Counterurbanisation
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Counterurbanisation

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A powerpoint to support AS Geography students in their understanding of the causes and consequences of counterurbanisation...

A powerpoint to support AS Geography students in their understanding of the causes and consequences of counterurbanisation...

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Counterurbanisation Counterurbanisation Presentation Transcript

  • Population Movements in Urban Areas: Counterurbanisation Photo Source: www.geographyphotos.com - I Murray (Clare Village, Suffolk)
    • Phase 1
    • City ‘core is dominant providing jobs / services and drawing in people from rural areas (a stage which most LEDC cities are now in and which MEDC cities have gone through).
    Phase 2 - Increased affluence and better transport allowing people to move to suburbs leaving the central area (and some movement to smaller towns) – but still some attracted to the city. Phase 3 - Suburbanisation and counterurbanisation are dominant trends - the case in the UK and USA (but some movement back to city centre / inner city areas) URBAN POPULATION MOVEMENT Source of Diagram – Geography in Focus, I Cook et al. 2000 (Causeway Press)
  • PROCESSES OF CHANGE IN URBAN AREAS 1 . Suburbanisation – decentralisation of people, employment and services from the inner part of the city towards the margins of the built up area – the effects of suburbanisation are felt within the city and in the surrounding rural areas. - remember this has much to do with the improvements in public transport and increases in income (use Cambridge as example of suburbanisation – be prepared to be able to talk through the causes and consequences – see model answers for exam questions and LEARN ) 2. Counterurbanisation – this is change extending beyond the city area and marks the apparent reversal of the urbanisation process which is occurring in MEDCs – i.e. urban – rural migration is taking place.
  • Counterurbanisation
    • What is it?
    • Counterurbanisation is the movement of people from urban areas into rural areas (leaving the city and moving to smaller towns and villages).
    • There are 2 distinct trends:
    • A movement of employment to rural areas
    • A movement of people to rural areas who then commute.
    • Counterurbanisation began in Britain in the 1960s in particular and by 1990 a net movement of 1,700 people were leaving for rural areas.
  • Who is moving to rural areas?
    • Traffic congestion
    • Pollution
    • Fear of Crime (muggings, burglary and car theft)
    • Rural dream (idea of the ‘rural idyll’ – pleasant surroundings, quiet etc.)
    • Estate Agents, housing developers etc.. All encourage outward movement through new developments / building more houses and marketing these areas.
    What are the push / pull factors?
    • The most affluent and mobile people
    • Families with children (keen to avoid the possible disadvantages of city locations)
  • What factors have helped counterurbanisation?
    • Technological change – fax, blackberry, email, phones, internet – led to growth of ‘teleworking’ or ‘electronic commuting’ (people working from home – encouraging rural living)
    • Freezers, telephone, TV etc.. allow rural lifestyle but not isolation
    • improvements in road / motorway networks make commuting easier encouraging people to move out from the cities (gradually congestion sets in and cycle begins again)
    • Urban renewal processes during the 50’s/60s meant that due to slum clearance large numbers of people had to move from inner city areas – most were rehoused on council estate on edge of city – or beyond the city in New Towns / overspill settlements.
  • Consequences for the Rural Settlement of Urbanisation
    • Counterurbanisation leads to the growth of suburbanised / dormitory / commuter villages and towns e.g. St Ives (commuter town), Fulbourn, Cherry Hinton etc..
    • Negative Effects
    • House prices increase – locals young people cannot afford to buy property in areas they grew up
    • local resentment caused
    • lack of appreciation of traditional customs of village life by newcomers – change in community spirit
    • dormitory villages lose vitality and community spirit (very quiet during the day)
    • increase in population
    • Positive Effects
    • Improvement in services – e.g. gas mains, cable TV, supports local schools
    • supports some local facilities (e.g. pub, builders etc.) – although others may close
    • increased car pollution, accidents in area.
  • Who moves back?
    • Some people decide that rural locations are not suitable for them and end up moving back – these tend to be:
    • Who?
    • Young couples with no children
    • Older people (divorced / separated or prefer availability of services in urban areas)
    • Why?
    • Some find urban areas more convenient with the range of services available
    • nearer shops
    • shorter commuting distance for those who actually work in the city (reduce travelling times / stress / tiredness)
    • entertainment – night life / clubs / theatres
    • Housing Location and type – people that move back tend to move to
    • Apartments (with security systems etc.)
    • 3 storey town houses (more being built – densification)