Beyond INSPIRE: Scotland

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In 2009 the INSPIRE Directive was adopted as a Statutory Instrument by both the UK and Scottish Parliaments with a view to developing the Metadata, Web Map and Web Feature Services, to an agreed timetable, over the next decade. Both the Scottish Government and Geographic Information community in Scotland recognise that although the mandated datasets are helpful in focusing attention on priorities within the context of creating a Scottish Spatial Data Infrastructure and delivering efficiencies across all tiers of Scottish Government, the INSPIRE Directive should be seen very much as a catalyst rather than a checklist.

RCAHMS recognises the need to and value in sharing the information it curates on behalf of the Scottish public with partner organisations and the wider community for the benefit of the promotion and appreciation of Scotland’s heritage. Although, the majority of records in Canmore (http://canmore.rcahms.gov.uk/), the national inventory of the archaeological and built heritage of Scotland and its maritime waters are not protected through statutory designation, RCAHMS has argued that the information it curates is relevant to and should be considered as part of the INSPIRE Annex I Protected Places theme, even if not a mandatory dataset. To date RCAHMS has released a point-based WMS for the information in Canmore and is developing further bespoke services for maritime losses and the results of its own aerial survey mapping programme, the first in a series of richer datasets. WFS will be developed on release of guidance documents from the Scottish Government.

Promoting the undesignated heritage of Scotland through INSPIRE raises a number of questions over the appropriateness of applying specifications for regulatory environmental data to the wider cultural heritage and how information, so published, could be understood and used remotely by audiences outside heritage. Archaeological data is often ill-defined and incomplete. Would those accessing data remotely necessarily understand the incompleteness, bias and variability of the record in contrast to the fixed boundaries of most designated datasets? A land manager may need to know if a site is extant, known from documentary sources or revealed through aerial photography or remote sensing whereas an archaeologist needs to consider evidence from the investigation and recording of a site.

Delivery of richer spatial datasets for most archaeological investigations remain aspirational as they require collaborative, participatory approaches from across the profession and engagement from the academic and private sectors. Even if the mechanisms to deliver richer datasets are in place, potential barriers include concerns over intellectual property rights and a reluctance to change working practices though inertia may gradually be addressed through demonstrator services and case studies highlighting the potential benefits in the long term.

Beyond INSPIRE: Scotland

  1. 1. Beyond Inspire: towards delivering richer heritage data in Scotland Peter McKeague and Mike Middleton Peter.mckeague@rcahms.gov.uk mike.middleton@rcahms.gov.uk
  2. 2. Outline of talkOutline of talk1. Outline of adoption of INSPIRE and aspirations of Scottish SDI2. Metadata3. Published Historic Environment Datasets for Scotland4. A broader view of Protected sites5. RCAHMS data – limitations in the wider world6. DSP - RCAHMS Mapping7. Conclusions
  3. 3. The role of RCAHMSRoyal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland• Identifies, surveys and interprets the built environment of Scotland through field survey, aerial reconnaissance and desk-based analysis• Preserve, care for and add to the information and the items in the National Collection relating to the archaeological, architectural and historical environment through receipt of information from commercial and community projects and the deposition of third party archives•Promote public understanding and enjoyment of the information and the items in thecollection through presentation of resources online through the Canmore database, encouraging public contributions, working with community groups to record and appreciate their heritage through Scotland’s Rural Past project. Provides Scotland with a national inventory of the architectural and archaeological heritage as set out by the Granada and Valetta Conventions
  4. 4. Guidance, Policy and implementation2004: One Scotland, -One Geography. A Geographic Information Strategy for Scotlandhttp://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/57346/0016922.pdf2009: INSPIRE Statutory Instrument http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2009/440/contents/made2010: Cookbook 1 How to serve a Scottish SDI and INSPIRE compliant WMS http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/311518/0098305.pdfIn preparation: Cookbook 2 How to serve a Scottish SDI and INSPIRE compliant WFS
  5. 5. The Scottish Spatial Data Infrastructure National Mapping Agency (Ordnance Survey) Commercial aerial photography vendors After Cameron Easton: Scottish Government
  6. 6. Scottish Spatial Data Infrastructure Metadata Portalhttp://scotgovsdi.edina.ac.uk/srv/en/main.home
  7. 7. Scottish Spatial Data Infrastructure Metadata Portal
  8. 8. Marine Environmental data & Information Network Spatial Data Infrastructure Metadata Portalhttp://portal.oceannet.org/search/full/catalogue/medin.ac.uk__MEDIN_2.3__Canmore.xml/
  9. 9. Published Historic Environment Services in Scotland Historic Scotland have published metadata and WMS for Scheduled Monuments Listed Buildings Gardens and Designed Landscapes Developing a hosted service for Conservation Areas on behalf of local authorities RCAHMS Have published metadata and WMS for the National inventory of the archaeological and built heritage (Canmore) are preparing WMS for more detailed datasets are promoting INSPIRE principles to Local Authority archaeological services Local authority Historic Environment Records Several have WMS for their own purposes but none formally published through the Scottish Spatial Data Infrastructure Discovery PortalElsewhere, a much more restrictive interpretation of ‘Protected Sites’ focuseson only those sites that are protected through statutory designation
  10. 10. Protected Sites and the wider Historic EnvironmentA Protected Site is defined as an “Area designated or managed within a framework of international, Community and Member States legislation to achieve specific conservation objectives” [Directive 2007/2/EC]. “..a Protected Site is an area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means.” [International Union for the Conservation of Nature]
  11. 11. Protected Sites and the wider Historic Environment Why the wider historic environment matters • European Union and Sector policies The Valetta Convention on the Archaeological Heritage (1992) The Granada Convention on the Architectural Heritage (1985) • Only about 7% of the known archaeological resource is protected through statutory means • Informing the designation process • Managing the historic environment through other effective means Planning guidance (Planning Advice Note 42 in Scotland) Stewardship and voluntary agreements • Expectation and best practice • Stimulating researchIt is the wider historic environment that is most at risk and has most to benefit from INSPIRE
  12. 12. Understanding data: who is the audience? Does the public understand the terminology? Upstanding Heritage Known form documentary sources? What is a Burnt Mound?Brunatwatt Burnt Mound, Shetland W Stukeleys Drawing of Arthur’s O’on,http://canmore.rcahms.gov.uk/en/details/1225858/ Stenhousemuir (published 1720) http://canmore.rcahms.gov.uk/en/details/453314/ .. or a find spot? .. Or the condition of a monument? Duddingston Hoard, Edinburgh Oblique aerial photograph of an Iron Age fort, http://www.scran.ac.uk/database/image.php?usi=000-100-034-447-R Habchester, Borders http://canmore.rcahms.gov.uk/en/details/993205/ ©National Museums Scotland. Licensor www.scran.ac.uk .. or known from cropmarks?
  13. 13. Cropmarks: Aerial Photographic Mapping Programme (partial)Attribution of Aerial Survey Transcription layer TAG Source line tag from Cad fileSource oblique aerial survey photography CODE Thesaurus Broad term Class Site Classification Photo_no RCAHMS catalogue number of source photograph Completed Date individual transcription signed off. Interpretative transcription of visible cropmarks Numlink Internal Site reference number URL Hyperlink to Site record published on Canmore ..and rectified image Images: Crown Copyright:: RCAHMS Base mapping: © Crown Copyright and database right 2012 All rights reserved. OS Lic. No. 100020548
  14. 14. Aerial Survey WMS Images: Crown Copyright:: RCAHMS Base mapping: © Crown Copyright and database right 2012 All rights reserved. OS Lic. No. 100020548
  15. 15. WMS to be consumed by Canmore Mapping websiteKnowesFull Site Details http://canmore.rcahms.gov.uk/en/site/57720/ http://canmore.rcahms.gov.uk/en/site/57720/ Images: Crown Copyright:: RCAHMS Base mapping: © Crown Copyright and database right 2012 All rights reserved. OS Lic. No. 100020548
  16. 16. Scottish Spatial data Infrastructure Data Provider / Service delivery Service provision Publishers View services Discovery Services / Discovery Canmore Metadata Registry (Spatial) database View Services / Portals Web MapAerial photography: ServicesRectified imagesTranscription linework Download Service Services / consumption Web Feature End UserThird party data: Servicese.g.Remote SensingExcavation extents and detail
  17. 17. RCAHMS Mapping Canmore database contains over 300,000 records Base mapping: © Crown Copyright and database right 2012 All rights reserved. OS Lic. No. 100020548
  18. 18. RCAHMS Mapping Base mapping: © Crown Copyright and database right 2012 All rights reserved. OS Lic. No. 100020548
  19. 19. RCAHMS Mapping Base mapping: © Crown Copyright and database right 2012 All rights reserved. OS Lic. No. 100020548
  20. 20. RCAHMS Mapping © Crown Copyright and database right 2011 All rights reserved. OS Lic. No. 100020548
  21. 21. RCAHMS Mapping © Crown Copyright, RCAHMS
  22. 22. RCAHMS Mapping
  23. 23. Defining Scotland’s PlacesA D B CA http://www.rcahms.gov.uk/rcahms_media/files/survey/rcahms_data_management.pdfB http://www.rcahms.gov.uk/rcahms_media/files/survey/rcahms_polygonisation_report.pdfC http://www.rcahms.gov.uk/rcahms_media/files/survey/rcahms_inspired_report.pdfD http://www.rcahms.gov.uk/historic-environment-polygonisation-standards-scotland.html
  24. 24. Defining Scotland’s Places Defence Estates (Ministry of Defence) Audience Directorate for Culture, External Affairs and Tourism Emergency Services • Heritage Professionals Legal Directorate Directorate for Rural Payments and Inspection • Land Managers The Crown Estates Transport Scotland • Public 32 Local Authorities Marine Scotland Cairngorms National Park Authority Health Directorate (NHS Scotland) Heritage professionals (Architects, archaeologist, etc) Directorate for Environmental Quality Directorate for Business, Enterprise and Energy Highlands and Islands Airports Architecture and Design Scotland Crofters Commission Queens and Lord Treasurers Remembrancer (QLTR) Universities Architectural Heritage Society of Scotland (AHSS) National Museums Scotland Directorate for Housing and Regeneration Scottish Water Scottish Environment Protection Agency Directorate for Transport Directorate for the Built Environment General Register Office for ScotlandDirectorate for Climate Change and Water Industry Loch Lomond and The Trossachs National Park Authority
  25. 25. RCAHMS MappingOrganisation: SMRs/HERs Historic Scotland RCAHMSWhat are they The Potential Designation The Knownmapping? (Trigger Mapping) (Constraint Mapping) (Inventory Mapping)
  26. 26. RCAHMS Mapping: Standards One Scotland – One Geography
  27. 27. RCAHMS Mapping AttributionDiscovery attribution – The core attribution needed to be standardscompliant and meaningful to as wide an audience as possible. What is it? Why is it of interest? Who to contact to get more info. LA/HER hyperlink RCAHMS hyperlink Where the shape came from When the shape was made
  28. 28. RCAHMS Mapping : defining site extents Base mapping: © Crown Copyright and database right 2012 All rights reserved. OS Lic. No. 100020548
  29. 29. RCAHMS Mapping:Historic Landuse Characterisation data to help inform process Base mapping: © Crown Copyright and database right 2012 All rights reserved. OS Lic. No. 100020548
  30. 30. RCAHMS Mapping :Record location indicated by point co-ordinates Base mapping: © Crown Copyright and database right 2012 All rights reserved. OS Lic. No. 100020548
  31. 31. RCAHMS Mapping:though records define areas – as in this country house and its estate Base mapping: © Crown Copyright and database right 2012 All rights reserved. OS Lic. No. 100020548
  32. 32. RCAHMS Mappingpreserved as green space in the urban environment Base mapping: © Crown Copyright and database right 2012 All rights reserved. OS Lic. No. 100020548
  33. 33. RCAHMS MappingThe archaeological record represented as points Base mapping: © Crown Copyright and database right 2012 All rights reserved. OS Lic. No. 100020548
  34. 34. RCAHMS Mappingand as site area extents: providing a fuller picture of the resource Base mapping: © Crown Copyright and database right 2012 All rights reserved. OS Lic. No. 100020548
  35. 35. RCAHMS Mappingalso applicable to the marine environment Base mapping: © Crown Copyright and database right 2012 All rights reserved. OS Lic. No. 100020548
  36. 36. RCAHMS MappingThe German High Seas Fleet scuttled in Scapa Flow , Orkney Islands Base mapping: © Crown Copyright and database right 2012 All rights reserved. OS Lic. No. 100020548
  37. 37. RCAHMS MappingCramond Roman Fort, Edinburgh Base mapping: © Crown Copyright and database right 2012 All rights reserved. OS Lic. No. 100020548
  38. 38. RCAHMS Mapping Base mapping: © Crown Copyright and database right 2012 All rights reserved. OS Lic. No. 100020548
  39. 39. RCAHMS MappingPotential of third party event information contributing to project Excavation detail Excavation extents Base mapping: © Crown Copyright and database right 2012 All rights reserved. OS Lic. No. 100020548
  40. 40. The Scottish Spatial Data Infrastructure ChallengeEngaging the private sector and academia Broadening approach to include academic and private sector After Cameron Easton: Scottish Government
  41. 41. Conclusions.... • Remote access to information through Spatial Data Infrastructures is the future • Historic Environment Data needs to be visible in an SDI (otherwise it is ignored) • Historic Environment Data needs to be understood by the layman • Need to facilitate publication of richer data from the activities that inform our records The fieldworker or researcher creates primary data but not everyone has the capacity, ability or infrastructure to delivery WMS or WFS services Need to agree on appropriate standards to document the data consistently and a need for a facilitating role to enable organisations to contribute.. The RCAHMS SURE partnership with the National Trust for Scotland and Orkney Islands Council is one such example of a new approachContactPeter McKeague : peter.mckeague@rcahms.gov.ukMike Middleton: mike.middleton@rcahms.gov.uk

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