Toward Understanding Perception and               Potential Role of    Religious Leaders in the Prevention of Female Genit...
Name of Principal InvestigatorName                     Position                  InstitutionDr.Hani Mohammed         Resea...
Toward Understanding Perception and Potential Role  of Religious Leaders in the Prevention of Female        Genital Mutila...
Content of the presentation• Acronyms and Abbreviations .• Abstract .• General Informations.• Research Problem Identificat...
Cont• Research Methodology.• Ethical Consideration.• Expected Outcomes of Research.• Reporting and Dissemination of Resear...
Acronyms and Abbreviations• FGM         Female Genital Mutilation.• HIV         Human Immunodeficiency Virus.• NCOSR      ...
• SNCTP       Sudan National Committee  Against Traditional Practices .• SNHS        Sudan National Household Survey• SSMS...
Abstract• FGM or female genital cutting, also known as  female circumcision comprises all procedures  involving partial or...
• In Sudan FGM figures and data shows there is  a real problem regarding this issue, different  studies show that FGM is s...
General Informations• Protocol title: Perception and potential  role of the religious leaders in the  prevention of FGM in...
• Investigator’s Name: Hani Mohammed  Ibrahim Bashir• Supervisor: Dr. Khalifa Elmusharaf• E-mail address: kakahani007@gmai...
Research ProblemIdentification and JustificationAbout 3million girls are at risk of undergoing Female Genital Mutilation....
Egypt, Somalia and among some groups (in Oman, United Arab Emirates and Yemen).Studies show that FGM is supported or mand...
Literature SearchFGM or female genital cutting, also known as female circumcision comprises all procedures involving parti...
Classification of FGM• Type I: Partial or total removal of the  clitoris and/or the prepuce  (clitoridectomy).• Type II: P...
• Type III: Narrowing of the vaginal orifice with  creation of a covering seal by cutting and  appositioning the labia min...
FGM Practice• For those who support the continuation of the  practice, FGM is considered to be a thread in  the social fab...
Research Goal and ObjectivesResearch GoalThe main aim of the research is:- To understand the perception and  potential rol...
Research ObjectivesTo describe the perception of FGM among Sudanese religious leaders (SRLs).To Explore the experience a...
Research Questions or               Hopthesis This research will try to answer mainly  the following two questions:1. To ...
Research MethodologyStudy design: A qualitative research method, in which a structured questionnaire in Arabic and Englis...
Study area:• Khartoum State is the national capital city of  Sudan, its one of the 15 states of Sudan. It has  an area of...
Research populationIn this research they are religious leaders (Muslims and Christians) in Khartoum State.An interview ...
Inclusion criteriaAll religious leaders in the Khartoum State who is working in big Mosques, Khalwa, Quran University, C...
Inclusion criteriaAll religious leaders outside the inclusion criteria, or those within the criteria but do not consent t...
 Research sample:Members of the research population are identified and a list will be constructed from where a sample is...
Data Collection InstrumentsA structured data collection approach is going to be used in the study.In this research, num...
Data Management and Statistical           AnalysisData analysis and interpretationData will be entered twice into the com...
Ethical Consideration• Approval to conduct the research will be  obtained from Khartoum State and Sudanese  Islamic Fiqh C...
Expected Outcomes of            ResearchWe expect to know the degree of religious leaders perception toward FGM types, ca...
Reporting and Dissemination of      Research FindingsResearch findings will be reported and  disseminated soon after the a...
Scope and Possible  Limitation of the Research Khartoum State is the capital city of Sudan, the  state characterized by m...
Logistics PlanIt will be designed and prepared according to the different research steps, needs, changes, supervisor advi...
Work Schedule• It will be designed as a timeline with duration  in weeks and months, according to the  estimated time of e...
Bibliography &References• 1. Sudan Demographic Health Survey (1989). Federal Ministry of  Health & Central Bureau of Stati...
Thanks For Your AttentionI Appreciate your notes, comments and  any advice, it’s the first Draft of my  Research Protocol ...
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Research Protocol Toward Understanding Perception and Potential Role of Religious Leaders in the Prevention of Female Genital Mutilation in Khartoum State .

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FGM or female genital cutting, also known as female circumcision comprises all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons, there are 4 types of FGM with different complications varies between the early, late, acute and chronic complications .
In Sudan FGM figures and data shows there is real problem regarding this issue, different studies show that FGM is supported or mandated by religion, so it is important to study FGM in many ways including possible causes and factors which may support FGM prevention .
The religious leader can make a real change in this issue, if we understand their perception and possible potential role in this problem .
This research will use a qualitative approach ( in which there will be documentation to all previous religious leaders' talks in different media and structured face-to-face interviews will be conducted .

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Research Protocol Toward Understanding Perception and Potential Role of Religious Leaders in the Prevention of Female Genital Mutilation in Khartoum State .

  1. 1. Toward Understanding Perception and Potential Role of Religious Leaders in the Prevention of Female Genital Mutilation in Khartoum State Research ProtocolGeneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research GFMER Sudan Dec 2012 Forum No: ( 4 )
  2. 2. Name of Principal InvestigatorName Position InstitutionDr.Hani Mohammed Research Fellow at UMSTIbrahim (RCRU). Fellow Student at GFMER GFMER Name of SupervisorName Position InstitutionDr. Khalifa Elmusharaf Head of RCRU . UMST GFMER Coordinator . GFMERDr. Amal Khalil Coordinator of (RCRU). UMST
  3. 3. Toward Understanding Perception and Potential Role of Religious Leaders in the Prevention of Female Genital Mutilation in Khartoum State
  4. 4. Content of the presentation• Acronyms and Abbreviations .• Abstract .• General Informations.• Research Problem Identification and Justification.• Literature Search.• Research Goal and Objectives.• Research Questions or Hopthesis.
  5. 5. Cont• Research Methodology.• Ethical Consideration.• Expected Outcomes of Research.• Reporting and Dissemination of Research Findings.• Scope and Possible Limitation of the Research.• Logistics Plan.• Work Schedule .• Bibliography &References.
  6. 6. Acronyms and Abbreviations• FGM Female Genital Mutilation.• HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus.• NCOSR National Center of Sudanese Researches.• RCRU Reproductive and Child Health Research Unit.• SFMOH Sudan Federal Ministry of Health.• SDHS Sudan Demographic and Health Survey.• SIFC Sudanese Islamic Fiqh Council.• SLR Sudanese Religious Leaders.
  7. 7. • SNCTP Sudan National Committee Against Traditional Practices .• SNHS Sudan National Household Survey• SSMS Sudan Safe Motherhood Survey.• UMST University of Medical Sciences and Technology .• UN United Nations .
  8. 8. Abstract• FGM or female genital cutting, also known as female circumcision comprises all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons, there are 4 types of FGM with different complications varies between the early, late, acute and chronic complications .
  9. 9. • In Sudan FGM figures and data shows there is a real problem regarding this issue, different studies show that FGM is supported or mandated by religion, so it is important to study FGM in many ways including possible causes and factors which may support FGM prevention .• This research will use a qualitative approach ( in which there will be documentation to all previous religious leaders talks in different media and structured face-to-face interviews will be conducted .
  10. 10. General Informations• Protocol title: Perception and potential role of the religious leaders in the prevention of FGM in Khartoum State.• Protocol identifying number: None• Time : Dec 2012• Name and Address of Sponsor: None
  11. 11. • Investigator’s Name: Hani Mohammed Ibrahim Bashir• Supervisor: Dr. Khalifa Elmusharaf• E-mail address: kakahani007@gmail.com• Telephone:• Institution: Reproductive and Child Health Research Unit (RCRU) at University of Medical Sciences and Technology (UMST).
  12. 12. Research ProblemIdentification and JustificationAbout 3million girls are at risk of undergoing Female Genital Mutilation.FGM and 140million girls and women are currently living with its consequences.FGM is practiced in about 28 African countries, the Middle East and South East Asia. In the Arab region, FGM is common in Sudan.
  13. 13. Egypt, Somalia and among some groups (in Oman, United Arab Emirates and Yemen).Studies show that FGM is supported or mandated by religion.In Sudan there is a big dilemma and argue about the relation of FGM and religious leaders and male superiority.
  14. 14. Literature SearchFGM or female genital cutting, also known as female circumcision comprises all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.
  15. 15. Classification of FGM• Type I: Partial or total removal of the clitoris and/or the prepuce (clitoridectomy).• Type II: Partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora (excision).
  16. 16. • Type III: Narrowing of the vaginal orifice with creation of a covering seal by cutting and appositioning the labia minora and/or the labia majora, with or without excision of the clitoris (infibulation).• Type IV: All other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, for example: pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterization.
  17. 17. FGM Practice• For those who support the continuation of the practice, FGM is considered to be a thread in the social fabric that defines a woman’s social standing and ultimately a community’s identity. FGM is often practiced out of respect for and in conformity to society’s culture and traditions. Others see it as a religious obligation, or a rite of passage into womanhood that ensures a girl’s virginity and consequently her value and that of her family and the increased likelihood of good marriage prospects .
  18. 18. Research Goal and ObjectivesResearch GoalThe main aim of the research is:- To understand the perception and potential role of religious leaders in the prevention of FGM in Khartoum State.
  19. 19. Research ObjectivesTo describe the perception of FGM among Sudanese religious leaders (SRLs).To Explore the experience and perception of Sudanese religious leaders (SRLs) toward practicing FGM.To understand the potential role of the religious leaders toward FGM prevention.
  20. 20. Research Questions or Hopthesis This research will try to answer mainly the following two questions:1. To which degree there is a perception of FGM among Sudanese religious leaders (SRLs)?2. How are religious leaders in Khartoum State can play a potential role in prevention of FGM in State ?
  21. 21. Research MethodologyStudy design: A qualitative research method, in which a structured questionnaire in Arabic and English will be administered by trained interviewers to eligible SRLs in the research area via interviews (face to face), and documentary review to any relevant religious leaders talks (TV and Radio), published issues (Newspapers, books, journals ...etc ), lows and even polices.
  22. 22. Study area:• Khartoum State is the national capital city of Sudan, its one of the 15 states of Sudan. It has an area of 22,122 km2 with an estimated population number of approximately 7,152,102 (2008). Its divided into seven localities:• Al-Khartoum Locality, Al-Khartoum Bahri Locality, Umdurman Locality, Jabal Awliya Locality, Sharq al-Nil Locality, Ombadda Locality, Karari Locality .
  23. 23. Research populationIn this research they are religious leaders (Muslims and Christians) in Khartoum State.An interview via questioner will be administrated to all selected groups of religious leaders in all Khartoum State Localities.Documentary review of all religious leaders talks, interviews, lows and even polices. These Documentation will be from: TV, Radio, Newspapers, Books and Legislation Sudanese Islamic Fiqh Council (SIFC) rules.
  24. 24. Inclusion criteriaAll religious leaders in the Khartoum State who is working in big Mosques, Khalwa, Quran University, Churches, and Sudanese Islamic Fiqh Council (SIFC).Any well documented religious leader talks (TV and radio interviews), published issue ( Newspaper, books, journals ...etc), regarding perception or potential role of religious leader role in prevention of FGM in Khartoum State.
  25. 25. Inclusion criteriaAll religious leaders outside the inclusion criteria, or those within the criteria but do not consent to participate in the research.
  26. 26.  Research sample:Members of the research population are identified and a list will be constructed from where a sample is taken which is called sampling frame.In this study the framework is all lists of religious leaders and all documentary reviews of religious leaders which fulfill the eligibility or inclusion criteria in the research.
  27. 27. Data Collection InstrumentsA structured data collection approach is going to be used in the study.In this research, numerical data will be collected with same structured plans and will be implemented in all Khartoum Localities.A structured and face-to-face interviews will be conducted . In the interview, respondents are asked the same questions with the same word, same sequence following same structured format .
  28. 28. Data Management and Statistical AnalysisData analysis and interpretationData will be entered twice into the computer, this is for verification. Descriptive statistical tests including frequencies, percentages, and cross tabulations will be done.Then it will be exported to SPSS software to do analytic statistical tests Then, results will be presented in tables and graphs to answer the research questions.
  29. 29. Ethical Consideration• Approval to conduct the research will be obtained from Khartoum State and Sudanese Islamic Fiqh Council (SIFC). Ethical clearance will be collected from the Sudan Federal Ministry of Health (SFMOH) and National Center of Sudanese Researches (NCOSR)
  30. 30. Expected Outcomes of ResearchWe expect to know the degree of religious leaders perception toward FGM types, causes, motivations, and complications in Khartoum State.We also should know if religious leaders can play a potential role in prevention FGM or not.
  31. 31. Reporting and Dissemination of Research FindingsResearch findings will be reported and disseminated soon after the analysis. It will be disseminated to relevant authorities to assist in the development of evidence base interventions in prevention FGM in Khartoum State particularly and in Sudan as whole.
  32. 32. Scope and Possible Limitation of the Research Khartoum State is the capital city of Sudan, the state characterized by multiple ethnicity, social, education levels and religious backgrounds (Muslims and Christian). There are also FGM supporters and Anti FGM supporters on the other side. It will be a great challenge in this research to take the approval papers to conduct the research and to convince the FGM supporters to be a part of this research.
  33. 33. Logistics PlanIt will be designed and prepared according to the different research steps, needs, changes, supervisor advise and implementing institute. Logistics plan composed of different activities and material need during the research period in all seven Khartoum State Localities.It will be reviewed by the finical department of the implanting institutes before approval of its quantities and cost .
  34. 34. Work Schedule• It will be designed as a timeline with duration in weeks and months, according to the estimated time of each target research protocol activity.
  35. 35. Bibliography &References• 1. Sudan Demographic Health Survey (1989). Federal Ministry of Health & Central Bureau of Statistics. Sudan.Available from : http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pdf/FR36/FR36.pdf.• 2. Safe Motherhood Survey (1999) Federal Ministry of Health, Central Bureau of Statistics & UNFPA. Sudan.• 3. Eldin D, Elamin M, Suad M, editors. Female Genital Mutilation and Ethical Issues, Sudanese Journal of Public Health [Internet]. 2011 April,Vol 6 No2[cited 2012 Nov 27].5p. Available from : http://www.sjph.net.sd/files/Vol6N2/Brief%20Communications1.pd f.• 4. E Herieka, J Dhar. Female genital mutilation in the Sudan: survey of the attitude of Khartoum university students towards this practice. [Internet]. 2003 January [cites 2012 Nov 28]. 5p . Available from : http://sti.bmj.com/content/79/3/220.full.pdf+html.• 5.http://unstats.un.org/unsd/gender/Jordan_Mar2012/Presentatio ns/Panel%203/Panel%203_6_paper_Sudan_Ending%20FGM.pdf.
  36. 36. Thanks For Your AttentionI Appreciate your notes, comments and any advice, it’s the first Draft of my Research Protocol ,,,So Im looking for the Final Draft with your support . Hani

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