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StarTune Magazine May 2012


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StarTuned Magazine in May 2012 featured articles include Carbon Fiber Repair, Temperate Climate and ABCs of Suspension.

StarTuned Magazine in May 2012 featured articles include Carbon Fiber Repair, Temperate Climate and ABCs of Suspension.

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  • 1. STARTUNEDInformation for the Independent Mercedes-Benz Service ProfessionalMay 2012 U.S. $6.00 €9.00 Volume 12 Number 2CARBON FIBER REPAIR TEMPERATE CLIMATE THROTTLING AWAY ABCs OF SUSPENSION V ^ J Mercedes-Bl
  • 2. FIRE... .. on all eight with USA Dealer Workshop Services is the source for all the technicalinformation needed to support, service, and maintain Mercedes-Benz vehicles.Mercedes-Benz workshops rely on DWS products and services for getting jobsdone quickly and more efficiently. Our products include: STAR Teklnfo with WIS-net (Workshop Maintenance Manuals and Sheets Information System) STAR Service Manual Library CDs Electrical Troubleshooting Manuals WIS and DAS software updates Installation Instructions Star Diagnosis System (SDS) Technical Bulletins Operators Manuals and COMAND Manuals Campaigns Mercedes-Benz Equipment Mercedes-Benz Special Tools Inventory of technical publicationsSTAR TeklnfoDealer Workshop ServicesEngineering Services, Mercedes-BenzMercedes-Benz USA, LLC.
  • 3. TO OUR READERS: IN THIS ISSUEWelcome to STARTUNED, the magazine for independent servicetechnicians working on Mercedes-Benz vehicles. Your Mercedes-Benz dealer sponsors STARTUNED and provides the information 4 THROTTLING AWAYcoming your way in each issue.Mercedes-Benz wants to present the information you need to know Mercedes-Benzs pursuit of safer vehiclesto diagnose and repair Mercedes-Benz vehicles accurately, quickly incorporates individual systems workingand the first time; text, graphics, on-line and other technicalsources combine to make this possible. in concert to control speed, handling,Feature articles, derived from approved company sources, focus on and stopping. One critical part of this isbeing useful and interesting. the Electronic Accelerator. Heres how itOur digest of technical information can help you solveunanticipated problems quickly and expertly. works and how to fix it.We want STARTUNED to be both helpful and informative,so please let us know just what kinds of features and otherdiagnostic services youd like to see in it. Well continue to bringyou selected service bulletins from Mercedes-Benz and articlescovering the different systems on these vehicles.Send your suggestions, questions or comments to us at: 12 THE ABCS OF A TAUT SUSPENSIONSTARTUNEDOne Mercedes Drive Mercedes-Benz has always beenMontvale, New Jersey 07645 synonymous with agile handling, a stablePhone: 1 800 225 6262, ext. 7112E-mail: feel, and compliant suspensions. Active Body Control is one way the companySTARTUNED is a publication of Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC ("MBUSA"). No part of thismagazine may be reproduced without the express written permission of MBUSA. brings these attributes into modern times.Editorial and Circulation Offices: 134B River Road, Montague, NJ 07827.CAUTION: Vehicle servicing performed by untrained persons could result in serious injury tothose persons or others. Information contained in this magazine is intended for use by trained,professional auto repair technicians ONLY. This information is provided to inform these techniciansof conditions which may occur in some vehicles or to provide information which could assist themin proper servicing of these vehicles. Properly trained technicians have the equipment, tools, safetyinstructions, and know-how to perform repairs correctly and safely. If a condition is described, DONOT assume that a topic covered in these pages automatically applies to your vehicle or that yourvehicle has that condition. STARTUNED is a registered trademark of MBUSA. 20 ABC SERVICE BASELINES Some practical points on the fundamentals.Group Publisher Contributing EditorChristopher M. Ayers, Jr. Tom tnash@automotivedatamedia.comEditorial Director MBUSA Technical Content AdvisorBob Freudenberger Donald Donald.Rotolo@mbusa.comContributing Editor MBUSA Project Manager 22 TEMPERATE CLIMATEBob Chabot Adam Green With summer coming, youd better sure youre up-to-date on Mercedes-Contributing Editor Art Director & Circulation Mgr.Kerry Jonsson Christopher M. Ayers III Benz A/C service so you can keep customers in the Temperate Zone. Visit us at our web site to view this issue and all past issues of StarTuned, along with a wealth of information on Genuine Mercedes-Benz Parts. 30 ARE YOU READY FOR CARBON FIBER REPAIR? To locate a Mercedes-Benz dealer near you, Carbon fiber parts will be in certain 2012 go to Mercedes-Benz production series vehicles.
  • 4. Throttling Away & &
  • 5. It all started with Mercedes-Benz in conjunction (Electronic Gearbox System) to co-operate in thewith the Robert Bosch Corporation in the mid- control of the vehicle when traction is suddenly lost.1980s. The companies worked together to develop In following years, the suspension computer of thea CAN (Controller Area Network) that debuted in chassis CAN was added, and ESP (Electronic Stabilitythe early 90s on the 140 chassis. CAN allowed Program) combined the drive CAN and chassis CAN.individual system control units, such as the ME (Motor By incorporating an electronic throttle system thatElectronics), ABS/ASR/BAS (Anti-Lock Brake System/ reads inputs from various sensors and modules, theAnti-Slip Reduction/Brake Assist System) and EGS drivers control can be enhanced, and traction is restored by closing the throttle until the tires regain their grip on the road. The Electronic Accelerator continues to open the throttle if input indicates that the driver still wants to accelerate. An added feature is that the electronic throttle can also handle cruise control functions and idle speed. No longer was a separate cruise-control actuator and idle speed motor needed to maintain vehicle speed and engine idle speed, respectively. The Electronic Accelerator can be commanded to open to maintain the selected speed. While this adds complexity to engine management, in another way it also streamlined it. With all of these control units on a CAN, the self-diagnostic system can monitor all inputs and outputs and display them in diagnostic software. In earlier years, you would have had to interrogate each system for DTCs (Diagnostic Trouble Codes) and manually check the signal values at each input and output to diagnose a problem. Now, the Mercedes- Benz SDS (Star Diagnostic System) allows you to look at the data on the CAN, saving time if you have to isolate a problem. You can and should interrogate the EA system with your SDS. If in addition to using SDS, you want to manually check signals at the control module connector, please remember that damage to the wires, connectors, or pins will most likely require that the entire harness be replaced. If the computer-controlled system sees any abnormality with EA inputs or outputs, the control unit enters a "limp home" mode and prevents the throttle from opening and the vehicle from accelerating. Many safety measures were incorporated into EA hardware and logic. The first item you need to know about is that there is a redundant system on later models just as you have on an aircraft. Two sensors perform the job of one so they can crosscheck each other. INPUTS In order for an EA system to work, it needs to know what the drivers intentions are, and this is accomplished by means of sensors that report on the Mav 2012 5
  • 6. position of the gas pedal. In the early 140 chassis these Above: The first Electronic Accelerator design hadsensors are mounted in the EA unit (throttle assembly) a conventional cable at the throttle assembly, butbetween the MAF (Mass Air Flow) sensor and the it only drove a sensor in the assembly. Here is theintake manifold. Linkage from the pedal runs all the second-generation Pedal Position Sensor. A cableway up and out to the EA unit, but there is not a direct still drives it, but it has two potentiometers toconnection to the throttle plate. Instead, the linkage indicate the pedal position.moves the pedal position sensor. The EA control engine, and the left throttle feeds the right bank asunit processes the signals and opens the throttle by they cross each other through the intake manifold.providing power and ground to a two-wire DC motor.As the motor opens, a second throttle position sensor Starting in the 96 to 97 model years, the HFMchanges the signal voltage. This sensor lets the control (Hot Film Mass) air flow fuel system was upgraded tounit know what the actual throttle position is. the ME (Motor Electronics) system. This had separate pedal position and throttle-position sensors. The For safety, there are two idle contacts in the throttle throttle-position sensors are still in the throttle bodyassembly. These switches indicate when the pedal is assembly, but the pedal-value sensor is mountedin the closed position. One switch is normally open underneath the hood and is driven by a throttleand the other is normally closed with the throttle cable. There are now two sensors in the pedal-valuepedal released. When the pedal is applied, the two sensor assembly. They are both still three-wire units,switches change states -- the open switch closes and and they have individual five-volt references, signalthe closed switch opens. If one switch were to send voltages, and grounds. The voltage increases onan implausible signal, the other would take over, but both signal lines, but at different rate. The #1 pedal-the throttle would enter a power-reduction mode, position sensor signal voltage is roughly double that ofand DTCs would set in multiple control units. There the #2 APP (Accelerator Pedal Position) sensor. Withis a clutch that decouples the throttle motor from the a closed throttle, you may see .18v on the #2 and .28vthrottle plate shaft so if the system were to have a on the #1 sensor. The sensor signals are sent to themajor problem the throttle plate will not be opened ME control unit, which commands the throttle motorand the vehicle will not accelerate. In the case of the to open.M120 engine (early V12), the right throttle body isthe main unit that has the pedal position sensor in it. If the voltages are off by as little as .1 volts, a codeThe right throttle assembly feeds the left bank of the will flag and warning lights will illuminate in the lercedes-Benz StarTuned
  • 7. • 5.0 • V 4.038 3.038 2.038 V 1.038 50 0.033 4.0-0.962 3.0-1.962 2.0•2962 1.0 n-3.962 CO-4 96% -1.0 00 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 18 2.0 Sds Ed777/s graph of the Pedal Value sensor shows APP # / starting off at around 0,3V and increasing to over 4V. APP#2 starts off at a slightly lower voltage and only increases to about 2.5V you would set a code and engage the limp-home mode because the idle switch would still indicate idle. There is a second Hall-effect type of APP. The connector is slightly different with two squared off corners. The same voltage readings still apply even with the different connector design. Starting with early- to mid-2000 211 and 220 chassis models, the accelerator pedal-position sensor is mounted directly on the pedal. This must be replaced as a unit. It still has two pedal-position sensors in it. It is a six-wire assembly with two five-volt references, two signal wires, and two grounds. The signal voltages are roughly the same as on the previousTake a close look at the EA harness connector. A design. Pedal-value sensor #1 starts off at about .35problem here may be the cause of an intermittent volts with the throttle closed and will increase tothrottle code and the customer complaining that the approximately 4.5 volts at WOT (Wide Open Throttle).engine goes into limp-in mode. Corrosion at the pins Pedal-value sensor #2 will start off at about .18 voltscan change the voltage signal enough to set a code. and increase to about 2.3 volts at WOT. In the serviceinstrument cluster. The two sensors cross-check each bay, do not expect to see these voltages wide-open.other. If one sensor sends a bad signal, the limp-home With the engine not running, the throttle will only bemode will give you up to 60% throttle opening, and commanded open part of the way. Keep that in mindresponse is slowed down. If both signal voltages are while checking the system.incorrect compared to one another the engine willonly idle. There is also an idle switch on the pedal. Changes have also been made on the actuator side.The ME control unit expects the pedal sensor to be No longer are there closed throttle contact switches inat minimum signal voltage when the idle switch is the actuator. Only the signal voltages from the motor-closed. If you were to move the APP sensor manually, position sensors are used to calculate throttle plate May 2012 7
  • 8. JtaMMinnrifi JtM^: 0tf^nmmA close look at the signal voltages of the APP sensors in the throttle assembly shows the upper tracestarting off at over 4V with the key on and the lower trace starting off under one V. Toward the end of thepattern, under acceleration, one signal voltage decreases and the other increases.position. These have a six-wire connector. Two wires •~:fi^^0r^^supply the DC reversible motor to open and close thethrottle. The other four are for the position sensors.They share a five-volt reference and a ground, leaving SKSHpP^^ ^ • i 7mtwo signal wires. Throttle sensor #1 starts off at ^^kapproximately 4.3 volts, but this signal decreases asthe throttle plate opens. At WOT, you should see about.5 volts. Throttle sensor #2 starts off at about .35 voltsand increases to approximately 4.3 volts wide open. I *The voltages cross-check one another. Theoretically,both signal voltages should add up to about five volts Iin all throttle positions. 1 •^jdjl • These input signals are sent to the ME control unit, which processes them to control idle speed, cruise WK r * # M control, and rate of acceleration. In reverse gear, the rate of opening is slowed relative to pedal movement. It can also close to reduce engine power if signals come in on the CAN indicating that traction has been • .•"• lost. This reduction in power helps the tires regain their grip. iME is also in charge of all the limp-home strategies, and monitors the messages on the CAN Carbon can build up on the throttle plate and in from the ABS/ASR/ESP and other modules that the bore. The ME control unit will adapt by opening may affect power application. When the EGS (a.k.a. the plate to maintain idle speed. If the battery goes transmission control module) reports a shift, the dead, this adaptation is lost and the engine may not ME will retard ignition timing to help with smooth idle properly. After cleaning the throttle body, you shifting. It also monitors the amp draw of the throttle may have a high idle, so clear all adaptive strategies. 8 Mercedes-Benz StarTuned
  • 9. actuator motor. If the throttle is will only allow the engine to rev You can also look at idlesticking or binding in the throttle to 1,800 rpm, maximum. Idle adaptation under "Actual Values"bore, ME will flag a code and go speed will be set at about 900 rpm with your SDS. These numbers showinto limp-home as well. using the injectors for control. If a if the ME control unit is opening the mechanical fault is determined by throttle to compensate for a low idle We already described the limp- the actuator, a safety fuel shutoff speed, or closing it to compensatehome mode of the pedal-position program is activated and the for a small vacuum leak.sensor: If one potentiometer injectors will stop delivering fuel atproduces an implausible signal, 1,200 to 1,400 rpm. There are no special proceduresyou will have a maximum of 60% when servicing either the pedalthrottle opening. If both sensors Cleaning the throttle plate and position sensor or the throttlesend problem signals, you will be bore has become part of a regular actuator other than the normalizinglimited to idle speed only. There tune-up, but is even more important of the throttle actuator. Eachare slightly different fail-safe today than it was. If carbon component should read the correctmodes for the actuator. If one deposits are present, the throttle signal voltages once plugged in andsensors signal is inappropriate, plate may stick, setting an actuator installed properly. Of course, eachthe throttle opening is once again code. Do not spray the solvent down component is relying on a stablelimited to 60%. However, the second on the throttle plate as it can work five-volts reference and groundsensor in the actuator and the its way into the motor assembly (both provided by the ME) to makeMAF sensor are used to command and damage internal components. the correct signal voltages. Youthrottle position. If both throttle Spray it on a rag and, with the key should always verify the five-voltsensors send faulty signals, or the off, wipe away the buildup. This reference and ground with yourtwo voltages do not correspond to will only help if you have a throttle DMM to make sure you do not haveone another, a spring capsule is actuator code. If there is a problem any wiring or control unit problems.activated and throttle opening is with an actuator, specific limp- There are also safety switches inlimited to 10 to 12 degrees. This home modes are engaged. the actuator. They are the ones that indicate that the throttle is closed The ME control unit is capable and at the idle position. The ME of learning if the throttle plate puts out a 12-volt reference that the is restricting air flow at idle and switch either grounds or not to let gradually opening up the throttle the computer know the vehicle is to compensate, which is known at idle. With the connector at the as idle adaptation. If the battery actuator unplugged, you should were to go dead, the ME may forget measure the five-volt reference and these adaptations. two 12-volt references for the closed This could cause a low idle speed, throttle switches. or a deceleration stall after the battery has been recharged. You Knowing the different limp- can simply clean the throttle plates home mode strategies coupled with to restore a normal idle. Throttle the use of your SDS (available for plate adaptation will have to be purchase from Mercedes-Benz, see performed after a dead-battery will help incident, or whenever the throttle reduce your diagnostic time and,If you have a hard code for the assembly or the ME control unit has more importantly, assist you inactuator or throttle position been replaced. You can perform the making a more accurate diagnosissensors, check the wiring harness throttle relearn with your SDS (Star of this critical system. Yourfor physical damage Unplug the Diagnostic System), or by simply customers rely on you to provideconnector and check the voltages leaving the ignition key on with service worthy of their Mercedes-on the harness side. Here we the engine off for 90 seconds. You Benz vehicles. This dedication tofollowed the harness and found should hear the throttle actuate as their safety and well-being willmultiple broken wires. the throttle body is being adapted. keep them coming back. | May 2012 9
  • 10. 0DOP®(SK]Mi®ra £ w i wMercedes-Benz Mobil 1Product Name Part Number Quantity Product Description Recommended Consumer ApplicationsMercedes-Benz SPEC. BtQ 1 09 0144 Bulk - No EquipmentMobil 1 Fully synthetic formulas designedFormula M 5W-40 BQ1 09 0162 6/1 Quart Cases specifically for gasoline passenger cars Low SPAsh. Available at most MB dealers ! BQ 1 09 0151 55 Gallon Drum BQ 1 09 0010 Bulk - No Equipment Fully synthetic formulation designed Mobil 1 0W-40 BQ1 09 0015 6/1 Quart Cases Porsche A40. Many European vehicles. to meet the requirements of many HT/TS applications. European vehicles BQ1 09 0016 55 Gallon Drum Mobil 1 ESP BQ1 09 0135 Bulk - No Equipment Advanced full synthetic formulas Formula M 5W-40 designed specifically for diesel BQ 1 09 0142 6/1 Quart Cases Low SPAsh. Available at most MB dealers passenger cars that have particulate filters BQ 1 09 0143 55 Gallon DrumMobil 1 5W-50 BQ 1 09 0133 16 Gallon Keg Higher viscosity, advanced full synthetic — formula designed for performance Porsche A40. HT/HS applications. BQ 109 0134 6/1 Quart Cases vehicles Extra high performance automatic Recommended for use in Mercedes-BenzMobil ATF 134 BQ 109 0166 55 Gallon Drum transmission fluid formulated with automatic gearboxes selected HVI base oils Advanced full synthetic formulasMobil 1 ESP Low SPAsh. Available at many Chrysler BQ 109 0165 12x1 Liter Cases designed specifically for passenger carFormula MB 5W-30 dealers diesels that have particulate filtersAdBlue® Vi Gal. A 000 583 0107 1/2 Gallon Bottle Non-toxic solution that transforms — Recommended for use in Mercedes- ~~ harmful Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions Benz, Volkswagen + BMW AdBlue 8 (DEF)Diesel Exhaust Fluid BQ , 47 0002 5 5 Ga||on D r u m from diesel-powered vehicles into applications55 bal harmless water vapor and nitrogen BQ 1 09 0017 6/1 Quart Cases Advanced full synthetic formulation designed to meet the requirements Vehicles that require 5W-30. Corvette 1obil 1 5W-30 of BQ 1 09 0018 55 Gallon Drum many domestic, including GM, and approved. imported vehicles BQ 1 09 0019 6/1 Quart Cases Advanced full synthetic formulaMobil 1 10W-30 BQ 1 09 0020 16 Gallon Keg Vehicles that require 5W-30 or 10W-30 designed for domestics and imports BQ 1 09 0021 55 Gallon Drum BQ 1 09 0083 6/1 Quart Cases Advanced full synthetic formulation designed to meet the requirements ofMobil 1 5W-20 Vehicles that require 5W-20 BQ 1 09 0084 55 Gallon Drum many newer vehicles including Hondas, Fords, Chryslers, and newer Toyotas BQ 109 0169 6/1 Quart Cases Advanced full synthetic formulation Most vehicles that specify 0W-20 (newerMobil 1 OW-20 AFE designed for enhanced fuel economy Toyotas and Hondas), 5W-20 and certain BQ 1 09 0168 55 Gallon Drum and cold weather performance hybrids Advanced full synthetic formulation Most vehicles that specify 5W-30 orMobil 1 0W-30AFE BQ 1 09 0174 6/1 Quart Cases designed for enhanced fuel economy 10W-30 and cold weather performance BQ1 09 0164 6/1 Quart Cases Multi-vehicle, fully synthetic fluid Vehicles that require Dexron III, Ford designed to meet the demandingMobil 1 Synthetic ATF Mercon and Mercon V performance BQ 1 09 0163 55 Gallon Drum requirements of modern passenger levels vehicles Boosted, higher viscosity, advanced HT/HS applications. Racing and Flat 1obil 1 15W-50 BQ 1 09 0023 55 Gallon Drum full synthetic formula designed for tappet applications performance vehicles SUITABLE for use in modern highMobil 1 Gear Oil Exceeds the most severe service performance automobiles like SUVs,(Mobil 1 Gear Lube BQ 1 09 0085 12/1 Quart Cases requirements in both conventional and Vans and Light duty trucks requiring API75W-90) limited slip applications GL-5 level performance BQ 1 09 002464 Bulk - No Equipment Formulated from quality base stocks combined with modern performance Recommended for gasoline fueled BQ1 09 0171 12/1 Quart CasesMobil Special 5W-30 additives to give the engine the expected automobiles and light duty trucks protection and performance under a requiring an API SN/SM/SL/SJ BQ 1 09 003064 55 Gallon Drum wide variety of operating conditions
  • 11. M, .ercedes-Benz automobiles aredesigned to perform on the mostchallenging roads and conditions.Shouldnt the oil used in Mercedes-Benzengines do the same? We think so.Thats why Mercedes-Benz and Mobil 1have partnered to offer an unbeatablecombination of total engine performanceand driving luxury.Please have a look at our oil portfoliowhich is available through your localMercedes-Benz dealer. Our dealersare able to offer you a wide variety ofoil grades at competitive prices.Product Name Part Number Quantity roduct Description Recommended Consumer ApplicationsMercedes-Benz SPEC. BQ 1 09 003164 Bulk - No Equipment Formulated from quality base stocks combined with modern performance Recommended for gasoline fueledMobil Special 10W-30 BQ 1 09 0172 12/1 Quart Cases additives to give the engine the expected automobiles and light duty trucks protection and performance under a requiring an API SN/SM/SL/SJ BQ 1 09 003764 55 Gallon Drum wide variety of operating conditions BQ 1 09 003864 Bulk - No Equipment Formulated from quality base stocks Recommended for gasoline fueled combined with modern performance 12/1 Quart Cases automobiles and light duty trucks whereMobil Special 10W-40 BQ 1 09 0173 additives to give the engine the expected a higher viscosity API SN/SMSL/Sj oil is protection and performance under a BQ 1 09 004464 55 Gallon Drum preferred or recommended wide variety of operating conditions BQ 1 09 012464 Bulk - No Equipment Formulated from quality base stocks combined with modern performance Recommended for gasoline fueled Mobil Special 5W-20 BQ 1 09 0170 12/1 Quart Cases additives to give the engine the expected automobiles and light duty trucks protection and performance under a requiring an API SN/SM/SL/SJ BQ 1 09 013264 55 Gallon Drum wide variety of operating conditions Formulated from quality base stocks Recommended for gasoline fueled combined with modern performance automobiles and light duty trucks where Mobil Special 20W-50 BQ 1 09 004664 55 Gallon Drum additives to give the engine the expected a higher viscosity API SN/SMSL/SJ oil is protection and performance under a preferred or recommended wide variety of operating conditions BQ 1 09 0053 Bulk - No Equipment Extra high performance diesel engine oils that help extend engine life in Delvac 1300 BQ 1 09 0058 12/1 Quart Cases the most severe on and off-highway Specifically recommended for the Super 15W40 applications while delivering outstanding latest low-emissions, high performance BQ 1 09 0059 4 / 1 Gallon Cases performance in modern, high-output, diesel applications equipped with BQ 1 09 0060 55 Gallon Drum low-emission engines including those aftertreatment systems using Diesel with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Particulate Filter (DPF) and Diesel and Aftertreatment Systems with Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) technologiesDelvac 1300 BQ 1 09 0086 Bulk - No Equipment Particulate Filters (DPFs) and DieselSuper 10W30 Oxidation Catalysts (DOCs) BQ 1 09 0051 4 / 1 Gallon Cases Fully synthetic supreme performance Recommended for use in all super heavy duty diesel engine oil that helps extend engine life while providing long high performance diesel applications, Delvac 1 5W40 dra n including modern low emission engine BQ 1 09 0052 55 Gallon Drum capability and fuel economy for designs with Exhaust Gas Recirculation modern diesel engines operating in (EGR) severe applications BQ 1 09 0078 60/14 oz Cartridge Formulated to provide excellent high BQ 1 09 0079 120 lb Keg Recommended for industrial and marineMobil Grease temperature performance with superb applications, chassis components andXHP 222 BQ 1 09 0080 400 lb Drum adhesion, structural stability and farm equipment resistance to water contamination BQ 1 09 0098 40/14 oz Cartridge BQ 1 09 0096 120 lb Keg Extra high performance, automotiveMobil Lube HD lubricant formulated from select base Recommended for use in limited-slipPlus 80W90 oils and an advanced additive system differentials, axles, and final drives BQ1 09 0097 400 lb Drum requiring API GL-5 level performance specifically for limited-slip differentials
  • 12. The ABCs of a TautSuspension^ 1 Mercedes-Benz has always been synonymous with agile handling, a stable feel, and compliantsuspensions. Active Body Control is one way the company bringsthese attributes into modern times.
  • 13. Think of Mercedes-Benz and you may envision afull-size S-Class. Its compliant ride makes easy work oflong trips. The driver would want to feel the feedbackof a taut suspension, but not so stiff that her or shefeels every bump. Or, you may picture the SL-Class.An SL owner may want a stiffer suspension for carvingthrough winding roads. In either case, handling wasone reason they purchased a Mercedes-Benz. TheABC suspension system provides the best of bothworlds. With it, the driver is in greater control of thevehicles ride than was ever before possible, and, wherenecessary, the ABC control unit reacts to conditionsand makes adjustments accordingly. ABC is optional onthe S-Class, but standard on some other models. Active Body Control is aptly named because it is"active." Like any computer-managed system, it hassensors that read the environment around it andpass this information on to a control unit. This isprocessed with digital logic and decisions are madeon how to best to control the vehicle, commands aresent to accomplish that, and this all occurs withinmilliseconds of input changes. Even if the driver is unaware of changes in roadconditions, or the level of cornering power thatsnecessary for the way the car is being driven, ABCassists in maintaining stability. It is an electro-hydraulic system that directs pressurized fluid toindividual strut assemblies to control adjust vehiclelevel and suspension compliance.THE HEART The hydraulic pump is the heart of this system.It is capable of generating over 3,000 psi of force tosuspend the vehicle. This is an important factor toknow during service. If you are going to be removinghydraulic lines or components, you will need todepressurize the accumulator first. You can performthis task with your SDS, available for purchasethough Mercedes-Benz. Contact your dealer, or goto the Mercedes-Benz service information The power steering system shares the same fluidsupply and pressure to operate, so when theres a problemcheck there for leaks as well. These pumps should not beallowed to run dry. If they do for more than four seconds,internal damage may occur. Fill the reservoirs beforestarting the engine after servicing. There are filters inthe reservoirs and they should be changed when thesystem is opened and the fluid is replaced. May 2012 13
  • 14. £T?(3fe m? ®m?&mm The pump supplies pressure to a distribution higher fluid pressure to raise its strut, and releasesmanifold with an accumulator. The accumulator is has excess pressure to lower the vehicle. The suspensiona nitrogen charge that bears on a on a diaphragm that control solenoid acts the same way. It opens andseparates it from the hydraulic fluid. This maintains either lowers the pressure or increases it to changethe high pressure the system needs when demand the dampening characteristics of the shock. Theexceeds what the pump can supply. This pressure overall system pressure is generated by the pump andis directed to the front and rear suspension control regulated by the ABC Suction Restrictor Valve. Thevalves. Each of these has its own accumulator to help pump makes pressure and the restrictor valve bleedsmaintain pressure in its half of the system. The valves off the excess and returns it to the the solenoids that direct fluid into and out ofthe strut assemblies. When the vehicle is raised on a The ABC control unit knows what the systemlift, these valves are supposed to close to prevent the pressure is by means of a sensor. Its location varieslines from losing pressure. However, if you have the depending on the model you are working on. Forkey on at any time the electronics will depressurize instance, a 220 chassis has it mounted in the fluidthe system to try to lower the now fully-extended distribution manifold under the sub-frame on thesuspension. This is not a safe way to depressurize the passengers side. A 230 chassis may have it in thesystem for service as there will be some significant front control valve, which is mounted in the frontresidual psi. wheel house on the drivers side, behind the bumper. It reads the main system pressure that is being fedSTRUTTING ALONG Each strut assembly has two individual solenoids.One controls the vehicle level and the other controlsthe dampening stiffness of the strut. In the frontvalve assembly, there are two pairs of solenoids, onefor the drivers side and the other for the passengersside suspension. The same applies to the rear valve.There is an internal spring inside each strut assembly.Typically, the ABC control unit supplies power andground for the solenoids. The level solenoid both allowsVehicle 230.471Release of system pressureResult of actuation :- The actuation was okay.Status of relevant actual value:^ B 4 / 8 (Left front ABC pressure sensor): 3 Bar0 B 4 / 8 (Left front ABC pressure sensor) Voltage: 0.55 V@B4/9 (Right front ABC pressure sensor): 3 Bar^ ] B 4 / 9 (Right front ABC pressure sensor) Voltage: 0.55 Vfv]B4/10 (Left rear ABC pressure sensor): 3 Bar0B4/1O (Left rear ABC pressure sensor) Voltage: 0.55 V0 B 4 / 1 1 (Right rear ABC pressure sensor): 3 BarH B 4 / 1 1 (Right rear ABC pressure sensor) Voltage: 0.55 V[<frlB4/5 (ABC pressure sensor): 0 Bar§r]B4/5 (ABC pressure sensor) Voltage: 0.49 V Above: Using your SDS, you can command aAny time you are going to open the system, you dynamic test (aka "Rodeo Mode") where the systemmust release the pressure. Over 200 bar (3,000 psi) applies and releases pressure to all four corners ofmay be present, which can be very dangerous to the vehicle. Follow the on-screen instructions andany technician. Through your SDS, you can drop the accelerate the engine to 3,000 rpm so the pump canpressure to a safe level before you begin work. supply enough pressure for the test.14 Mercedes-Benz StarTuned
  • 15. .,- i •••*#«*«_.; • 1 , pJHi ESPT I U 1 «ii ik ,1 4_ Like Chip Foose, BASF Brings A Little Extra To The Party. BASF has been doing the same with its unique color management system, led by COLOR-MAX®, the industrys most precise color matching tool. The paint-sprayed chips of COLOR-MAX ensure a perfect match the first time, every time, reducing comebacks and increasing productivity. And BASF Refinish coatings are approved by Mercedes-Benz and most major OEMs across North America. Beautiful color. Speedy matches. Its why Chip Foose sprays only BASF in his shop and has for over ten years. To learn more, visit or call 1-800-825-3000.1 1 1 relfc
  • 16. Quality, Reliability and ValueReman k/Q Compressors are not rebuilt or refurbished, they are brought back tothe exact Mercedes-Benz approved specifications and tolerances, thus ensuringoptimal performance.Additionally, these units come preassembled with the clutch attached, so atechnician can get right to installing the entire assembly, saving time and money.By using Genuine Mercedes-Benz Remanufactured Compressors, you could save40% or more when compared to the cost of new. And like all of our remanufacturedparts, its covered by the Mercedes-Benz limited parts warranty. •"uiigat. Germany ®Genuine Remanufactured installed. Mercedes-BenzProblem solved!For more information, visit
  • 17. GENUINE MERCEDES-BENZ REMAN A/C COMPRESSORS REMAN PART MODEL REMAN PART VEHICLE MODEL VEHICLE MODEL NUMBER YEAR NUMBER1984-1992 190D2.2 A000230121180 CL600, CL65 AMG, 2000-2006 A001230011180 S65 AMG, S600 260E, 190D2.5, 300TD, A0002302411801984-2002 2000-2009 E320, S350 A000230911180 300D,300CE, SL500 420SEL,560SEC/SEL, 2002-2007 C32 AMG A0002307811801986-1991 A000230251180 560SL 2002-2007 C230 CL 1.8 A0002309711801986-1995 190/300 series, E300D A000230111180 2002-2010 CLK-Class, C55 AMG, A001230191180 300E, 300CE, 600.S-L, SLK55 AMG1986-2002 AO00230O51180 SL600 2003-2009 CLK500 A0012301611801990-2002 500SL, SL500 A000230061180 2003-2010 SL55 AMG A0012300211801992-1993 500SEL A119230111180 E55 AMG, E320, E500, 2003-2010 A001230121180 CLS500 400SE, 400SEL, 500SEC1992-1995 A119230001180 E-Class, CLS55 AMG, S420, S5-00 A001230141180 2003-2010 CLS550 600SEL, S320, S600,1992-1999 A000230171180 300SEL 2003-2010 SL550 A001230551180 300SE, 600SEC,S600, SLK280, SLK300,1992-1999 S320, CL600 A000230221180 2005-2010 A001230541180 SLK350 CL500,300/400/500 R350, R500, ML350,1992-2004 series, S/SLK/C/CLK/ A000230701180 2006-2010 ML500, ML550, GL450, A001230871180 E-Class GL5501994-2000 C220, C280, C36 AMG A000230131180 R350, R500, ML350, 2006-2010 ML500, ML550, GL450, A002230521180 ML320, ML430, GL5501998-2005 A000230681180 ML55AMG 2009-2010 C300, C350 A0012305011801998-2010 ML500, ML350 A001230281180 2010 GLK350 A002230311180 ML350, ML500, E500,1998-2010 A000230901180 2010 : i: .0. • SL500, C/CL/S/G-Class A002230381180 "Made with the same OE components as original factory parts Assembled to original Mercedes-Benz specifications ! Results: Mercedes-Benz Quality, Reliability and Value Remanufactured for Mercedes-Benz hv Available only through your local Mercedes-Benz Dealer
  • 18. flffl@fl ®g ScuMaaM^ffi>4/3oi/e: /n the static position on level ground the body acceleration sensors should read about 2.5V. As thevehicle moves, the signal voltage will increase or decrease depending on vehicle direction. If these sensorsare off by more than a few tenths of a volt, the control unit will flag a the front and rear control valves. It is a three-wire suspension movements over bumps. The level controlsensor with a five-volt reference, signal voltage, and sensors are mounted on the body of the vehicle witha ground wire all going to the ABC control unit. You a linkage attached to the lower control arm of eachcan monitor this voltage and get a corresponding corner. The plunger travel sensors are mounted insidepressure reading in Actual Values on your SDS (Star the strut assembly and are not serviceable separately.Diagnostic System). You can also read the pressure in If one fails you will have to replace the strut itself.each strut assembly with your SDS software. There are typically five additional sensors that helpA SYMPHONY OF SENSORS the ABC control unit determine direction, rotational In order for an ABC system to accurately control speed, and rate of change the body. There are the fronteach corner of the vehicle, it needs multiple sensors right and left body acceleration sensors, the rear leftto read individual ride height, suspension events, and body acceleration sensor (the right rears movement isthe overall direction and movement of the body. This is extrapolated from the signals generated by the otheraccomplished with a symphony of sensors mounted in three), a lateral acceleration sensor, and longitudinalboth suspension components and the body. Each strut acceleration sensor. They have the job of telling thehas one sensor that reads vehicle level and another ABC control unit if the vehicle is accelerating orthat reports on the rate of the struts acceleration. braking, and to what degree the vehicle is beingThe level sensor helps the ABC control unit set the turned to the left or the right. Normally, withoutride height and the plunger travel sensor monitors the help of ABC, the suspension on the outside ofVehicle 230.471 Control unit ABCLevel sensors No Nam© Soecified value Actual values Unit • 035 B22/8 (Left front level sensor) [1.70...3.301 2.45 v 036 B22/9 (Right front level sensor) [1.70...3.30] 2.61 V 037 B22/7 (Left rear level sensor) [1.70...3.30] 2.41 V 038 B22/10 (Right rear level sensor) [1.70...3.30] 2.69 VWith your SDS, you can monitor the voltage of the level sensors to isolate a bad one. You can also monitorsystem pressures, plunger solenoid amp draw, and body acceleration sensor signal voltage. lercedes-Benz StarTuned
  • 19. the turn is compressed. The height, plunger travel, case he or she wants to raise the car when entering aand acceleration sensors for that side tell the ABC steep driveway, for example. On the 230 chassis, thereunit that. If it feels it needs to, it can apply greater is also a sport setting for stiffer damping.ABC system pressure to that sides strut assemblies,extending them, much the way a cheetah extends its Automatic functions may not work properly if theoutside legs in a 60-mph turn. Its simple physics, but ABC system is not calibrated. If you have to servicethe process is high-tech. the system, there are several functions that will need to be performed with the SDS unit. We alreadyTHE "ACTIVE" IN ABC discussed the importance of depressurizing before ABC prevents the suspension from unsettling the opening the hydraulics. Beyond that, you will have tovehicle or bottoming out if the driver goes over a perform a level calibration, plunger sensor calibration,large bump in the middle of a turn. All of the sensors and a load compensation calibration in that ordermentioned are of the three-wire type with a five-volt before the system will work as its supposed to.reference, signal wire, and ground, all connected to thecontrol unit. The body acceleration sensors have to be USING YOUR SDSable to react differently in each situation. The signal There are many dynamic tests you can performvoltage is close to 2.5 volts with the vehicle level and with the SDS to verify that the ABC components arestanding still, or while driving straight down the road functioning properly. Under "Actual Values," youat a steady speed. Under acceleration and deceleration, can monitor the signal voltages of level sensor andthe longitudinal acceleration sensor will either increase plunger travel sensor, and the individual pressureor decrease its voltage from 2.5 volts. If you turn the readings for each strut. You can also monitor thesteering wheel hard enough to the left, right and rear current draw of each plunger solenoid that controlsbody acceleration sensors will also deviate from the pressure to the strut assemblies. This will let you2.5 volt static position. You can monitor these voltages know if a solenoid is sticking, which may cause awhile someone else drives the vehicle, or you can corner to stay in the up or down position. Typically,observe these reading with your SDS. they draw under 750ma when being operated. If you see a reading higher than that, suspect a sticking Some of the functions of the ABC system can be solenoid. Level sensor signals are given in voltages,adjusted manually. To improve the center of gravity which will, of course, vary with the ride-heightat higher speeds, the ABC control unit automatically setting. You can also read the ride heights by theirlowers the vehicle, but the driver has some control of deviation from the calibrated level.the ride height via a switch on the control panel in Once you have replaced the defective hydraulic or electrical ABC component, you will have to performVehicle 230.471 some steps on a level surface before you can return the vehicle to the customer. First, you should reset|Move toward calibrated level (automatic). the system to the calibrated level. You can find thisLeft front vehicle level 3 mm under "Actuations" on your SDS. You will not noticeRight front vehicle level -6 mm the vehicle moving, but you will see the deviation inVehicle level at rear left -6 mm millimeters change. When the numbers stop changingVehicle level at rear right 3 mm the calibration is complete. Performing these last fewB4/5 (ABC pressure sensor) 190 Bar steps will improve ride control.Test prerequisite:- Engine running Knowing how the system works and how to properly service it will keep your customers coming back to you.F3: START (The actuation can be terminated Original OEM parts from your Mercedes-Benz dealerwhen the actual values stop changing.) will ensure the quality of your repairs. While you are atAfter completing an ABC repair, you should perform a the dealer picking up parts, you should also rememberlevel calibration under "Actuations" with your SDS to the filters in the ABC reservoir and the CHF lis fluidmatch the vehicle to the new components you have that Mercedes-Benz specifies for its hydraulic systems.installed. This improves ride quality and helps determine Complete the repair by recalibrating the ABC and you willif there are any other problems with the system. have serviced the vehicle just as the dealer would have. | May 2012 19
  • 20. ABC Service Baselines When opening up one of these high-pressure systems there are some special procedures you must observe. th any computer-controlled electro-mechanical a requirement when replacing control units that may , there are two sides to the ABC story: the need to be programmed or initialized before bein^ il/electronic side and the mechanical side. The into service. jan be identified, monitored, and controlled For example, the code CI531-008 means that SDS (Star Diagnostic System), available for despite the fact that the right rear valve has beer from Mercedes-Benz USA. This scan tool commanded closed, the height value has changed le of reading the control unit information while the vehicle was shut off. This points to either including the software version level, which can be an external or internal leak in the right rear strut important in determining if an update needs to be assembly or valve. By clicking F3, you can access a performed to fix a problem. Of course, it can also flow chart that will take you through a step-by-step read diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs), but it goes diagnostic procedure to nail down the trouble. way beyond that by offering a guided fault-finding flowchart when you select the code you want to Before you can diagnose such a problem, however, troubleshoot. In addition, you can read specific data in the basics of the system must be in proper order. real time as the vehicle is being operated. Finally, it is There needs to be the correct amount of fluid so 1: HI llll lllllill fill! Illl With pressures reaching 200 bar (3, OOO psi), it makes sense to stick with Genuine Mercedes-Benz replacement parts.20 Mercedes-Benz StarTuned
  • 21. that the ABC pump can operate at the right pressure, A filter is mounted in the reservoir, and you shouldand the pump itself needs to be capable of generating replace it whenever you open the system. This isenough pressure to raise the vehicle. an absolute must when you have had to replace the hydraulic pump. The ABC system is self-bleeding, so As mentioned in the main article, ABC uses the same you should not have to open any valves to let air outreservoir and pump as the power steering system. of the hydraulic circuits. After draining and refilling,The fluid level should be checked while the engine is however, you should let the vehicle sit for as long asrunning and the system is operational. The dipstick possible to let any air escape that may have enteredhas two levels marked on it. The higher of the two is the system while it was open. Using your SDS to putfor when the vehicle is at the lowest height setting, and the system into "Rodeo" mode will not only check thethe lower one is for when the vehicle is at the highest system for self-diagnostic codes, but will also open allheight setting. Obviously, at the lowest height setting of the valves to raise and lower the vehicle. This is anthe volume in the struts is smaller and therefore more excellent way to expel any air that may be trapped influid will return to the reservoir, and vice versa. Keep the system.this in mind when checking the level. Also, use onlyfresh new hydraulic fluid to refill after draining. Finally, Mercedes-Benz strictly specifies CHF-11S fluid for its hydraulic systems. This is a green-tinted synthetic fluid far superior to older, non-synthetics Vehicle 230.475 Control unit ABC typically used in the past for power steering. Its foolish to use anything but the right stuff. | Fault Codes Left: This kind of SDS DTC explanation makes it Code J Text | No. Status easier to zero in on a problem. Right rear suspension strut CI53I-008 moves although locking 0 STORED Below: Dont neglect that filter, and use only the recommended synthetic hydraulic fluid. May 2012 21
  • 22. ClimateWith summer coming,youd better be sureyoure up-to-date onMercedes-Benz A/Cservice so you can keepyour customers in theTemperate Zone IV////=|ME3
  • 23. Mercedes-Benz owners expect their creaturecomforts to work properly. Nowhere is that moreimportant than in the climate control system.Occupants require that they be kept warm in thewinter and cool in the summer. Mercedes-Benzoffers some of the most sophisticated climate controlsystems in the world, which means youll need somespecialized knowledge for diagnosis and repair.Knowing how they work is the first step. Thermotronic is a full-function automatic systemthat reads the interior and exterior temperatures andchanges compressor output, heater valve and blenddoor position. Tempmatic is another system found on2000 and later M-Class vehicles in the 163 chassisrange. This is a combination of manual and electroniccontrols that work with other control units to provideair conditioning and heater management. Thiscooperation helps reduce wiring and saves weight. Italso streamlines the diagnostic process by puttingmore information in the hands of the repair technicianthrough SDS hardware and software, available forpurchase from Mercedes-Benz.STARTING O F F SIMPLE The 163-chassis air conditioning system hasundergone some improvements over the years. Fromits introduction in 1998 to almost 2000 (11/99), thepush-button controls are only air conditioning andheater switches. They feed their inputs into a separateAAC (Automatic Air Conditioning) module mountedbehind the center control panel of the instrumentcluster. This module controls the blend door fortemperature control of the cabin. It does not have aninterior temperature sensor that provides feedbackand changes the blend door position. The push-buttoncontrol unit simply had a variable resistor that worksin conjunction with the blend door position sensor.These two switches indicate the desired temperatureto the AAC unit, which in turn positions the blenddoor. The module also has a sensor for evaporatortemperature. If the evaporator starts to freeze, thecontrol unit sends out a command to shut off the A/Ccompressor. The AAC control unit is not otherwise indirect control of the compressor. The AAM (All Activity Module) works withthe AAC module to control air conditioning andheating. It manages the coolant circulation pumpand the auxiliary cooling fans, and controls the A/Ccompressor directly. The electrical circuits for the May 2012 23
  • 24. Refrigerant pressure sensor input goes to the All Activity Module, and you can measure the signal voltage atthe AAM. You should have about .75V with a full system at about 90 psi of refrigerant on both high and lowsides with the A/C system off.pump and fans are completed through relays located and resistor types that regulate blower current andin the fuse and relay box under the hood. The AAM therefore speed.has the final say on energizing the A/C compressor.It gets A/C pressure input from the high-side line In the 2002 model year (9/01 production date), therunning from the compressor to the condenser 163 chassis received a fully-automatic air conditioningby means of a three-wire sensor with a five-volt system. Interior temperature sensors were added toreference, signal wire, and ground. The AAM needs the center air and foot-well ductwork. The input from these sensors contribute to the positioning of theto see that the proper amount of refrigerant is in the blend door motor. The push-button panel is now thesystem before it will activate the compressor. If the AAC control unit and takes over direct operation ofrefrigerant level is too low, the AAM will not energize the A/C compressor and the coolant circulation pumpthe compressor so it does not seize from running dry. from the All Activity Module. The AAM is still inGETTING THE COMPRESSOR STARTED control of the auxiliary cooling fans. Rear independent You should see about .75V on the signal line with temperature control was also added. A Rear Controla fully-charged A/C system with about 90 psi on Field Control module (RCP) sends switched inputs toboth the high and low sides (system off). This should the Lower Control Field Control module (LCP), whichbe enough to get the compressor started. Then, the communicates on the C CAN with the AAC module.low side should drop to under 30 psi and the high The new all-inclusive AAC module directly managesside should increase to at least 150 psi, or higher if air distribution by controlling six motors. Three motorsthe ambient temperature is hot. Remember, if the handle the defrost vent, center vent, and foot-well ducts,evaporator core temperature sensor is indicating and the other three control the temperature blend door,freezing temperatures, the compressor will be shut fresh air/recirculation door, and rear air If the high-side pressure becomes excessive- over 450psi - the AAM will ground the auxiliary IM VENTING!fan relay to activate both fans. This should drop the Each motor shares the same three wires from thetemperature and pressure in the high side of the AAC unit. Pin #1 is a 12V power supply, pin #3 issystem. Blower motor controls are conventional switch a ground, and pin #2 is the command signal. It is>4 lercedes-Benz StarTuned
  • 25. Vehicle 230.475 Control unit KLA2Function requirementsPreconditions Specified value Actual value Result Evaporator temperature 1 - 80 °C 40.0 °C 0Coolant temperature 0- 110X 94.5 °C 0 Engine speed 400- 1400 654.0 0 Refrigerant pressure 2 - 33 bar 9.0 bar 0 Fault codes 0Function preconditions satisfiedContinue with button F2With your SDS, you can reduce your diagnostic time by evaluating the available data. Here, you can see theevaporator temperature and refrigerant pressure at a glance. You should always back up your findings withelectrical testing at the component before replacement.a time-based pulsed signal that sends individual Since the compressor is always engaged at 2%, if offersmessages out to each door motor even though they almost no resistance and does not rob horsepowerare all attached to the same wire. This means the from the engine. A compressor control valve appliessignal to control each motor is sent on the same low side pressure to move the swash plate and varywire. There is a little more to the story than that. the displacement, and, therefore, compressor output.With a paid subscription to,you can access factory wiring diagrams. This can be FEELING THE BREEZEimportant because if you look at the 2002 model year Not all AAC systems are created equal. The bloweryou will see that an Extended Activity Module (EAM) controls on a 210 chassis are different from those ofis connected to the AAC control unit and the Lower an early 163 chassis. The 210 chassis was one of theControl Field Control module through a CAN. This is first AAC systems to use what is sometimes called aall referring to the 163 chassis; wholesale changes final stage blower motor module or blower regulator towere made to the 164. control blower speeds. The 215 and 220 chassis have a similar set up. Constant power is fed directly to the Although the AAM controls the compressor, not blower motor through the fuse panel by the firewallall compressors are the same. On the older 163 on the drivers side of the engine compartment. Thechassis, the A/C compressor has a conventional clutch ground wire of the blower motor passes through theto engage and disengage. This is how refrigerant blower regulator, which is clipped onto the blowerpressure, and therefore temperature, is maintained. motor assembly. A three-wire connector applies 12VOn later 163 chassis (2002 forward), a clutch less to the module, the command signal to vary the motorvariable-displacement compressor is used. It has a speed, and ground. The voltage supply is usually arubber coupling in place of a clutch. If the compressor larger-gauge red wire, the command signal is yellow,seizes, the fixture decouples and only the pulley and the ground is black. These wire colors do not showspins. Compressor output is controlled by positioning up on the wiring diagram since they are not on thea swash plate inside the compressor unit. The swash vehicles harness side of the connector.plate can be positioned from 2% to 100% swept volume. May 2012 25
  • 26. Erc-FEis/afra Gumi The voltage command is an analog signal that comes than this, the motor may have a seizing bearing. Also,from the AAC control unit. With the blower off, the check to make sure the fan blades are not hittingvoltage is zero. As you turn the blower speed control anything. If the amperage draw is too high, you willup, the signal from the AAC unit gradually increases need to replace the blower motor before you over-taxfrom .5V to about 6V peak. If the blower module was another module.replaced in the past, it is possible that it is being over-taxed. While it forms the ground for the blower motor, DEFROST, VENT, OR FOOTWELL?it carries all of the current the motor is drawing, When dealing with a door mode control problem,which is considerable especially at high speed. Normal you must understand a few things. There is AAC anddraw is approximately 30 amps. If you measure more C-AAC. The AAC system automatically adjusts the air a I |§| <> + * 9 I •26 Mercedes-Benz StarTuned
  • 27. conditioning and blend door operations to match the temperature selected. Below: With your paid subscription The C-AAC system can do the same thing, but there are temperature to you can access sensors in the ductwork that can change the position of the door to specific technical information on maintain the selected temperature. Mercedes-Benz uses a few different any system. Here is a function systems to control the position of the motors. The first is the three-wire diagram for the A/C on a 211 system mentioned earlier. A common power supply, signal command, and chassis. Notice that component ground are connected to every motor. The signal wire carries the square B14 ambient temperature sensor wave that commands the position of each motor. This can be found on the goes into the front SAM. This 163, 203, 211, and 230 chassis. The 215 and 220 chassis uses a slightly reading is used to calculate when more sophisticated system. the compressor is turned on.JU747 iJUB9 " j H22 /7s1 B10/4 |WW Q$ A32 ! , I ! N22/782 B10/6! M12/6 «! M12 .i . II i N34/1 i A32 N22/7 m«./ r • M2/9 M2/10 M2/11 «PP£ 83.40-U-2101DB M2/12 M2/13 J 21 23 I 05/05 1 [06/05 MIS/30 1 : i ii i M16/31 I J8*2 I ! B12/2 ii B12 IU742 i I II I L.R?2/3J B14 ^ MO/1 B32/2 S17/3 S17/4- S17/5 rarre 54.2LU-2109DA S17/6 tSTPE 54.21-U-2109DC rarp£ 54.21-U-2109DH FG 83U0-U-2C6Q-S9DA B32/2 C-AAC sun sensor (4 in total) Model 211 PE83.40-U-2050DA Function diagram, electrics, interior climate control May 2012 27
  • 28. 11 l5KMl?l=l?>ATiia [^JiffflAiiia.... - — ... The flagship sedan and coupeuse a C-AAC to manage the overallclimate control system. A separatecontrol unit handles the steppermotors directly by providing anindividual power supply to eachmotor. Just like a normal steppermotor that might be used tocontrol idle speed, EGR flow, etc.,Right: On the E-Class, the blowermotor regulator has a three-pinconnector as well as the singlespade connector for the blowermotor ground. Here, the red wireis the power supply, the yellowwire is the command signal, andthe black wire is ground. Look forup to 6V from the AAC unit on thecommand line at full blower speed.A "good" blower motor will draw approximately 30 amps when supplied battery voltage and direct ground. You shouldcheck the amp draw if you need to replace the blower regulator to verify that you will not have a repeat failure.28 Mercedes-Benz StarTuned
  • 29. THE SDS TO THE RESCUE Vehicle 230.475 Control unit KLA2 After evacuating the system and then recharging it with the correct Control unit adaptations amount of refrigerant (see the Read coding and change if necessary. label in the engine compartment), the compressor may still not come Check of adjustment range of positioning motors on. If a diagnostic trouble code Teaching-in of rotary potentimoeter for center nozzle and side outlets blocks A/C operation, you will have to clear the code before theUsing your SDS you can select "Control Unit Adaptations." From here you compressor will be commanded on.can select "Normalizing Of Position Motors." This will start the process of This should be done after the A/Cmoving the motors through their full range of travel and recording their system is serviced. After servicingposition for future adjustments. a mode door control motor, you willfour wires are pulsed to ground in the AAC unit directly. This will also have to normalize the doorto change position. The stepper give you data and control from positions. There is a procedure inmotor control unit receives its other control units that work with the SDS for this. When you performdirections from the C-AAC control the AAC. This data can be critical this function the AAC control unitunit. The signals are sent over the to A/C operation. For instance, or the stepper motor control unitdedicated AAC CAN, also known as the outside temperature sensor commands each motor to the endthe KLA CAN. Other sophisticated signal is usually sent to the front or stops and remembers the positionscomponents communicate over drivers side SAM. This information of each. The automatic temperaturethis CAN, such as the center vent is used by the AAC unit to control and mode door motors can makecontrol unit, sun load sensor, and A/C operation. adjustments to meet the changingthe multi-function sensor. The conditions. Automatic functionsmulti-function sensor reads various If the sensor signal indicates a may work incorrectly if this step isdata from the environment. Aside very low temperature from a broken not followed.from reading outside temperature, or missing sensor, the circuit wouldit can read humidity, CO, and NOx. be open. Like any typical NTC There are other opportunities (Negative Temperature Coefficient) for service on Mercedes-Benz A/CThis provides information for sensor, the higher the resistance systems. Statically-charged particlean optional air filtration system. through the sensor the higher the filters are installed on most modelsOutside air can be directed through signal voltage. An open circuit would and charcoal activated filters aretwo activated charcoal filters that indicate freezing temperatures. In available for high-end models.can catch pollutants. this case, the A/C compressor would Your Mercedes-Benz dealersTOOLS IN THE ARSENAL not be commanded on since the parts department can supply you No matter which system you are electronics believe the outside air with OEM quality filters, whichworking on, you are going to need is cold. The same situation could be are better than aftermarketan SDS to finish the job. Each AAC said for the evaporator temperature replacements. Mercedes-Benz has acontrol unit has multiple sensor sensor or interior temperature detailed catalog of remanufacturedinputs and communicates with sensor. If both sensor inputs indicate A/C components such as A/Cother control units to operate the its too cold, the compressor will not compressors, so your customersA/C system. You can access all come on. Both of these inputs come can have OEM quality replacementof the data for each of these units directly into the AAC control unit. parts. Diagnosing the problemwith your SDS, which is available Only the outside air temperature accurately and installing qualityfor purchase from Mercedes-Benz sensor is sent to the SAM, so you parts is why your customers comeUSA. You can find this information may not see the data in the AAC to you for their service work. Leton control unit unless you look at Mercedes-Benz stand behind yourDiagnosis/Aftermarket. With the the overall A/C system with your work with warrantied componentsnew Xentry software, you can Xentry software. Other functions and your customers should have noeither go directly into the AAC are required to bring an A/C system problem keeping their cool. |control unit or evaluate the data online after service. May 2012 29
  • 30. ARE YOU READY FORCARBON FIBER REPAIR?Carbon fiber parts will be in certain 2012Mercedes-Benz production series vehicles
  • 31. Lightweight vehicle construction continues to This weight-saving initiative will partially offsetbe the Holy Grail for leading automakers such as any increase in weight caused by additional safetyMercedes-Benz. Driven by environmental, economic, and comfort features, or new technologies used inand other considerations, the reduction of vehicle alternative drive systems, or required by regulators.mass is achieved by choosing from a spectrum of Furthermore, CFRP parts contribute to an increasedlighter materials. The recent shift to lighter and stiffness of the vehicle body, thereby furtherstronger steels and alloys illustrates this. But just as increasing the crash integrity of the passenger cell asthe collision repair industry has begun to adapt from well as the safety and comfort of vehicle occupants.mild steels to higher-strength varieties, there is anew wave of lighter and stronger materials inbound Beyond using CFRP parts in Formula 1 racing,for mainstream automobiles — carbon fiber reinforced Mercedes-Benz demonstrated its CFRP for production-plastics (CFRP). Now is the time to ready yourself and series vehicles over a decade ago with its SLR model.your business for the coming changes. With thousands produced, Mercedes-Benz has put more vehicles with CFRP materials on the road thanCARBON FIBER IS NOT JUST COMING SOMETIME; any other automaker, and demonstrated that CFRPFOR MERCEDES-BENZ, IT IS ALREADY HERE meets the most stringent safety and performance Lightweight construction is an integral part of requirements.Daimlers growth strategy toward sustainable mobility, In the years since, Mercedes-Benz has workedoccupant safety, improved fuel efficiency, and reduced intensively on the advanced development of CFRP,exhaust emissions. According to Dr. Dieter Zetsche, with the objective of reducing costs so as to enable achairman of the board of management of Daimler broad-scale production-series rollout of the technology.AG (parent of Mercedes-Benz), the company has set For example, at the automakers recent Tech Day event,a specific development goal of reducing the body-in- plans to actively adopt CFRP parts and increase thewhite weight for all Mercedes-Benz vehicles by up number of models using such parts were 10 percent, when compared with the immediatelypreceding versions. "Daimler wi be investing in the expansion of its production network, continuing its product offensive and intensifying the development of new technologies," stated Zetsche. "This includes a joint venture between Daimler AG and Toray Industries Inc. to produce and market automotive parts made of carbon fiber." Under this agreement, Toray will utilize its proprietary short-cycle Resin Transfer Molding process technology -- which enables the mass-production of CFRP parts with a significantlyLightweight Construction Via An Intelligent Vehicle Material Mix shorter molding cycle — toBy incorporating a mix of lighter-weight materials - higher-strength steels and develop optimized CFRPalloys, fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP), carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) parts and components for- it was possible to reduce the bodyshell weight of the Mercedes-Benz F 125 Daimlers brands. Daimlersconcept by 550 pounds. But the high CFRP content (body parts and structural role will include designingcomponents) isnt just futuristic dreaming. CFRP parts and components arenow in MY2102 vehicles, such as the SLK, CI, CLS, and other models. CFRP parts and components, May 2012 31
  • 32. 3-AiaiittW) ffrj^ra?. Etemiaas well as developing joining FRONT END CARBON FIBER TUBES ARE Before vs. Aftertechnologies and procedures. DESIGNED TO TAKE THE PUNCH OF A"We intend to start supplying FRONT-END IMPACT.these mass-produced CFRPparts for more productionseries Mercedes-Benzpassenger vehicles that willbe launched in 2012," Zetscheemphasized.WHAT IS A CFRPCOMPOSITE? Jason Bartanen, technicaldirector for I-CAR agrees thatshops and technicians need toprepare now for CFRR "Werecertainly starting to see a lotmore carbon fiber applicationsin production-series vehicles,such as hoods, roofs, body heat and fire well," Carpenter explained. "The resinpanels, other parts and structural components. Were system encapsulates the fiber, resists moisture,going to see even more CFRP in the years ahead." maintains the shape and also offers some resistance Bartanen shared that the advent of CFRP in to compression stress."everyday vehicles was one of the factors that prompted Physical properties, such as weight, strength, stressI-CAR to develop a working relationship with Abaris resistance, etc. vary depending on the quality of resinsInc., a firm with CFRP repair expertise in several and type of reinforcing fiber used. "But the compositeindustries. The goal is to begin providing CFRP- ingredients themselves -- both resin and fiber typesthemed collision repair education to the industry. - do not care where they are or what theyre doing," Recently, StarTuned had the opportunity to visit with adds Carpenter. "They are going to perform to theirBartanen, who introduced us to Jay Carpenter, the design specifications where and when a quality repairtechnical instructor for Abaris Training Resources Inc. process is employed.His experience ranges from concrete to automobiles(his personal passion) to aerospace to developing CFRP C F R P COLLISION REPAIR BASICSparts that are on the Hubble space telescope. Matrix materials are available in three categories - polyesters, vinyl esters and epoxies. "While each "CFRP are composite materials," said Carpenter. might be able to be used for a specific CFRP repair,"They consist of are a combination of two or more think toward high-end quality epoxies when workingmaterials - a matrix and some reinforcing element." with CFRP," Carpenter suggested.He used reinforced concrete as an easy-to-understandexample of a composite. "Cement is the matrix material, "Unlike low-end polyester and vinyl ester resins,while rebar provides the reinforcement. Together, the epoxies provide a stronger molecular link and bettercomposite is stronger, safer and opens up a wider range adhesion, which results in a higher-value vehicleof applications for the construction industry." repair," he continued. "Epoxies utilize a hardener, rather than a catalyst, which allows more flexible and Likewise, fiber composites are also a combination precise cure times, ranging from minutes to years. Toof different materials. They combine resin as a me, it makes zero sense to take a high-end fiber andmatrix together with some reinforcing fiber. "For blend it with a low-end resin, such as polyesters orfiber composites, the woven fibers carry the load; the vinyl esters, because any compromise of the qualityweave is effective at handling tension, torsion, shear of your repair to save a few bucks might come back toand compression stresses, but they do not handle haunt you down the road."32 Mercedes-Benz StarTuned
  • 33. CARBON FIBER HAS CLEAR ADVANTAGES FOR AUTOMOBILES The table below lists some of the properties for the three classes of fibers — fiberglass, Aramid, and carbon fiber — used in the automobile and other industries. Mercedes-Benz had the foresight to secure a supply of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs), just ahead of a growing competitive wave of other automakers now seeking a limited global supply, (image — ManicMedia LLC) Fiberglass Aramid Fiber Carbon Fiber •Poor strength vs. stresses •Good strength vs. stresses •High strength vs. stresses •Poor absorption properties •Good energy absorption •Excellent energy absorption •Low cost •Moderately expensive •Most expensive •Heaviest •Lighter than fiberglass •lightest of all •Electrical insulator •Electrical insulator •Electrically conutive •Car be affected by an alkalire environment • Bonds poorly with polyester resins •Can cause galvanic corrosion problems with carbon steel and aluminiumK?fcW There are three primary classes of fiber composites • Although more expensive, the use ofused in collision repair: prepeg CFRPs provide technicians with more control, as they contain resins that • Fiberglass is the weakest and least- have been applied in a very uniform expensive type of fiber composite. It and controlled manner that achieves the consists of a plastic matrix reinforced by optimal fiber-to-resin ratio. In addition, fine fibers of glass. Fiberglass composites prepeg materials require controlled are sensitive to alkaline environments. storage -- typically freezers -- to hold and • Aramid fiber is a more expensive, but retard the resins natural propensity to stronger, class of composites. Aramid has advance. a much tighter weave than fiberglass, • Repairers desiring a more economical which in itself adds strength, but when option might employ a wet resin system, combined with resin forms a stronger and wherein they buy the raw fiber materials more solid-feeling composite. Aramid can in rolls and resins in five-gallon pails, corrode if exposed to chlorine. then apply the resins themselves. Using • Carbon fiber is stronger and more a good, readily available wet resin system expensive than Aramid. Thermal and sound repair procedures, repairers manufacturing processes evaporate non- can effect complete, safe repairs, but doing carbon constituents of a raw polymer so requires sound technique to ensure the leaving a fiber that is typically 93 to 95 optimum and critical fiber-to-resin ratio is percent carbon. Note that carbon fiber can achieved to match the application. exhibit galvanic corrosion in the presence "When trying to understand the fiber-to-resin ratio, of carbon steel or aluminum. think of achieving the optimal ratio as the Goldilocks Different CFRP composites have unique structural effect," Carpenter suggests. "If the composite has tooproperties and temperature tolerance. Besides outright much resin, then the composite will be heavier and morereplacement with a new CFRP part, two other repair brittle than desired. If there is too much fiber content,options are using pre-impregnated (prepeg) fabrics, or then the composite will be prone to coming apart more"wet resin systems." easily, especially under compression, tension, or torsion stresses that can occur in an accident." May 2012 33
  • 34. (3&raraCTr. Fr,rai=rc; fT^f-y^n: To provide customers with a complete, safe, and For mainstream collision facilities, understandinglasting repair, Bartanen and Carpenter both agree the complexity and limitations of new CFRP materialsthat technicians should use quality resources from is critical. To achieve this, begin seeking access tothe vehicle manufacturer to determine which of three CFRP-related information and training to developrepair paths are approved and recommended. For CFRP repair expertise. Those collision facilities andinstance, technicians must know when and where: professionals who plan and prepare early for CFRP -- like Mercedes-Benz did while other automakers did • OEM-approved CFRP replacement parts, not -- will be better positioned to seize opportunities assemblies, or components are required. than their more cautious competitors. Adopting and adapting to innovation is a matter of choice. In the • Prepeg CFRP products and procedures case of CFRP, that choice is yours to make. Just know are approved. that time, like opportunity, moves on. | • Using a wet resin system is permitted. For Mercedes-Benz vehicles, collision professionalscan use the StarTeklnfo website ( to access service information and procedures,approved parts, tools, and supplies, as well as trainingdetails and other resources through traditional Like Steels, There are Many Grades of CFRPMercedes-Benz channels. Just as various high-strength steels and alloys are suitable for certain applications and not others, For example, before beginning a repair, technicians CFRPs also come in various grades designed toshould be trained in the use of ultrasonics to detect fit certain applications. For example, the highest-the presence of delamination or extent of other strength grade may not be suitable where controlledhidden damage to CFRP parts and components. As crush in a collision is the goal. Mercedes-Benzanother example, an automaker knows the design and engineers choose among the grades on the basis ofcomposition of its CFRP parts and will require certain suitability, not cost.resins and procedures to effect repair. Those who relyon non-genuine sources for critical repair information The type of weave - the number of fibers and typeand procedures, if proven to be incorrect or out-of-date, of repeating weave pattern - that a CFRP fabric hascould face expensive consequences. affects the strength, flexibility, and other attributes of a structural component, part, or repair.PREPARING NOW WILL PROVIDEOPPORTUNITIES SOONER THAN MANY REALIZE The 2x2 Twill Weave (left) has two-CFRP fiber pairs Expect MY2012 SLK, CL, CLS, and other models that are woven at a 90-degree angle over two otherwith CFRP to soon begin arriving at your collision pairs, then under the next two pairs, and so on. Notefacility. CFRP content will migrate into less-expensive how the weave in adjacent rows is offset. This weavemodels by 2020. will easily conform or drape to complex shapes, but is not the strongest type. There is a gulf of knowledge between the generalperception of CFRP and the hard-earned expertise of Where more strength is needed, the Eight Harnessthose who deal with CFRP regularly, most of whom Satin Weave (right) is available. This pattern haswork in other industries, or in motorsports. For fibers that are woven under one and then overinsurers, CFRP will become more common as new seven fibers that run in the perpendicular direction,production capacity comes on-stream and is applied to repeated across the breadth of the fabric. Likemainstream vehicles. Many initial applications will be the Twill, each neighboring fibers weave is offsetbolted or riveted single panels, but future applications by one space. In addition, the Eight Harness Satinwill include sub-frames and body structure Weave has less void space, which therefore requiressubassemblies. Those insurers who recognize that less resin to fill for a quality repair that does notCFRP repair is specialized, but far from impossible, compromise strength, stress-resistance or load-should begin today to secure CFRP-ready repair carrying capacity. (Images - Twill Weave/Mercedes-Benz;facilities in order to reduce waste as well as cost. Harness Weave/Abaris Inc.)34 Mercedes-Benz StarTuned
  • 35. NETSourcing Mercedes-BenzRepair and Parts Information Mercedes-Benz Wholesale Parts Home Whats New Certified Collision Program Romanufacturad Parts Accessories Service Pans Find a Dealer The Advantages of Genuine Mercedes-Benz Parts • Value Genuine Mercedes-Benz Parts are competitively • Quality priced to help ensure that the premier > }:J( i automobile in the world remains durable, re • Performance roa i r , s pure, and helps retain its value. • Experience y ^ Tools and Links Order Parts Online ! Extensive information on Revamped WebParts Genuine Mercedes-Benz overview page and Service Parts such as refreshed manuals on Brakes, Wipers, Filters, WebParts and the EPC Batteries and Oil Genuine Mercedes-Benz StarTuned magazine Remanufactured section with archive Parts Catalog and Core search functionality and Return Policy, as well as downloadable articles current price updates Mercedes-Benz
  • 36. COMPLIMENTS OF R B M OF ATLANTA, INC. 770-390=0601 Mercedes-Benz