COMPARATIVE ANALYSISOF BULGARIA, GEORGIAAND SPAINEXPORTING FRUITS & VEGETABLES                                            ...
BULGARIA / BÂLGARIYAHISTORYMOST RECENTE AND RELEVANT DATES1908 Bulgaria declared independence from Ottoman Empire (Turkey)...
GEORGIA / SAKARTVELOBULGARIA / BÂLGARIYAHISTORYMOST RECENTE AND RELEVANT DATES1936 Georgia became a separate Soviet republ...
SPAIN / ESPAÑAHISTORYMOST RECENTE AND RELEVANT DATES1936 – 1939 Spanish Civil War. Bloody conflict ends with General Franc...
LOCATION            CLIMATEEASTERN EUROPE      TEMPERATE: COLD AND DAMP WINTERS, HOTON THE EAST COAST   AND DRY SUMMERSOF ...
LOCATION                    CLIMATE                          TOPOGRAPHYSOUTH WESTERN               WARM AND PLEASANT,     ...
LOCATIONSOUTH-WESTERN EUROPE (THE IBERIAN PENINSULA), BETWEEN PORTUGALAND FRANCEHIDROLOGYTHE RIVERS IN SPAIN,EVEN THE MAJO...
TRANSPORTATION                   BULGARIA                      GEORGIA                         SPAIN                      ...
BULGARIA / BÂLGARIYA        POLITICAL CONTEXTPARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACYPOLITICAL STABILITY WITH LOW POLITICAL RISKNEXT ELECTI...
GEORGIA / SAKARTVELOBULGARIA / BÂLGARIYA        POLITICAL CONTEXTPARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACYPOLITICAL INSTABILITY WITH MEDIUM-...
SPAIN / ESPAÑA        POLITICAL CONTEXTCONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY BASED ON A PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACYPOLITICAL STABILITY WITH ...
LEGAL ENVIRONMENT     BULGARIA                      GEORGIA                    SPAINRECENTLY LIBERALISED          A NEW "C...
LEGAL ENVIRONMENT     BULGARIA                   GEORGIA                    SPAINNO IMPORT TAXES            IMPORT TAXES A...
BULGARIA / BÂLGARIYACULTURAL AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTBULGARIAN IS THE MAIN LANGUAGE WITH 84,5%ORTHODOX CURCH HAS 82,6% OF TH...
GEORGIA / SAKARTVELOBULGARIA / BÂLGARIYACULTURAL AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTTHE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE IS GEORGIAN WITH 71% OF POPUL...
SPAIN / ESPAÑACULTURAL AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTSPAIN HAVE FOUR LANGUAGES: CASTILLIAN (74%), CATALAN (17%),GALICIAN(7%), BASQ...
TECHNOLOGICAL CONTEXT                                           BULGARIA          GEORGIA                SPAINTECNOLOGICAL...
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES    BULGARIA / BÂLGARIYA•   MASSIVE INDUSTRIALISATION BROUGHT POLLUTION AND OTHER      ENVIRONMENTAL P...
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUESGEORGIA / SAKARTVELO    CONTAMINATION OF SURFACE WATER IS A HEALTH RISK•IN THE 80’S‫‏‬THE‫‏‬TOURISM‫‏‬...
AGRICULTUREBULGARIA / BÂLGARIYA“‫‏‬In‫ ,6991‏‬the vineyard got divided into hundreds of clumps, and it covered about114,40...
AGRICULTUREGEORGIA / SAKARTVELOBULGARIA / BÂLGARIYA“‫‏‬Georgia‫‏‬has‫‏‬been‫‏‬for‫‏‬a‫‏‬long‫‏‬time‫‏‬nicknamed‫"‏‬the‫‏‬g...
AGRICULTURESPAIN / ESPAÑA“‫‏‬Spain‫‏‬is‫‏‬one‫‏‬of‫‏‬the‫‏‬most‫‏‬important‫‏‬agricultural‫‏‬producers‫‏‬in‫‏‬the‫‏‬medite...
COMPARATIVE ANALYSISOF BULGARIA, GEORGIAAND SPAINEXPORTING FRUITS & VEGETABLES                                 ECONOMIC TR...
ECONOMIC TRENDSGDP (2008)     BULGARIA                     GEORGIA                   SPAIN   51 093 billion dollars      1...
ECONOMIC TRENDS                          BULGARIA   GEORGIA     SPAINEXTERNAL TRADE BALANCE     - 6,81    - 2,02     -100,...
ECONOMIC TRENDSPURCHASING POWER     YEAR        BULGARIA           GEORGIA           SPAIN     2008       Up to € 5,000   ...
ECONOMIC TRENDSEXCHANGE RATESBULGARIAGEORGIA    1USD = 1.5050GEL / 1EUR = 2.3747 (IN JANUARY 2009)
DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENTPOPULATION STATUS                   BULGARIA             GEORGIA                 SPAINPOPULATION   ...
DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENTAGE PYRAMIDS               BULGARIA
DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENTAGE PYRAMIDS               GEORGIA
DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENTAGE PYRAMIDS               SPAIN
DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENTURBANIZATION               BULGARIA
DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENTURBANIZATION               GEORGIA
DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENTURBANIZATION               SPAIN
MARKET TRENDS    BULGARIA                    GEORGIA                       SPAINBULGARIA IS A              GEORGIA IS APAR...
MARKET TRENDS   BULGARIA                   GEORGIA                    SPAINBULGARIANS SHARE THE      GRAPE HARVEST WAS    ...
POLITICAL AND COMERCIAL RISK
TAXONOMIC MATRIX                            A                    HIGH    T                            T    HIGH           ...
COMPARATIVE ANALYSISOF BULGARIA, GEORGIAAND SPAINSOURCESF.A.O.F.I.T.A.WORLD BANKI.M.F.BULGARIAN GOVERNMENTGEORGIAN GOVERNM...
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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BULGARIA, GEORGIA AND SPAIN - EXPORTING FRUITS & VEGETABLES

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BULGARIA, GEORGIA AND SPAIN - EXPORTING FRUITS & VEGETABLES

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BULGARIA, GEORGIA AND SPAIN - EXPORTING FRUITS & VEGETABLES

  1. 1. COMPARATIVE ANALYSISOF BULGARIA, GEORGIAAND SPAINEXPORTING FRUITS & VEGETABLES HISTORY GEOGRAPHIC ASPECTS POLITICAL AND LEGAL TRENDS CULTURAL AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT TECHNOLOGICAL TRENDS ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AGRICULTURE WORK BY: JOÃO LADEIRA, JOÃO LOPES, RICARDO LOPES, RODRIGO PEREIRA E ROMEU CASCAIS
  2. 2. BULGARIA / BÂLGARIYAHISTORYMOST RECENTE AND RELEVANT DATES1908 Bulgaria declared independence from Ottoman Empire (Turkey)‫‏‬1989 Communist ruler Todor Zhivkov was thrown out of office after a 35-year Bulgarian dictatorship1991 The National Assembly ratified a democratic constitution1997 Protests and strikes occurred throughout the country. The government fell and new elections resulted in the defeat of the Socialists2004 Bulgaria joined NATO2007 Bulgaria joined European Union
  3. 3. GEORGIA / SAKARTVELOBULGARIA / BÂLGARIYAHISTORYMOST RECENTE AND RELEVANT DATES1936 Georgia became a separate Soviet republic. Under Soviet rule it was transformedfrom an agrarian country to a largely industrial urban society1991 Georgia proclaimed its independence from the USSR2006 The enormously ambitious Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, which runs from Azerbaijan through Georgia to Turkey is opened2008 August 7 Georgian soldiers attacked South Ossetia, a breakaway enclave in Georgia that won independence in the early 1990s. Russia helps the Ossetians.2008 October 8 Russia began its withdrawal of troops from Abkhazia and South Ossetia in accord with the cease-fire timeline brokered by French President Nicolas Sarkozy in early August. It was the first time Russia deals with a former republic.
  4. 4. SPAIN / ESPAÑAHISTORYMOST RECENTE AND RELEVANT DATES1936 – 1939 Spanish Civil War. Bloody conflict ends with General Francos victory.Dictatorship established.1978 Democracy was restored in the form of a parliamentry constitutional monarchy.1982 Spain joins NATO, becoming a member of a mainstream European organization.1986 Spain joins the European Community.2004 Islamic terrorists strike the Atocha train station in Madrid with bombs, killing nearly300 and precipitating a change in government.
  5. 5. LOCATION CLIMATEEASTERN EUROPE TEMPERATE: COLD AND DAMP WINTERS, HOTON THE EAST COAST AND DRY SUMMERSOF THE BLACK SEAHIDROLOGYRIVERS FORMED BYTHE BALKANS DRAINNORTH TO DANUBERIVER OR SOUTH TOTHE AEGEAN SEA.SMALLER RIVERS INTHE EAST DRAINTOWARDS THEBLACK SEATOPOGRAPHYALTERNATING BANDSOF HIGH AND LOWTERRAIN THATEXTEND EAST TOWEST ACROSS THECOUNTRY
  6. 6. LOCATION CLIMATE TOPOGRAPHYSOUTH WESTERN WARM AND PLEASANT, GREAT CAUCASUSASIA BORDERING AFFECTED BY SUBTROPICAL MONTAINS IN THETHE BLACK SEA INFLUENCES FROM THE NORTH LESSERBETWEEN TURKEY WEST AND MEDITERRENEAN CAUCASUS MONTAINSAND RUSSIA INFLUENCES FROM THE EAST IN THE SOUTH LAND THE RIVER LOWLANDS ALONG THE BLACK SEA COAST WERE TURNED IN TO A PRIME SUBTROPICAL AGRICULTURAL LANDS SOILS VERTICAL VARIABILITY WITH ALMOST ALL TYPE OF SOILSINTERACTIONACCESS TO LANDS WAS A STRONG POVERTY-COMPESATING HIDROLOGYFACTOR IN RURAL AREAS OF GEORGIA. ABSOLUT POVERTY IS ABOUT 25000 RIVERS MOSTUNLIKELY IN RURAL AREAS WHERE SMALLER COMMUNITIES OF THESE POWER SMALLARE MORE LIKELY TO PROVIDE A SAFETY NET HYDROELECTRIC STATIONS
  7. 7. LOCATIONSOUTH-WESTERN EUROPE (THE IBERIAN PENINSULA), BETWEEN PORTUGALAND FRANCEHIDROLOGYTHE RIVERS IN SPAIN,EVEN THE MAJORONES, HAVE A VERYWEAK FLOW, THEYJUST CONDUCT THERAIN WATER, ANDTHE RAINS AREIRREGULAR ANDSCARCE.TOPOGRAPHYCENTRAL PLATEAUCALLED MESETACENTRAL ENCLOSEDBY THE MOUNTAINSON THE NORTH, CLIMATESOUTH, EAST AND TEMPERATE: HOT SUMMERS AND COLD WINTERS INPART OF THE INTERIOR; MORE MODERATE ALONG THE COASTWESTERN SIDE
  8. 8. TRANSPORTATION BULGARIA GEORGIA SPAIN THE ROAD NETWORK IS THE BULGARIAN TRANSPORT 70% OF THE MAIN ROADS ARE EXCELLENT; THE MAIN CITIES NETWORK IS FAIRLY IN GOOD CONDITION AND ARE REACHED VIA HIGHWAYS. DEVELOPED, THOUGH THE “AUTOVIAS” ARE FREE; ROADS AFFECTED BY THE LACK OF 60% OF THE SECONDARY THE “AUTOPISTAS” HIGHWAYS INVESTMENT MADE IN ITS ROADS NEED HAVE TOLLS. 35% OF THE MAINTENANCE. REHABILITATION. COUNTRIES ROADS ARE HIGHWAYS. IMPORTANT MIEN IN THE LINKED TO ARMENIA AND GOOD, ESPECIALLY THE TRANSPORT OF AZERBAIJAN. FULLY TGV(HIGH SPEED TRAIN): AVE RAILWAYS MERCHANDISE. SLOW, LITTLE ELECTRIFIED RAILWAY (MADRID – SEVILLE) AND COMFORTABLE BUT CHEAP. NETWORK COVERS 1,583 EUROMED (BARCELONA – KILOMETRES OF TRACK. ALICANTE). LITTLE DEVELOPED GEORGIA HAS ELEVEN CONSIDERING THE SIZE OF AIRPORTS, BUT ONLY FIVE OF GOOD, BUT THE DOMESTIC THE COUNTRY. IN 2005, ONLY TRAFFIC IS VERY JAMMED: AIRPORTS 25,000 TONS OF THEM ARE INTERNATIONAL. DELAYS IN FLIGHTS MARCHANDISE USED AIR THEY ARE TBILISI, KUTAISI, SCHEDULES ARE FREQUENT. TRANSPORT. BATUMI, SENAKI AND POTI. BULGARIA HAS FIVE MAIN THREE PORTS I THE BLACK PORTS: VARNA AND BURGAS SEA, THE MAJOR ARE BATUMI PORTS IN THE BLACK SEA; RUSE, AND POTI AND THE LESS 28 SEA PORTS. LOM AND VIDIN ON THE IMPORTANT SUKHUMI. DANUBE.
  9. 9. BULGARIA / BÂLGARIYA POLITICAL CONTEXTPARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACYPOLITICAL STABILITY WITH LOW POLITICAL RISKNEXT ELECTIONS FOR THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY: JULY 2009GRANTED OPENNESS TO MEMBERS OF THE E.U.HIGH INCENTIVES TO FOREIGN INVESTMENT (SUPPORTED BY B.I.F.A.)‫‏‬CORRUPTION LEVEL OF 7,4 (IN A SCALE OF 1 TO 10)‫‏‬MEDIUM COMERCIAL RISK
  10. 10. GEORGIA / SAKARTVELOBULGARIA / BÂLGARIYA POLITICAL CONTEXTPARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACYPOLITICAL INSTABILITY WITH MEDIUM-HIGH POLITICAL RISKNEXT ELECTIONS FOR THE PARLIAMENT: SPRING 2012OPEN TO INTERNATIONAL TRADEBUSINESS-FRIENDLY ENVIRONMENT CREATED BY G.N.I.A FORFOREIGN INVESTEMENTCORRUPTION LEVEL OF 7,1 (IN A SCALE OF 1 TO 10)‫‏‬HIGH COMERCIAL RISK
  11. 11. SPAIN / ESPAÑA POLITICAL CONTEXTCONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY BASED ON A PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACYPOLITICAL STABILITY WITH VERY LOW POLITICAL RISKNEXT ELECTIONS FOR THE PARLIAMENT: MARCH 2012GRANTED OPENNESS TO MEMBERS OF THE E.U.INCENTIVES TO FOREIGN INVESTMENT (SUPPORTED BY INVEST IN SPAIN)‫‏‬CORRUPTION LEVEL OF 3,5 (IN A SCALE OF 1 TO 10)‫‏‬HIGH COMERCIAL RISK
  12. 12. LEGAL ENVIRONMENT BULGARIA GEORGIA SPAINRECENTLY LIBERALISED A NEW "CUSTOMS SPAIN APPLIES THE E.U.IMPORT SYSTEM TARIFF” LAW CAME INTO RULESThere is almost no import FORCE IN 2006,restriction, except when it PROVIDING AN EASIER WHILE THE E.U. HAS Aconcerns health or safety ENVIRONEMT TO RATHER LIBERAL FOREIGN FOREIGN COMPANIES TRADE POLICY,THERE IS AAS MEMBER OF THE E.U. CERTAIN NUMBER OFIS RULED BY THE E.U. RESTRICTIONS SPECIALLYLAWS AND REGULATIONS FUTURE ADOPTATION ON FARM PRODUCTSSUCH AS THE COUNCIL OF THE HARMONIZED FOLLOWING THE2000/13/EC DIRECTIVE COMMODITY DESCRIPTION IMPLEMENTATION AND CODING SYSTEM OF THE C.AP.MARKETING STANDARDS HS 2002 Common Agricultural PolicyFOR QUALITY OF FRUITAND VEGETABLES ARE FOREIGN INVESTMENT RECEIVES EQUAL MARKETING STANDARDSLAID DOWN IN FOR QUALITY OF FRUIT2200/96/EC REGULATION TREATMENT AND VEGETABLES ARE LAID DOWN IN FOREIGN FIRMS ARE 2200/96/EC REGULATION ALLOWED TO PARTICIPATE FREELY IN PRIVATIZATIONS
  13. 13. LEGAL ENVIRONMENT BULGARIA GEORGIA SPAINNO IMPORT TAXES IMPORT TAXES ARE NO IMPORT TAXESHowever, all imports are APPLIED SINCE IT´S A MEMBERsubject to a 20% Value OF THE E.U.Added Tax (VAT) levied FROM JANUARY 2005,at the time of import GEORGIA HAS 16 IMPORT TAX RATES INSTEAD OF ASSOCIATED TO THE THE PREVIUOUS 22. WORLD BANK; IMF ANDASSOCIATED TO THE WTO (SINCE 1995)‫‏‬WORLD BANK; IMF AND IMPORT TAX RATES FALLWTO (SINCE 1996)‫‏‬ IN THE RANGE OF 0-30%. THERE ARE NO QUANTITATIVE RESTRICTIONS ON IMPORTS ASSOCIATED TO THE WORLD BANK; IMF AND WTO (SINCE 2000)‫‏‬
  14. 14. BULGARIA / BÂLGARIYACULTURAL AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTBULGARIAN IS THE MAIN LANGUAGE WITH 84,5%ORTHODOX CURCH HAS 82,6% OF THE TOTAL POPULATION HOWEVERTHERE ARE 12,2% OF MUSLIMSAS A COLLECTIVIST SOCIETY PLACES THE GROUP IN FRONT OF INDIVUALSTHE BULGARIAN PEOPLE WANT TO IMPROVE THEIR STANDARDS OF LIVINGAND SEES THE MODERN SOCIETY OF CONSUME AS VERY TEMPTINGIN 2006 THE CONSUME PER CAPITA WAS 54KG OF FRUITS AND 92KG OFVEGETABLESPONTUALITY IS VALUEDFAMILY IS THE FUNDAMENTAL SOCIAL UNIT AND MUCH OF SOSICETY ISBASED AROUND IT
  15. 15. GEORGIA / SAKARTVELOBULGARIA / BÂLGARIYACULTURAL AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTTHE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE IS GEORGIAN WITH 71% OF POPULATIONORTHODOX CHURCH IS THE MAIN RELIGION WITH 83,9%, HOWEVER THEREARE 9.9% OF MUSLIMSGEORGIAN BUSINESS CULTURE IS NOTICEABLY LESS FORMALTHAN IN OTHER COUTRIESPEOPLE WITH HIGHER STATUS SHOULD INITIATE THE HANDSHAKEACADEMIC AND PROFESSIONAL TITLES ARE COMMONLY USED WITH THE SURNAMEIN 2007 THE CONSUME OF VEGETABLES ARE EVALUETED IN 400 TONES
  16. 16. SPAIN / ESPAÑACULTURAL AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTSPAIN HAVE FOUR LANGUAGES: CASTILLIAN (74%), CATALAN (17%),GALICIAN(7%), BASQUE(2%)‫‏‬THE MAIN RELIGION IS ROMAN CATHOLIC WITH 94% OF POPULATIONUSUALY ARE VERY INFORMAL, HOWEVER THE INITIAL INTRODUCTION IS FORMALIN GENERAL THE SPANISH DON´T SPEAK FOREIGN LANGUAGES, IT´S A VERYNATIONALIST PEOPLETHE SPANISH MARKET HAS DIFFERENT REGIONS WITH SLIGHTLYDIFFERENT CONSUME CHARACTERISTICS AND HABITSTHE PRICE ITS VERY IMPORTANT, THE MIDDLE AND UPPER CLASSESUSUALY DON´T PAY MORE FOR QUALITY
  17. 17. TECHNOLOGICAL CONTEXT BULGARIA GEORGIA SPAINTECNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT RANK 68 RANK 91 RANK 31LEVEL SOURCE: WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM, 2007CELLULAR SUBSCRIBERS 10%* 33,3%* 82,4%*SOURCE: GLOBAL VIRTUAL UNIVERSITYINTERNET USERS 1,5%* 8,1%* 15,6%*SOURCE: GLOBAL VIRTUAL UNIVERSITYPERSONAL COMPUTERS IN USE 3,2%* 5,2%* 19,6%*SOURCE: GLOBAL VIRTUAL UNIVERSITYTELEPHONE MAINLINES 13,1%* 36,8%* 50,6%*SOURCE: GLOBAL VIRTUAL UNIVERSITYPERMEABILITY TO INNOVATION MEDIUM LOW LOW * - REGARDING THE ALL POPULATION OF THE COUNTRIE
  18. 18. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES BULGARIA / BÂLGARIYA• MASSIVE INDUSTRIALISATION BROUGHT POLLUTION AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS•IN 1990 AN ESTIMATED 35% OF THE POPULATION RISKED SERIOUS HEALTHPROBLEMS BECAUSE OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION• AIRBORNE POLLUTANTS HAVE DAMAGED 25% OF THE FOREST• CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF THE DANUBE RIVER ON THE PORT CITY OF RUSE•GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS SUBSTANTIALLY DECREASED IN THE PERIOD1988-2002•INCREASE IN ROAD TRANSPORT, SHOWING A SERIOUS INCREASE IN THEAMOUNT OF TRANSPORTED GOODS AND WORK DONE (IN TONNE KM)‫‏‬•FAVOURABLE SOIL AND CLIMATE CONDITIONS FOR ORGANIC FARMING, WITHGOOD EXPORT POTENTIAL•OPPORTUNITIES OF A DOMESTIC MARKET FOR ORGANIC PRODUCTS, INCLUDINGFRESH AND PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
  19. 19. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUESGEORGIA / SAKARTVELO CONTAMINATION OF SURFACE WATER IS A HEALTH RISK•IN THE 80’S‫‏‬THE‫‏‬TOURISM‫‏‬INDUSTRY‫‏‬WAS‫‏‬GREATLY‫‏‬HARMED‫‏‬BY‫‏‬THE‫‏‬BLACK‫‏‬SEA POLLUTION•ABHKAZIA’S‫‏‬UNIQUE‫‏‬ECOLOGICAL‫‏‬HABITATS‫‏‬WERE‫‏‬SUBSTANTIALY‫‏‬HARMED‫‏‬BY THE WAR IN THAT REGIONSPAIN / ESPAÑACO2 EMISSIONS ARE 38% OVER THE MAXIMUM LIMIT ALLOWED BY THE KYOTO•PROTOCOL•BAD URBAN PLANNING POLICY BOOSTED CONSTRUCTION. SPAIN IS THESECOND BIGGEST MARKET FOR CEMENT, SURPASSED ONLY BY CHINA•THE GOVERNMENT IS DESIGNING STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENT AND AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE.
  20. 20. AGRICULTUREBULGARIA / BÂLGARIYA“‫‏‬In‫ ,6991‏‬the vineyard got divided into hundreds of clumps, and it covered about114,400 ha among which 14,500 ha were dedicated to dessert grapes. Since 1968, thevineyard has been reduced by a 34%, firstly because of the lack of maintenancefollowed by the disuse of new owners who have destroyed it to avoid any fiscalperception. In spite of this, agriculture remains an important sector of the nationaleconomy. Over the last 7 years of reforms and transition of the Bulgarian economy,the part of the agriculture and of the forest production varied between 10 and 12%of‫‏‬the‫‏‬gross‫‏‬domestic‫‏‬product.”
  21. 21. AGRICULTUREGEORGIA / SAKARTVELOBULGARIA / BÂLGARIYA“‫‏‬Georgia‫‏‬has‫‏‬been‫‏‬for‫‏‬a‫‏‬long‫‏‬time‫‏‬nicknamed‫"‏‬the‫‏‬garden‫‏‬of‫‏‬the‫‏‬Caucasus".‫‏‬Becauseof the favourable climate and geographical position, agriculture has always been animportant economic activity in the Caucasus area. Thanks to the legal reforms in theland ownership, the agriculture sector now contributes nearly 16% to the GDP but theyield is still low. The main agricultural produce is tea, citrus fruits, tobacco, winegrapes, and rice. There is lack of domestic investments in this sector but issupported by foreign investments, especially from the EU. But high export potentialto‫‏‬CIS‫‏‬countries,‫‏‬Japan‫‏‬and‫‏‬Europe‫‏‬exists‫‏‬in‫‏‬Georgia.”
  22. 22. AGRICULTURESPAIN / ESPAÑA“‫‏‬Spain‫‏‬is‫‏‬one‫‏‬of‫‏‬the‫‏‬most‫‏‬important‫‏‬agricultural‫‏‬producers‫‏‬in‫‏‬the‫‏‬mediteranean‫‏‬zone,in spite of important physical and sociocultural constraints. Regions whereagriculture remains very important are mainly Andalusia, Murcia, Estremadoura, thetwo Castillas, Rioja, Galicia and Navarra. With Denmark, Spain has the biggest fishingfleet of the European Union. The fishing industry has been going through a sharpgrowth for ten years with opportunities in ready-made meals and smoked fishes.Fishing products represent the first position of the farm-produce‫‏‬purchases‫‏‬in‫‏‬Spain.”
  23. 23. COMPARATIVE ANALYSISOF BULGARIA, GEORGIAAND SPAINEXPORTING FRUITS & VEGETABLES ECONOMIC TRENDS MARKET TRENDS DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT
  24. 24. ECONOMIC TRENDSGDP (2008) BULGARIA GEORGIA SPAIN 51 093 billion dollars 13 028 billion dollars 1 683 trillion dollars G - e g w rt ( ) D ra r t a % P l oh e 1 4 1 2 1 0 Bg i A .4 % uaa v . l r e 8 8 Gr i A .6 % eg v . o a e 4 6 4 Sa pn A .2 % i v . e 7 2 0 2 02 12 22 32 4 0 0 2 72 8 0 0 0 0 0 2 52 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  25. 25. ECONOMIC TRENDS BULGARIA GEORGIA SPAINEXTERNAL TRADE BALANCE - 6,81 - 2,02 -100,732006 USD BILLIONSSHARE OF IMPORTS IN GDP 75,8 53,4 30,62005SHARE OF EXPORTS IN GDP 59,6 40,9 25,42005INFLATION RATE 5 8,3 9,22005EXPECTED INFLATION RATE 7,9 8,1 2,82008EXCHANGE RATE PER USD 1,559267 1,780433 0,7971408ANUAL AVERAGE 2006
  26. 26. ECONOMIC TRENDSPURCHASING POWER YEAR BULGARIA GEORGIA SPAIN 2008 Up to € 5,000 Up to €180 Up to €15,000MANPOWER COST YEAR BULGARIA GEORGIA SPAIN Europe 2000 €1,35 - €14,22 €22,7
  27. 27. ECONOMIC TRENDSEXCHANGE RATESBULGARIAGEORGIA 1USD = 1.5050GEL / 1EUR = 2.3747 (IN JANUARY 2009)
  28. 28. DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENTPOPULATION STATUS BULGARIA GEORGIA SPAINPOPULATION 7,262,675 Millions 4,630,841 Millions 40,491,052 MillionsPOPULATION -0.813% -0.325% 0.096%GROWTH RATEMORTALITY RATE 14.6 deaths/1,000 9.51 deaths/1,000 9.9 deaths/1,000NATALITY RATE 9.58 births/1,000 10.62 births/1,000 9.87 births/1,000LIFE M: 69.22 years M: 73.21 years M: 76.6 yearsEXPECTANCY F: 76.66 years F: 80.26 years F: 83.45 yearsEMPLOYED IN 8,9% 54,3% 5,3%AGRICULTUREDENSITY 71,24 PEOPLE/M2 64,39 PEOPLE/M2 86,94 PEOPLE/M2
  29. 29. DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENTAGE PYRAMIDS BULGARIA
  30. 30. DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENTAGE PYRAMIDS GEORGIA
  31. 31. DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENTAGE PYRAMIDS SPAIN
  32. 32. DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENTURBANIZATION BULGARIA
  33. 33. DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENTURBANIZATION GEORGIA
  34. 34. DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENTURBANIZATION SPAIN
  35. 35. MARKET TRENDS BULGARIA GEORGIA SPAINBULGARIA IS A GEORGIA IS APARENTLY A SPAIN IS HIGHLYPOTENTTIALLY BIG MARKET SMALL MARKET DUE TO INTERESTING MARKET,DUE TO THE SIZE OF THE THE SIZE OF THE HOWEVER THE REGIONALPOPULATION POPULATION STATUS IN THE COUNTRY CAN BE A PROBLEM INCOMES HAVE BEEN RISING UNLESS NEGOTIAITONSINCOMES ARE EXPECTED IN THE PAST YEARS AND ARE MADE TO REGIONALTO RISE IN A NEAR FUTURE ARE EXPECTED TO KEEP ON COMPANIES RISING IN THE FUTURE,BULGARIANS WILL HOWEVER SEEM TO BE NOTPROBABLY SPEND MORE ON CUNSUMPTION OF FRESH ENOUGH FOR MANY IMPORTIMPORTED FOOD, HIGHER FRUITS AND VEGETABLES WESTERN PRODUCTSQUALITY AND SPECIALITY IS GOWINGFOOD SINCE 2003 TO THE PRESENT FRESH FRUITS AND TIME RESTAURANTS TORN- VEGETABLES ARE ANTHE OFFER OF EXOTIC OVER AS INCREASED IN IMPORTANT PART OF THEIRFOOD IS LIMITED BUT WILL ALMOST 300% DIETINCREASE AS BULGARIANSWILL HAVE MORE TO SPEND
  36. 36. MARKET TRENDS BULGARIA GEORGIA SPAINBULGARIANS SHARE THE GRAPE HARVEST WAS SPAIN IS PRODUCINGSAME ATTITUDE TOWARDS DOWN IN ALMOST 50% IN FEWER PEARS AND TABLEFOOD AS THE WESTERN 2008 DUE TO THE GRAPESEUROPEAN COUNTRIES CONFRONTATIONS WITH THE RUSSIANS A LARGE PART OF SPAINSALTHOUGH THE MARKET IS PRODUCTION OF FRESHSLOWING, THERE ARE HUGE GEORGIAN CONSUMPTION FRUITA AND VEGETABLES ISOPPORTUNITIES TO GROW CONSISTS MAINLY OF PROCESSED BY THE FOODIN THE NEXT YEARS DOMESTICALLY PRODUCED INDUSTRY FOR JUICES, FRUITS AND VEGETABLES DAIRY AND PULPCONVIENIENCE PRODUCTSARE ONE OF THE BEST THERE IS A GROWINGPERFORMING PRODUCTS MARKET FOR OFF-SEASONIN RETAIL SALES PRODUCTS (E.G.: CITRUS AND APPLES)INCREASED FOREIGNTOURISM IS INCREASINGTHE DEMAND FORWESTERN PRODUCEDHIGH QUALITY GOODS
  37. 37. POLITICAL AND COMERCIAL RISK
  38. 38. TAXONOMIC MATRIX A HIGH T T HIGH MEDIUM RR LOW A CI TS HIGH I VK LOW MEDIUM I T LOW Y
  39. 39. COMPARATIVE ANALYSISOF BULGARIA, GEORGIAAND SPAINSOURCESF.A.O.F.I.T.A.WORLD BANKI.M.F.BULGARIAN GOVERNMENTGEORGIAN GOVERNMENTSPANISH GOVERNMENTWORLD ECONOMIC FORUMGLOBAL VIRTUAL UNIVERSITYA.I.C.E.P.CBI.EU

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