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4. reconstruction era 4. reconstruction era Presentation Transcript

  • Reconstruction Era (1867-1877)Reconstruction: refers to the period following the Civil War when the southern states were rebuilt and new political gains emerged for African Americans.
  • Problems following the Civil WarNorthern States Southern States  Lost largest number of  Cities in ruins soldiers  Money worthless  Factories closed  Bitter feeling  Government canceled  Bridges and Railroad work orders destroyed  Returning soldiers needed  Farmland was burned jobs  Lost political influence
  • Ruins in Richmond Ruins of Haxalls Flour Mill in Richmond, Virginia. When Unionforces entered the Confederate capital on April 3, 1865, they found much of the city destroyed by fire.
  • Savannah house destroyed by Union soldiers
  • Plans for ReconstructionThree plans had emerged at the conclusion of the Civil War to help rebuild the southern states:Lincoln’s Plan  (Ten Percent)Johnson’s PlanRadical Republicans  (Congressional Reconstruction Act of 1867)
  • Lincoln’s Ten Percent PlanGoal:  achieve a complete and unified Union  peaceful nation instead of a fighting oneMain Ideas:  (1) all southerners, except high-ranking Confederate political and military officials, would be pardoned and regain citizenship when they took an oath to support the Constitution and the emancipation of slaves  (2) when ten percent of the voters in a state took this oath they could establish a legal government that would be recognized by the President * Wanted to take it easy on southern states * Battled with Congress
  • Assassination of President Abraham LincolnLincoln would never see his plan take action:  On the evening of April 14, 1865, while attending a special performance of the comedy, "Our American Cousin,“ at Ford’s Theater, President Abraham Lincoln was shot  The assassin, John Wilkes Booth, a disgruntled actor
  • Johnson’s PlanVice President Andrew Johnson became President following Abraham Lincoln’s assassinationAgreed with Lincoln’s Plan, however Johnson’s Plan was stricterIdeas:  Pardons would be granted to those taking a loyalty of oath to uphold the Constitution  No pardons would be available to high Confederate officials  A state needed to abolish slavery before being readmitted  A state was required to repeal its secession ordinance before being readmitted.
  • Impeachment of President Andrew JohnsonCongress wanted harsher terms for ReconstructionPresident Andrew Johnson disagreed with congressional views on ReconstructionCongress determined that President Andrew Johnson had violated the recent Tenure of Office Act and prompted the Republican-controlled House to impeach the presidentThe Senate fell short of their impeachment process by one vote, however Johnson’s political influence was gone
  • Radical RepublicansCongressional Military Reconstruction Act of 1867Ideas:  Organized the south into five military districts  The states had to have a military leader from the north  No state could return to civilian rule and be readmitted to the Union until white and black voters framed a constitution that guaranteed suffrage to African Americans and ratified the Fourteenth Amendment.  Act banned confederate leaders from voting, and any who didnt pledge their allegiance to the U.S.
  • Five Military Districts
  • JIM CROW LAWSAny law passed with the intention of keeping Blacks and Whites segregated1830- first law passed in Massachusetts which allowed railroad companies to segregate train cars
  • Jim Crow LawsPoll Tax – Must pay to vote.Literacy Test – Must pass a test to vote.Grandfather Clause – If your grandfather could not vote then you can not.
  • Plessy v FergusonSupreme Court ruled that segregation was legal in the United States“separate-but- equal”
  • Booker T WashingtonBorn as a slave in 1856studied at Hampton University 1872Founded Tuskegee Institute in 1881
  • W.E.B.DuBoisFirst African American to earn PhD from HarvardFounded Niagara Movement
  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored PeopleN.A.A.C.P.Fought for the rights of African Americans