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  • 1. “We the People of the United States, inorder to form a more perfect Union, establishjustice, insure domestic tranquility, providefor the common defense, promote thegeneral welfare, and secure the blessings ofliberty to ourselves and our posterity, doordain and establish this Constitution for theUnited States of America.”
  • 2.  Form a more perfect Union Establish justice Insure domestic tranquility Provide for the common defense Promote general welfare Guarantee liberty for ourselves + our posterity
  • 3.  To correct the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Ready to frame a new government Opposing views Government with authority or Protect individual rights
  • 4.  Issues  Large & small states  North & South  Strong national government versus states’ rights
  • 5. CONNECTICUT Representation in Congress Bicameral legislature SENATE Equal representation HOUSE State’s population (census every 10 years)
  • 6.  Slavery and power Representation Taxes
  • 7.  9 out of 13 must approve Held conventions in each state “The Great Debate”
  • 8. Alexander ThomasHamilton Jefferson
  • 9.  Elastic Clause  Congress can make all laws “necessary and proper”  Stretches to fit changing circumstances  example: minimum wage Amendment Process  Changes  Both Congress and the states must approve Judicial Interpretation  Courts review cases
  • 10.  Popular Sovereignty  Source of all power to govern is the people Limited Government  Powers are defined  Legal limits Separation of powers  Legislative, executive, judicial Checks and Balances  Prevents too much power in any one branch
  • 11.  Legislative Branch  Makes laws for the nation. Executive Branch  Provides leadership and enforces laws. Judicial Branch  Explains and interprets laws.
  • 12.  Bicameral – Two houses  Senate  House of Representatives
  • 13.  Electing the president Electoral college Powers and duties
  • 14.  Voters cast ballots for  AGAINST  “winner-take-all” electors  Electoral vote versus popular Electors cast ballots for vote President + VP  Electors not bound by law to if candidate wins vote for winning candidate  FOR majority of votes in a  Amendment to Constitution state he/she get all the  Small states would lose over- electors representation large states have more  Threat to two-party system electors so candidates focus on these states
  • 15.  Two court system – FEDERAL & STATE  National court system  Each state has its own Federal – Judicial Review  Interpretation of the Constitution
  • 16.  “It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world…” - Washington’s Farewell Address, September 17, 1796 Neutrality
  • 17.  1803 Marbury v Madison established the right of Supreme Court to interpret laws passed by Congress John Marshall- Chief Justice of Supreme Court (Federalist) who increased power of court
  • 18.  Traditions that are accepted but not always part of Constitution Cabinet- group of advisors to President Two-term Presidency- established by Washington only became part of Constitution after FDR political parties- organized around common ideas these are not required by Constitution
  • 19. Attempt to influence laws legislation
  • 20. Process for making a change to the ConstitutionBetween 1795- 2002 only 27 amendments to Constitution
  • 21.  To protect individuals and states against too much government power Civil liberties Example: Second Amendment, Right to Bear Arms (Right To Own a Gun)