Growth of Labor UnionsWorkers join together for change.
Workers advocated for higher wages, better working conditions andprotection against job loss due to injury by machines.IssuesTactics Used to Push for Change• LOW PAY• LONG HOURS• DANGEROUSWORKINGCONDITIONS• WANTED BENEFITSAND JOB SECURITY• STRIKE-refusal to work• BOYCOTT-refusal to buyproducts of a particularcompany• SLOW DOWN-decrease inproductivity.• Joining LABOR UNIONS
Development of Labor Unions1. KNIGHTS OF LABORa. began in 1869b. led by Terence Powderlyc. welcomed all workers into the union including women and African Americansd. Membership declined after 1866 Haymarket Square Riot2. AFL—AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABORa. began by Samuel Gompersb. accepted only skilled laborc. didn’t accept _women, blacks, or immigrants.3. Eugene V. Debsa. created 1st large scale industrial union.b. brought together all railroad workers: skilled and unskilled.4. Labor Unions faced harassment from law enforcement,Managers and government.
Business Owners/ManagementIssues Tactics Against Labor• Granting any of the labor’sdemands would cut intoprofits.• Large supply of labormeant workers could easilybe replaced• The US governmentshowed NO support forLabor.• LOCK-OUT-closed factory orplace of employment• BLACK LIST-record kept bycompanies of employees whoshould not be hired becausethey want changes.• HIRING SCABS-non-union,replacement workers hiredduring a strike.
Unions and Management ClashGreat Railway Strike 1877—July—workers atthe B&O Railroad stopped rail lines inseveral states. President Hayesintervened calling on federal troops toend the strike.The Haymarket Affair—May 6, 1866—3000 workers inChicago to protest police brutality againststrikers. Someone threw a bomb inthe police line, police opened fire.Several strikers and 7 police officerswere killed. Public turned against theunion movementPullman Strikea. town built by George Pullmanb. company laid off several workers and cutthe wages of the remaining employees.c. President Grover Cleveland sent troopsin.d. Riots broke out and the union, led byEugene V. Debs was blamed for thestrike. Debs was arrested and thestrike collapsed.Homestead Strike: 1892 workers at CarnegieSteel Plant organized a strike protestingreduced wages. Riots broke outbetween strikers and security. 16people were killed and the NationalGuard was brought in to end the strike.DURING THE STRIKES OF THE LATE 1800S THE US GOVERNMENT CONSISTENTLYSUPPORTED MANAGEMENT AND OWNERS OVER WORKERS. THE PROGRESSIVE ERAEFFORTS WOULD HELP CHANGE THIS.