Wwii homefront

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by Rick Fair on Nov 02, 2010

by Rick Fair on Nov 02, 2010

More in: News & Politics
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  • 1. The Home Front Mobilizing the War World War II transformed the role of thenational government The government built housing for warworkers and forced civilian industries toretool for war production
  • 2. The Home Front Business and War FDR offered incentives to business to spurproduction○ Low interest loans○ Tax concessions○ Contracts with guaranteed profits Americans produced an astonishing amountof wartime goods and utilized science andtechnology
  • 3. The Home Front Business and War The West Coast emerged as a focus ofmilitary-industrial production○ Nearly 2 million Americans moved toCalifornia for jobs in defense-relatedindustries The South remained very poor despite theinflux of manufacturing
  • 4. The Home Front Labor in Wartime Organized labor entered a three-sidedarrangement with government and businessthat allowed union membership to soar tounprecedented levels Unions became firmly established in manysectors of the economy during World War II
  • 5. The Four Freedoms To FDR, the FourFreedomsexpressed deeplyheld Americanvalues worthy ofbeing spreadworldwide
  • 6. The Four Freedoms Freedom of Speech Gold standard for the Constitution(democracy) Freedom of Religion Gold standard for the critique of theHolocaust Even though most Americans andpoliticians at the time considered it afarce and could not believe humanswould treat each other so poorly
  • 7. Freedom of Speech
  • 8. The Four Freedoms Freedom from Want The gold standard for economic policies for the restof the 20th century Elimination of barriers to international trade○ Protecting the standard of living from falling after the war Freedom from Fear The gradual disarmament of the entire world Help prevent tyranny (Italy, Germany) fromhappening again “human security” paradigm the gradual shift from the collective to theindividual, Rockwell’s painting shows this very well
  • 9. Freedom from Want
  • 10. Freedom from Fear
  • 11. The Fifth Freedom The war witnessed a burst of messagesmarketing advertisers’ definition offreedom The emergence of free enterprise
  • 12.  Audience Slogans Ideas Energy & Capital
  • 13.  Gum Lingerie Grease Juke Boxes Toasters Blenders Cars Toothpaste Shoes Coffee Kettles Nylon hose Erasers Glass jars Tin cans Tea
  • 14.  Right to work. Right to fair pay. Right to adequate food. Right to security. Right to live in a society of free enterprise. Right to come and go. Right to speak or be silent. Right to equality before the law. Right to rest. Right to an education.
  • 15.  Right to work, if you are white. Right to fair pay, if you are male. Right to adequate food, if you register for and comply with foodrationing programs. Right to security, if you were not drafted. Right to live in a society of free enterprise, if one excludes thegovernment’s price and wage ceilings and orders that haltedproduction on all the common items one needs to live. Right to come and go, if the person does not need newshoes, more gasoline, decent tires, a new car, or a new bicycle. Right to speak or be silent, as long as one speaks positivelyabout the war, and is silent about the legitimacy of rationingclaims. Right to equality before the law, if it is “Separate but Equal” beforethe law. Right to rest, but only on Christmas Day. And a right to an education, if the cotton is not in bloom and readyto be picked by child laborers.
  • 16. Women at War Women in 1944 made up over 1/3 of thecivilian labor force New opportunities opened up for marriedwomen and mothers Women’s work during the war was viewedby men and the government as temporary The advertisers’ “world of tomorrow” restedon a vision of family-centered prosperity
  • 17. The American Dilemma Patriotic Assimilation World War II created a vast meltingpot, especially for European immigrants andtheir children○ Roosevelt promoted pluralism as the onlysource of harmony in a diverse society Government and private agencies eagerlypromoted group equality as the definition ofAmericanism and a counterpoint to Nazism
  • 18. The American Dilemma Patriotic Assimilation By the war’s end, racism and nativism hadbeen stripped of its intellectual respectability○ However, intolerance hardly disappeared fromAmerican life
  • 19. The American Dilemma Asian-Americans in Wartime Asian-Americans’ war experience was filledwith paradox Chinese exclusion was abolished Japanese were viewed by American as adetested foe The American government viewed everyperson of Japanese ethnicity as a potentialspy
  • 20. The American Dilemma Japanese-American Internment The military persuaded FDR to issueExecutive Order 9066 Internment revealed how easily war canundermine basic freedoms○ Hardly anyone spoke out against internment○ The courts refused to intervene The government marketed war bonds to theinternees and drafted them into the army
  • 21. Blacks and the War The wartime message of freedom ushered amajor transformation in the status of blacks The war spurred a movement of blackpopulation from the rural South to the cities ofthe North and West Detroit race riot During the war, over 1 million blacks served inthe armed forces Black soldiers sometimes had to give up theirseats on railroad cars to accommodate Naziprisoners of war
  • 22. Birth of the Civil RightsMovement The war years witnessed the birth of themodern civil rights movement March on Washington Black labor leader A. Philip Randolph calledfor the march in July 1941 Executive Order 8802 Prohibited government contractors fromengaging in employment discriminationbased on race, color, or national origin
  • 23. Birth of the Civil RightsMovement The Double V The double-V meant that victory over Germany andJapan must be accompanied by victory oversegregation at home What the Negro Wants During the war, a broad political coalition on the leftcalled for an end to racial inequality in America○ The status of blacks becomes an issue at the forefrontof enlightened liberalism CIO unions made significant efforts to organize blackworkers and win access to skilled positions The South reacts by attempting to preservewhite supremacy
  • 24. The End of the War The Atomic Bomb One of the most momentous decisions everconfronted by an American president fell toHarry Truman The bomb was a practical realization of thetheory of relativity The Manhattan Project developed an atomicbomb
  • 25. The End of the War The Dawn of the Atomic Age On 6 August 1945, an American bomberdropped an atomic bomb that detonated overHiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan Because of the enormous cost in civilianlives, the use of the bomb remains controversial○ Allied military forces reasoned the use of thebomb saved roughly half a million Allied soldiers’lives The dropping of the atomic bombs was thelogical culmination of the war World War II hadbeen fought○ A total threat requires a total response