How specific isSpecific Language Impairment?Dorothy V M Bishop
Specific language impairment (SLI)• Identified when language development falls wellbehind that of other children of the same age• No obvious explanation. Typically exclude cases with:– Permanent hearing loss– Generally slow development in all areas– Language problems after brain damage– Medical syndromes– Classic autism– Physical abnormalities of mouth and tongue– Problems just with second language learning
Other problems often occur with SLIDyslexiaSLIBishop, D. V. M., & Snowling, M. J. (2004). Developmental dyslexia and SpecificLanguage Impairment: Same or different? Psychological Bulletin, 130, 858-886.
Other problems often occur with SLI -2SLIADHDTirosh, E., & Cohen, A. (1998). Language deficit with attention-deficit disorder: Aprevalent comorbidity. Journal of Child Neurology, 13, 493-497.
Other problems often occur with SLI -3SLIHill, E. L. (2001). Non-specific nature of specific language impairment: a review of theliterature with regard to concomitant motor impairments. International Journal ofDevelopmental co-ordinationdisorder(“dyspraxia”)
Other problems often occur with SLI - 4SLIBishop, D. V. M., & Norbury, C. F. (2002). Exploring the borderlands of autistic disorderand specific language impairment: A study using standardised diagnostic instruments.Autistic spectrumdisorderSee also our slidesharepresentation on Autismand SLI
Putting it all together!Developmental co-ordinationdisorder(“dyspraxia”)DyslexiaSLIADHDAutistic spectrumdisorderBishop, D., & Rutter, M. (2008). Neurodevelopmental disorders: conceptual approaches.In M. Rutter, D. Bishop, D. Pine, S. Scott, J. Stevenson, E. Taylor & A. Thapar (Eds.),Rutters Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (pp. 32-41). Oxford: Blackwell.
Boundaries between differentconditions are not clearcut
Dyck, M. J., et al. (2011). The validity of psychiatric diagnoses: The case of specificdevelopmental disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(6), 2704-2713.608 children aged 3 – 14 years 449 Typically-developing 30 Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) 24 Mental retardation (MR = UK learning disability) 30 Receptive-expressive language disorder (SLI) 22 Developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) 53 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Assessments of IQ, language, motor, attention,social cognition, executive functionWestern Australian study
TypicalAutismMRSLIDCDADHDDyck et al: Differences between childrencaptured by two dimensionsFunction 1N.B.No sharp boundariesbetween disorders.SLI overlap with otherconditions
A consequence of the overlaps:Same child, different diagnosis• Speech and language therapist: SLI• Educational psychologist: Dyslexia• Psychiatrist: Autism spectrumdisorder (ASD)• Neurologist: Developmentalco-ordination disorder (DCD)• Paediatrician: ADHD
Why are there overlaps between disorders?• Technical term for co-occurrence is comorbidity• One condition could increase the risk for the other:e.g. Child with language problems may be inattentive if theycan’t understand instructions• Another possibility: different conditions but with commoncause:e.g. Genetic factors may affect development of brainregions that are important for both motor and languagedevelopment• Disentangling the possibilities is complicated! Seereference list for more information
For further readingsee reference list on:http://www.slideshare.net/RALLICampaign/how-specific-is-SLI