Chapter 4
Personality, Self-Image, and
Life Style

Consumer Behaviour
Canadian Edition
Schiffman/Kanuk/Das
Copyright © 200...
Opening Vignette


Do you see yourself as beautiful?
 Only1% of all women see themselves as
beautiful
 Most ads portray...
What Is Personality?
The inner psychological characteristics
that both determine and reflect how a
person responds to his ...
The Nature of Personality
 Personality

reflects individual

differences
 Personality is consistent and
enduring
 Perso...
Theories of Personality
 Freudian

theory

– Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of
human motivation
– Three int...
Theories of Personality
 Neo-Freudian

personality theory

– Social relationships are fundamental to
the formation and de...
Horney’s CAD Theory
 Using

the context of child-parent
relationships, individuals can be
classified into:
– Compliant in...
CAD theory
 Compliant

Personality

– One who desires to be loved, wanted, and
appreciated by others.
 Aggressive

Perso...
Theories of Personality –
Cont’d
 Cognitive

Theories of Personality

– Personality as differences in cognitive
processes...
Need for Cognition (NC)
A

person’s craving for enjoyment of
thinking
 High NC consumers are likely to:
– Relate better ...
Visualizers Vs Verbalizers
A

person’s preference for information
presented visually or verbally
 Visualizers require st...
Theories of Personality –
Cont’d
 Trait

theory

– Quantitative approach to personality as a
set of psychological traits
...
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education

4-13
Trait Theories – Cont’d
 Consumer

materialism

– The extent to which a person is considered
“materialistic”
 Fixed

con...
Consumer Innovativeness
 The

degree to which consumers are
receptive to new products, new services or
new practices.
 C...
Consumer Materialism
 Possessions

seen as for one’s identity
 Materialistic People
–
–
–
–

Value acquiring and showing...
Consumer Ethnocentrism
 Ethnocentric

consumers feel it is
wrong to purchase foreign-made
products
 They can be targeted...
Research Insight: From Consumer
Materialism to Compulsive
Consumption
 Consumer

materialism

– The extent to which a per...
Fixated Consumption Behaviour
 Consumers

have

– a deep interest in a particular object or
product category
– a willingn...
Sample Items to Measure Compulsive
Buying
1. When I have money, I cannot help but spend part
or the whole of it.
2. I am o...
Brand Personality
 Personality-like

traits associated with

brands
 Volvo - safety
 Perdue - freshness
 Nike - the at...
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education

4-22
(continued)

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education

4-23
Figure 4-11 (continued)

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education

4-24
Personality and Marketing
Strategy
 Identify

relevant personality traits
 Target consumers with the relevant
personalit...
Self and Self-Image
 Self-image:

A person’s perceptions of

his/her self
 People have multiple selves
– Different selve...
Different Self-Images
Actual SelfImage

Ideal Self-Image

Ideal Social
Self-Image

Social Self-Image

Expected
Self-Image
...
Different Self-Images
 Actual

Self-Image

– How you see your self
 Ideal

Self-Image

– How you would like to see yours...
Different Self-Images- Cont’d
 Expected

Self-Image

– How you expect to be in the future
 “Ought-to”

Self

– The quali...
Possessions Act as Self-Extensions
 By

allowing the person to do things
that otherwise would be very difficult
 By maki...
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education

4-31
Altering Self Images
 If

actual and ideal self-images are
different, consumers may use products
to alter their selves
 ...
Internet Insight: Virtual Self
 Online

individuals have an opportunity
to try on different personalities
 Virtual perso...
Self Concept and Marketing
Strategy
 Use

self-concept for segmentation and
positioning
 Market to consumers’ actual or ...
Life Style and Psychographics
 Psychographic

Segmentation

– Segmenting consumers on the basis of
their activities, inte...
Life Styles and Marketing
Strategy
 Use

life styles for segmentation and
positioning
 Develop media campaigns based on
...
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  1. 1. Chapter 4 Personality, Self-Image, and Life Style Consumer Behaviour Canadian Edition Schiffman/Kanuk/Das Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc 1
  2. 2. Opening Vignette  Do you see yourself as beautiful?  Only1% of all women see themselves as beautiful  Most ads portray an ideal image that is unattainable  Dove’s ‘Campaign for Real Beauty’ http://www.dove.ca Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-2
  3. 3. What Is Personality? The inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-3
  4. 4. The Nature of Personality  Personality reflects individual differences  Personality is consistent and enduring  Personality can change Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-4
  5. 5. Theories of Personality  Freudian theory – Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation – Three interacting systems • Id: primitive and impulsive drives • Superego: Individual’s internal expression of society’s moral and ethical codes of conduct • Ego: Individual’s conscious control » continued Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-5
  6. 6. Theories of Personality  Neo-Freudian personality theory – Social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality – e.g., CAD theory Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-6
  7. 7. Horney’s CAD Theory  Using the context of child-parent relationships, individuals can be classified into: – Compliant individuals – Aggressive individuals – Detached individuals Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-7
  8. 8. CAD theory  Compliant Personality – One who desires to be loved, wanted, and appreciated by others.  Aggressive Personality – One who moves against others (e.g., competes with others, desires to excel and win admiration).  Detached Personality – One who moves away from others (e.g., who desires independence, self-sufficiency, and freedom from obligations). Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-8
  9. 9. Theories of Personality – Cont’d  Cognitive Theories of Personality – Personality as differences in cognitive processes (how consumers process and react to information) Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-9
  10. 10. Need for Cognition (NC) A person’s craving for enjoyment of thinking  High NC consumers are likely to: – Relate better to written messages – Want product-related information – Spend more time processing print ads – Enjoy using the internet to get information Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-10
  11. 11. Visualizers Vs Verbalizers A person’s preference for information presented visually or verbally  Visualizers require strong visual elements in ads  Verbalizers prefer written information, print ads, question-answer format Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-11
  12. 12. Theories of Personality – Cont’d  Trait theory – Quantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traits – Single-trait or multiple-trait theories Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-12
  13. 13. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-13
  14. 14. Trait Theories – Cont’d  Consumer materialism – The extent to which a person is considered “materialistic”  Fixed consumption behaviour – Consumers fixated on certain products or categories of products  Compulsive consumption behaviour – “Addicted” or “out-of-control” consumers Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-14
  15. 15. Consumer Innovativeness  The degree to which consumers are receptive to new products, new services or new practices.  Consumer innovators are likely to: – – – – Score lower on dogmatism Score higher on need for uniqueness Have higher optimum stimulation levels Have higher need for sensation seeking and variety seeking behaviours Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-15
  16. 16. Consumer Materialism  Possessions seen as for one’s identity  Materialistic People – – – – Value acquiring and showing-off possessions Are particularly self-centered and selfish Seek lifestyles full of possessions Have many possessions that do not lead to greater happiness Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-16
  17. 17. Consumer Ethnocentrism  Ethnocentric consumers feel it is wrong to purchase foreign-made products  They can be targeted by stressing nationalistic themes Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-17
  18. 18. Research Insight: From Consumer Materialism to Compulsive Consumption  Consumer materialism – The extent to which a person is considered “materialistic”  Fixed consumption behaviour – Consumers fixated on certain products or categories of products  Compulsive consumption behaviour – “Addicted” or “out-of-control” consumers Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-18
  19. 19. Fixated Consumption Behaviour  Consumers have – a deep interest in a particular object or product category – a willingness to go to considerable lengths to secure items in the category of interest – the dedication of a considerable amount of discretionary time and money to searching out the product  Examples: collectors, hobbyists Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-19
  20. 20. Sample Items to Measure Compulsive Buying 1. When I have money, I cannot help but spend part or the whole of it. 2. I am often impulsive in my buying behaviour. 3. As soon as I enter a shopping center, I have an irresistible urge to go into a shop to buy something. 4. I am one of those people who often responds to direct mail offers. 5. I have often bought a product that I did not need, while knowing I had very little money left. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-20
  21. 21. Brand Personality  Personality-like traits associated with brands  Volvo - safety  Perdue - freshness  Nike - the athlete  BMW - performance  Levi’s 501 - dependable and rugged Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-21
  22. 22. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-22
  23. 23. (continued) Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-23
  24. 24. Figure 4-11 (continued) Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-24
  25. 25. Personality and Marketing Strategy  Identify relevant personality traits  Target consumers with the relevant personality traits  Develop promotional messages that appeal to consumers with specific personality traits  Develop a personality for the brand Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-25
  26. 26. Self and Self-Image  Self-image: A person’s perceptions of his/her self  People have multiple selves – Different selves in different situations Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-26
  27. 27. Different Self-Images Actual SelfImage Ideal Self-Image Ideal Social Self-Image Social Self-Image Expected Self-Image Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-27
  28. 28. Different Self-Images  Actual Self-Image – How you see your self  Ideal Self-Image – How you would like to see yourself  Social Self-Image – How you think others see you  Ideal Social Self-Image – How you would like others to see you » continued Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-28
  29. 29. Different Self-Images- Cont’d  Expected Self-Image – How you expect to be in the future  “Ought-to” Self – The qualities that you think you should possess Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-29
  30. 30. Possessions Act as Self-Extensions  By allowing the person to do things that otherwise would be very difficult  By making a person feel better  By conferring status or rank  By bestowing feelings of immortality  By endowing with magical powers Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-30
  31. 31. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-31
  32. 32. Altering Self Images  If actual and ideal self-images are different, consumers may use products to alter their selves  Personality vanity: self interest or admiration for one’s own appearance/achievements Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-32
  33. 33. Internet Insight: Virtual Self  Online individuals have an opportunity to try on different personalities  Virtual personalities may result in different purchase behaviour Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-33
  34. 34. Self Concept and Marketing Strategy  Use self-concept for segmentation and positioning  Market to consumers’ actual or ideal self-images – Depends on the nature of the product  Promote products as ways of altering or extending self-image Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-34
  35. 35. Life Style and Psychographics  Psychographic Segmentation – Segmenting consumers on the basis of their activities, interests and opinions  Psychographic-demographic profiles  Geodemographic segmentation Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-35
  36. 36. Life Styles and Marketing Strategy  Use life styles for segmentation and positioning  Develop media campaigns based on consumer life styles Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 4-36
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