6. progressive era and populism


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6. progressive era and populism

  1. 1. What are Labor Unions and why did theydevelop?
  2. 2.  Pullman Strike◦ Strike by railwayworkers◦ President GroverCleveland sends introops to break strike◦ Proved thatgovernment favoredbusiness over labor Haymarket SquareRiot◦ Labor rally in Chicago◦ Ended with a bombblast and riot leavingmany dead (7 policeofficers)◦ Knights of Labor wereblamed for casualties
  3. 3.  Monopolies restrictedcompetition Abuse of naturalresources Corporate wealth &power increased Social Darwinism 60 hour week Unsafe, unhealthyconditions No guarantees – littlejob security Low wages Women & childrenmade even less
  4. 4.  Industries unrestrained Courts failed to support fair standards Laissez-faire
  5. 5.  FARMERS PROTESTS THE IMPORTANCE OF A THIRD POLITICALPARTY Increased circulation of money unlimited minting of silver progressive income tax government ownership of national communicationand transportation
  6. 6.  Tax on imported goods-◦ discourages buying foreign goods andpromotes domestic industry farmers hurt◦ raised prices of manufactured goods◦ reduced international market forAmerican farm products
  7. 7. The Grange◦ farmers formedcooperatives◦ common politicalcauses◦ social outletFarmers Alliance◦ Federal regulationof railroads◦ more money incirculation◦ women played amajor role
  8. 8.  Protect Social Welfare Promote Moral Improvement Reform corruption in government Create economic reform
  9. 9.  Journalists & writers Artist & photographers Investigated & exposed corruption & injustices
  10. 10.  Pure Food & Drug Act Meat Inspection Act Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle
  11. 11.  Jacob Riis Social Gospel Building codes◦ Better lighting◦ Better ventilated◦ More sanitary
  12. 12.  Settlement houses Education, child care, social activities, Help finding jobs Hull House – Chicago – Jane Addams
  13. 13.  Political machines and bossescontrolled local governments These bosses earned votes by doingfavors for people Often these bosses accepted bribesand kickbacks
  14. 14.  William M. Tweedcontrolled the New YorkCity police, courts andnewspapers Accepted millions ofdollars in bribes andkickbacks Went to jail in 1872
  15. 15.  The practice of appointing people to publicoffice on the basis of a personalrelationship, rather than merits. Pendleton Act - created the Civil ServiceCommission◦ Created an exam for Federal jobs
  16. 16.  Wisconsin Idea- direct primary elections Seventeenth Amendment- direct election ofSenators Oregon System◦ initiative- voters could place issue on ballot◦ referendum- voters could accept or reject laws◦ recall- chance to remove unsatisfactory electedofficials
  17. 17.  1902 United Mine Workers Strike◦ Teddy Roosevelt insisted that mine ownersnegotiate with union 1906 Hepburn Act-◦ government regulates railroad rates 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act -◦ regulates food industry
  18. 18.  1890 SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT By 1909 the government had filed 42antitrust actions Beef trust, Standard Oil and AmericanTobacco Industry broken up orreorganized
  19. 19.  “SQUARE DEAL”- helps Unions TRUSTBUSTER- attempted to breakup 42 different trusts CONSERVATIONIST- set aside 200million acres for conservation
  20. 20. Teddy Roosevelt returns◦tariff reduction◦women’s suffrage◦regulation of business◦end child labor◦eight hour work day◦workers compensation◦direct election of Senators – 17thAmendment