Reconstruction Era (1867-1877)Reconstruction: refers to the period following the Civil War when the southern states were rebuilt and new political gains emerged for African Americans.
Problems following the Civil WarNorthern States Southern States Lost largest number of Cities in ruins soldiers Money worthless Factories closed Bitter feeling Government canceled Bridges and Railroad work orders destroyed Returning soldiers needed Farmland was burned jobs Lost political influence
Ruins in Richmond Ruins of Haxalls Flour Mill in Richmond, Virginia. When Unionforces entered the Confederate capital on April 3, 1865, they found much of the city destroyed by fire.
Savannah house destroyed by Union soldiers
Plans for ReconstructionThree plans had emerged at the conclusion of the Civil War to help rebuild the southern states:Lincoln’s Plan (Ten Percent)Johnson’s PlanRadical Republicans (Congressional Reconstruction Act of 1867)
Lincoln’s Ten Percent PlanGoal: achieve a complete and unified Union peaceful nation instead of a fighting oneMain Ideas: (1) all southerners, except high-ranking Confederate political and military officials, would be pardoned and regain citizenship when they took an oath to support the Constitution and the emancipation of slaves (2) when ten percent of the voters in a state took this oath they could establish a legal government that would be recognized by the President * Wanted to take it easy on southern states * Battled with Congress
Assassination of President Abraham LincolnLincoln would never see his plan take action: On the evening of April 14, 1865, while attending a special performance of the comedy, "Our American Cousin,“ at Ford’s Theater, President Abraham Lincoln was shot The assassin, John Wilkes Booth, a disgruntled actor
Johnson’s PlanVice President Andrew Johnson became President following Abraham Lincoln’s assassinationAgreed with Lincoln’s Plan, however Johnson’s Plan was stricterIdeas: Pardons would be granted to those taking a loyalty of oath to uphold the Constitution No pardons would be available to high Confederate officials A state needed to abolish slavery before being readmitted A state was required to repeal its secession ordinance before being readmitted.
Impeachment of President Andrew JohnsonCongress wanted harsher terms for ReconstructionPresident Andrew Johnson disagreed with congressional views on ReconstructionCongress determined that President Andrew Johnson had violated the recent Tenure of Office Act and prompted the Republican-controlled House to impeach the presidentThe Senate fell short of their impeachment process by one vote, however Johnson’s political influence was gone
Radical RepublicansCongressional Military Reconstruction Act of 1867Ideas: Organized the south into five military districts The states had to have a military leader from the north No state could return to civilian rule and be readmitted to the Union until white and black voters framed a constitution that guaranteed suffrage to African Americans and ratified the Fourteenth Amendment. Act banned confederate leaders from voting, and any who didnt pledge their allegiance to the U.S.
Five Military Districts
JIM CROW LAWSAny law passed with the intention of keeping Blacks and Whites segregated1830- first law passed in Massachusetts which allowed railroad companies to segregate train cars
Jim Crow LawsPoll Tax – Must pay to vote.Literacy Test – Must pass a test to vote.Grandfather Clause – If your grandfather could not vote then you can not.
Plessy v FergusonSupreme Court ruled that segregation was legal in the United States“separate-but- equal”
Booker T WashingtonBorn as a slave in 1856studied at Hampton University 1872Founded Tuskegee Institute in 1881
W.E.B.DuBoisFirst African American to earn PhD from HarvardFounded Niagara Movement
National Association for the Advancement of Colored PeopleN.A.A.C.P.Fought for the rights of African Americans