisms which led to this outcome. In particular how was it linked to the creation of jobs and skills? While in the 1990s the pattern of a growth in urban sector self-employment is clear this process was reversed in the period to 2005. By 2005/06 it had fallen to 18.6 per cent of the working age population, substantially lower than the level of the early 1990s. The fall in urban self-employment was matched by a rise in wage employment in small firms which doubled as a percentage of the workforce from 3.4 to 6.7 per cent. Over the whole period from 1991/92 to 2005/06 the most striking change in the labour force was the rise in employment in small firms, from 225,000 to 886,000. Quite contrary to the perception that wage jobs are not being created they have been expanding far faster than the growth of the labour force. We also find that over the period from 1998/99 to 2005/06 real incomes rose by in excess of 50 per cent and that this rise was fastest in the lowest paying occupation. There was some shift from lower to higher paying occupations but it would appear that the income rises, which underlie the fall in poverty, were uniformly high across all sectors and particularly benefited the unskilled. We compare how skills acquired in technical education and through apprenticeship training have impacted on the types of jobs and their earnings and thus on their role in reducing poverty.

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    Creating Jobs In Ghana UKFIET OXCON 2009 (education, skills, jobs, development, Africa) Creating Jobs In Ghana UKFIET OXCON 2009 (education, skills, jobs, development, Africa) Presentation Transcript

    • Jobs in Ghana: What types of jobs have been created and where? Nicholas Nsowah-Nuamah and Moses Awoonor-Williams Ghana Statistical Service Accra, Ghana Francis Teal, CSAE University of Oxford UKFIET International Conference Oxford September 2009
    • Jobs and Skills
      • Jobs and skill creation have become a major preoccupation of African governments and Ghana is no exception.
      • Recent reviews of the evidence of labour market developments in sub-Saharan Africa have pointed to a pattern by which job growth has been most rapid in urban self-employment not wage employment, Kingdon, Sandefur and Teal (2006) and Fox and Gail (2008).
      • Wage jobs are thought to be important as they are the mechanism by which individuals get access to higher incomes.
      • Over the period from 1991 to 2005 poverty halved in Ghana, GSS (2007).
    • How was it done?
      • At the most general level was it primarily the result of growth or did redistribution play a role?
      • In so far as it was overall growth was it
        • By a shift from rural to urban occupations?
        • By increases in the amount of education?
        • By increasing the returns to education?
        • By the creation of better paying, more skilled, jobs?
      • Or was it an X factor increasing the incomes of all .
    • Jobs and Incomes
      • In this paper we are going to link jobs to incomes.
      • That requires us to make job categories comparable and to believe the income numbers.
      • We can then ask with controls for human capital how important were unobserved factors relative to the observed in driving these income changes.
      • It is the micro analogue of the macro question of the importance of TFP relative to factor accumulation in explaining growth.
    • Employment, Incomes and Poverty
      • In understanding how employment links to household income we need to understand both what gets produced in terms of output and training and what income accrues to those so employed.
      • In this presentation we will focus on the incomes that accrue to those in all types of jobs.
      • In setting out the types of jobs available in the economy we will include both apprenticeships and family jobs which are unpaid.
      • This will provide an overview of what jobs are being created.
    • The data
      • This presentation uses rounds three to five of the GLSS which cover the periods1991/92, 1998/99 and 2005/06.
      • We will show that applying standard labour market definitions to the household surveys results in average unemployment rates of less than 3 per cent.
      • These low rates are consistent with the number of jobs being very scarce.
    • Incomes and Jobs
      • As well as jobs we will analyse the income from those whose employment generates current income.
      • We have already referred to the rising number of secondary school students who aspire to a “good” job.
      • This partly means one with good pay, it partly means one with good earnings opportunities in the future, it partly means one with security of employment and good working conditions.
      • We know that many of the “quality” dimensions of a job are associated with whether it is public or private employment and within the private sector if it is in a large or smaller firm.
      • The distinction between such “good” and “bad” jobs has led us to distinguish between various types of jobs.
    • Types of Jobs
      • Most employment is self-employment and the main distinction we draw is between rural based activity, farmers, and that located in urban areas.
      • Within urban self-employment we make a distinction between those with employees and those without (only from GLSS4).
      • Within wage employment we identify those in the public sector either as working for the government as civil servants or as employed in a state firm.
      • For those with wage employment in the private sector we identify those in small, medium and large firms or as working on a farm.
      • The remaining categories of those classified as within the labour force are unpaid family workers, apprentices and the unemployed.
      • As most apprentices are unpaid the last three categories do not appear in the earnings although the unpaid are producing output and the apprentices are being trained so it is not that these economic activities have no value.
    • Table 1 Occupational Breakdown for Population aged 15 to 64
    • Table 2 Firms and Employment in Ghana’s Manufacturing Sector
    • Table 3 Female: Occupational Breakdown for Population aged 15 - 64:
    • Table 3 Male: Occupational Breakdown for Population aged 15 - 64
    • Table 4 Female: Occupational Breakdown for the Young aged 15 -24
    • Table 4 Male: Occupational Breakdown for the Young aged 15 -24
    • Table 5 Median Earnings (Monthly) in Principal Job for Population aged 15 to 64
    • All workers
    • Table 6 Median Earnings (Monthly) in Principal Job for Population aged 15 to 24
    • Young Workers
    • So what types of jobs have been created and where?
      • I began by saying that there was a general view that jobs were growing most rapidly among the urban self-employed.
      • This view is not correct when we compare GLSS4 with GLSS5.
      • In fact self-employment with no employees fell from 24 to 17 per cent of the population aged 15 -64.
      • It also fell for young workers.
      • Between GLSS4 and GLSS5 it is jobs in small firms which have exploded in importance
    • Is this good or bad news?
      • It is both.
      • The good news is that earnings across all types of jobs have risen dramatically over the period.
      • Between GLSS4 and GLSS5 earnings in US$ terms increased by nearly 80 per cent. In constant price cedi terms by nearly 50 per cent.
      • This rise in real wages occurred across all job types.
      • For young workers it was higher than average.
      • That’s the good news.
    • There is bad news.
      • Wages remain very low by the standards to which Ghanaians aspire.
      • On average in 2005/06 earnings were US$40 per month.
      • In firms they were higher. In the case of larger firms very much higher – U$100 per month.
      • Ghana has reduced poverty by half by increasing earnings by 50 per cent.
      • If you could find ways of increasing the number of jobs with earnings of US100 per month for everybody Ghanaians might start to believe the statisticians.
    •  
    •  
    •  
    • So we now know how it was done
      • At the most general level was it primarily the result of growth or did redistribution play a role?
        • Answer – To a small extent. The largest rise in employment was concentrated in the lowest paid sector which saw the largest rises in incomes.
      • In so far as it was overall growth was it
        • By a shift from rural to urban occupations? NO
        • By increases in the amount of education? NO
        • By increasing the returns to education? NO
        • By the creation of better paying, more skilled, jobs? NO
      • Or was it an X factor increasing the incomes of all . YES