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Internal Migration in the UK
 

Internal Migration in the UK

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Looks at North-South Shift, Counterurbanisation and Suburbanisation.

Looks at North-South Shift, Counterurbanisation and Suburbanisation.

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    Internal Migration in the UK Internal Migration in the UK Presentation Transcript

    • Case Studies – Internal Migration (UK)
      • Since 1980 – the pattern of international migration in the UK has been from:
      • North – South Drift (Regional Migration)
      • Urban – Rural (Counter urbanisation)
      • Inner – Outer City Areas (suburbanisation)
      • Why?
      • Regions such as NE had relied on coalfields, shipyards, iron and steel and heavy engineering to provide 1000s of jobs – these industries declined – making 1000s unemployed
      • In contrast – the SE was a focus of economic growth – 1981-1996 – net inforw to the south (due to higher wages and lower unemployment – particular growth in Surrey, Kent, E Anglia, Dorset)
      Case Study 1. North – South Drift (1960s onwards)
    • ‘ perceived’ lower quality of life in North (older housing, derelict land from industry etc.) Rural regions of Scottish Highlands / Central Wales etc. – unemployment & decline in farming workforce – rural depopulation Decline in Heavy Industries – closure of ship building / coal mines etc. little alternative employment – moved to south South (pull) – experienced growth in service industries, close to EU and job opportunities, higher salaries, more social / sporting amenities and better communities (flatter) and channel tunnel E Anglia (growth) London / SE – growth core North-South Drift in the UK
    • Case Study 2. Counter-urbanisation
      • See your notes on Counter urbanisation in the settlement unit for this (good cross over – will help with revision!)
      • Just a few reminders:
      • Who moves?
      • Younger families (looking for more open space and larger properties)
      • Higher Income Groups (able to afford larger houses and the costs of commuting)
      • Those with Higher Skills (looking for work in modern / footloose industries)
      • Reasons for Counter-urbanisation
      • Pressures in city (traffic, pollution etc.)
      • Technological Change (teleworking etc.)
      • Improved communications / car owershup
      • Urban renewal process (forced re-housing)
      • BUT REMEMBER - some reversal of movement in 1990s – regeneration of inner city areas – e.g. London Docklands.
    • Who is moving to rural areas?
      • Traffic congestion
      • Pollution
      • Fear of Crime (muggings, burglary and car theft)
      • Rural dream (idea of the ‘rural idyll’ – pleasant surroundings, quiet etc.)
      • Estate Agents, housing developers etc.. All encourage outward movement through new developments / building more houses and marketing these areas.
      What are the push / pull factors?
      • The most affluent and mobile people
      • Families with children (keen to avoid the possible disadvantages of city locations)
    • What factors have helped counterurbanisation?
      • Technological change – fax, blackberry, email, phones, internet – led to growth of ‘teleworking’ or ‘electronic commuting’ (people working from home – encouraging rural living)
      • Freezers, telephone, TV etc.. allow rural lifestyle but not isolation
      • improvements in road / motorway networks make commuting easier encouraging people to move out from the cities (gradually congestion sets in and cycle begins again)
      • Urban renewal processes during the 50’s/60s meant that due to slum clearance large numbers of people had to move from inner city areas – most were rehoused on council estate on edge of city – or beyond the city in New Towns / overspill settlements.
    • Consequences for the Rural Settlement of Urbanisation
      • Counterurbanisation leads to the growth of suburbanised / dormitory / commuter villages and towns e.g. St Ives (commuter town), Fulbourn, Cherry Hinton etc..
      • Negative Effects
      • House prices increase – locals young people cannot afford to buy property in areas they grew up
      • local resentment caused
      • lack of appreciation of traditional customs of village life by newcomers – change in community spirit
      • dormitory villages lose vitality and community spirit (very quiet during the day)
      • increase in population
      • Positive Effects
      • Improvement in services – e.g. gas mains, cable TV, supports local schools
      • supports some local facilities (e.g. pub, builders etc.) – although others may close
      • increased car pollution, accidents in area.
    • Case Study 3. Inner city – Outer City movement - SUBURBANISATION Again – see your settlement notes – since 1930s – increasing movement from inner cities to the suburbs (related to improved public transport / car ownership) Table Source: Adapted from Waugh – An Integrated Approach
      • Cleaner, less noise / air pollution, lower crime rate
      • Noise and air pollution from traffic, derelict land, higher crime rate
      • Newer and more services, fewer ethnic / racial problems
      • Fewer, older services e.g. schools & hospitals
      • Lower unemployment, often more skilled jobs in newer high-tech ind.
      • High unemployment, lesser skilled jobs in traditional industries
      • Growth of modern ind. Estates, footloose ind. Hypermarkets etc.
      • decline in older secondary industries
      • Less congestion, wider, well planned road system, close to ring roads
      • congestion, noise & air pollution
      • Modern high quality housing with amenities, low density
      • Poor quality housing, lacking basic amenities, high density and overcrowding
      Suburbs (Pull) Inner City (Push
    • CONSEQUENCES FOR THE INNER CITY Advantages Disadvantages CONSEQUENCES FOR THE SUBURBS Advantages Disadvantages
      • Reduces unemployment
      • space for immigrants moving in
      • Reduced pressure on services
      • Leaves a decaying heart
      • reduced community spirit
      • Local councils receive less money from taxes
      • Less investment
      • Social unrest and increased crime
      • increased use and demand for services
      • increase house building
      • Cost of living and houses increase
      • Increase in industry and offices
      • Increase in pollution and traffic congestion
      • decrease in farmland due to the urban sprawl
      Consequences for the Receiving and Losing area: