Vitamin c @ raj

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  • Humans are not able to synthesize vitamin C due to lack of gulonolactone oxidase which is that last enzyme in the vitamin C synthetic pathway (1).
    The L-isomer is biologically active in humans (1).
    Other animals that cannot synthesize vitamin C include: primates, fruit bats, guinea pigs, and some birds (1).
  • Say:You may ask, why do we need Vitamin C? Does anyone know why Vitamin C is good for us?
    (Allow students to respond)
    Say:We should eat food containing Vitamin C every day. This valuable nutrient helps us grow and also aides in repairing tissues when we get hurt. It is used to make collagen, a protein that is used by our skin, bones, blood vessels, and tendons. It even helps to produce scar tissue when we get hurt or we have a cold.
  • Say:You may be wondering what Vitamin C’s role in within your body. Does anyone have any ideas?
    (Allow students to respond)
    Say:
    Vitamin C is an antioxidant, which helps protect the cells of our body from damage.
    It can decrease the risk for conditions such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, cataracts, and gout; just to name a few.
    Vitamin C can help to strengthen the immune system and prevent colds and flu.
    How many of you get Vitamin C in your daily diet?
    (Allow students to respond)
  • Say:Everyone should try to get the recommended amounts of Vitamin C within their daily diet. Children who are between the ages of 4 and 8 should consume 15 milligrams per day. This is equivalent to about three or four average size strawberries. Those who are between the ages of 9 and 13 should consume 25 milligrams per day. This is equal to half of a kiwi. Girls who are between the ages of 14 and 18 should try to get about 65 milligrams daily, which is about a cups worth of cantaloupe cubes. Boys within this age group have an even greater requirement of 75 milligrams per day, which is equal to an orange. Women who are 19 and older should get 75 milligrams of Vitamin C, which is roughly a half a cup of broccoli. Men who are 19 and older need to consume 90 milligrams of Vitamin C per day, which is equal to a half cup of red sweet pepper.
  • Say:Since Vitamin C is readily available through common foods such as orange juice, fruits and vegetables, most people today do not experience Vitamin C deficiency. Vitamin C deficiency may occur only under strict dietary restrictions or certain medical conditions. In order to know whether or not you are getting enough Vitamin C in your diet, you may want to refer to these common symptoms. Some of these signs may also be associated with other deficiencies or ailments, so you may want to consult your physician if many of them occur.
    Signs of deficiency include:
    Bleeding gums
    Rough and dry skin
    Slow healing when hurt
    Easy bruising
    Nosebleeds
    Weight gain
    Increased chance of infection
  • Vitamin c @ raj

    1. 1. ta i V C in m
    2. 2. The naming of vitamins began with Funk’s isolated concentrate. The molecule present here was called vitamin B, since it cured Beri beri disease. Following this, vitamins were name alphabetically: vitamin A was discovered in 1913-1914, and then in chronological order, vitamin C, vitamin D which could cure rickets disease, and vitamin E which was important to fertility. The later discovery of a vitamin required for blood clotting led to the naming of vitamin K where the K denotes koagulation.
    3. 3. Background      Vitamin C is ascorbic acid The human body cannot synthesize vitamin C Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin In 1928 vitamin C was isolated In 1933 its structure was determined
    4. 4. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)       Antioxidant, strong reducing agent Collagen synthesis, tissue repair, bones & teeth, immune system, iron absorption Cannot be made by human body though animals can biosynthesize from glucose Found in citrus fruits, cruciferous veggies, tomatoes, dark green leafy, berries, mangos, melons Degraded by cooking Deficiency causes scurvy, anemia, depression, infection, tooth/gum problems, muscle deterioration, fragile bones, poor wound healing
    5. 5. Alternative Names •Ascorbic acid; •Dehydroascorbic acid
    6. 6. Where Does It Come From? •Kiwi •Oranges •Sweet potatoes •Lemons •Tomatoes •Strawberries •Turnip Greens •Broccoli •Red peppers •Cantaloupe •White potatoes •Papaya •Blueberries •Mango and many others
    7. 7. OH Chemistry O HO O H HO     Vitamin C is a weak acid, called Ascorbic acid or its salts “Ascorbate”. It is the L-enantiomer of Ascorbic acid. The D-enantiomer shows no biological activity. Commercial vitamin C is often a mix of Ascorbic acid, Sodium ascorbate and/or other Ascorbates. OH
    8. 8. How do other nutrients interact with vitamin C ? •Supplemental intake of vitamin C at gram-level doses can interfere with copper metabolism. •Conversely, vitamin C can significantly enhance iron uptake and metabolism, even at food-level amounts. •Vitamin C also has important interactions with other vitamins. Excessive intake of vitamin A, for example, is less toxic to the body when vitamin C is readily available. •Vitamin C is involved in the regeneration of vitamin E, and these two vitamins appear to work together in their antioxidant effect.
    9. 9. VITAMIN-C IN THE WILD •The vast majority of animals and plants are able to synthesize vitamin C, through a sequence of enzyme driven steps, which convert monosaccharide to vitamin C. •In plants, this is accomplished through the conversion of mannose or galactose to ascorbic acid.   •In some animals, glucose needed to produce ascorbate in the liver (in mammals and perching birds) is extracted from glycogen; ascorbate synthesis is a glycogenolysis-dependent process. •In reptiles and birds the biosynthesis is carried out in the kidneys
    10. 10. Why Do We Need It? Vitamin C helps us: •Grow •Repair broken tissue when we get hurt •Make collagen – heal cuts and bones •Boost immunity
    11. 11.  1.  The four most noted functions that vitamin C affect are: ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY When vitamin C is digested, it becomes a water soluble antioxidant. Because it is in the water soluble state, vitamin C can directly affect the free radicals in the body. Free radicals are molecules located in the body which are highly reactive, and known for causing tissue damage. They are also notoriously known for inducing oxidative damage to the inner body, advancing the aging process, and can also cause cancer.
    12. 12. 2. Collagen Synthesis Collagen is the essential part of connective tissue. Connective tissue is needed to keep the body together, and is the very framework of the body - the skin, bones, teeth, blood vessels, cartilage, tendons and ligaments - all rely on collagen. 3. The Cardiovascular System Furthermore, vitamin C is vital for the cardiovascular system. When the body's arteries become clogged, there isn't enough blood flow to the heart which results in a heart attack. Vitamin C's antioxidant properties are absorbed into the blood stream, and can actually repress the accumulation of arterial blood.
    13. 13. 4  The Immune System Finally, vitamin C impacts the immune system. The immune system main operation is to protect the body from foreign substances or toxins. For the immune system to function correctly, vitamin C is a must. Vitamin C is extremely important in this function because it is involved with T-cells and white blood cells. The white blood cells function is basically to monitor various disease conditions. Because vitamin C boosts the white blood cell count, an individual who consumes high doses of vitamin C has a less likely chance of contracting diseases.
    14. 14. What is Its Role in The Body?    Antioxidant Decreasing the risk of certain conditions Strengthen the immune system
    15. 15. ABSORPTION & EXCRETION Ascorbic acid is absorbed in the body by both active transport and simple diffusion Sodium-Dependent Active Transport—Sodium-Ascorbate CoTransporters (SVCTs) and Hexose transporters (GLUTs)—are the two transporters required for absorption.  Ascorbate concentrations over renal re-absorption threshold pass freely into the urine and are excreted.
    16. 16.  At high dietary doses (corresponding to several hundred mg/ day in humans) ascorbate is accumulated in the body until the plasma levels reach the renal resorption threshold, which is about 1.5 mg/dL in men and 1.3 mg/dL in women.  Concentrations in the plasma larger than this value (thought to represent body saturation) are rapidly excreted in the urine with a half-life of about 30 minutes.  Concentrations less than this threshold amount are actively retained by the kidneys, and the excretion half-life for the remainder of the vitamin C store in the body thus increases greatly, with the half-life lengthening as the body stores are depleted.  This half-life rises until it is as long as 83 days by the onset of the first symptoms of scurvy
    17. 17. Recommendation for Dietary Intake Ages 4 to 8 : 15 mg/day Ages 9 to 13: 25 mg/day Females 14 to 18: 65 mg/day Males 14 to 18: 75 mg/day Females 19 < : 75 mg/day Males 19 < : 90 mg/day
    18. 18. Some signs of deficiency: Bleeding gum s Rough and dryskin Slow healing when hurt Easybruising Nosebleeds W eight gain Increased chance of infection Loss of teeth
    19. 19.  Vitamin C Deficiency   Deficiency disease is called scurvy Deficiency Symptoms Anemia – small cell type  Atherosclerotic plaques and pinpoint hemorrhages  Bone fragility and joint pain  Poor wound healing and frequent infections  Bleeding gums and loosened teeth  Muscle degeneration and pain, hysteria, and depression  Rough skin and blotchy bruises 
    20. 20. Diagnosis of Scurvy  Fasting blood ascorbic acid levels:      levels below 0.10 mg/dL are considered deficient. levels of 0.10-0.19 mg/dL are considered low. levels of 0.2 mg/dL or greater are acceptable levels greater than 0.6 mg/dL likely rule out scurvy. White blood cell ascorbic acid concentration is considered a more accurate measurement of vitamin C nutritional status:     with a level of zero suggesting scurvy. 0-7 mg/dL suggesting deficiency. 8-15 mg/dL considered low. 15 mg/dL or greater is adequate vitamin C
    21. 21. TREATMENT  Scurvy can be treated by eating food containing vitamin C (such as oranges, papaya, strawberries, lemon), tablets with vitamin C
    22. 22. THERAPEUTIC USES • Cardiovascular diseases • Cataracts • Diabetes Mellitus • Cancer prevention • Common cold • Lead toxicity
    23. 23. How do cooking, storage, or processing affect vitamin C ?  Vitamin C is highly sensitive to air, water, and temperature. About 25% of the vitamin C in vegetables can be lost simply by blanching (boiling or steaming the food for a few minutes). This same degree of loss occurs in the freezing and unthawing of vegetables and fruits. Cooking of vegetables and fruits for longer periods of time (10-20 minutes) can result in a loss of over one half the total vitamin C content. When fruits and vegetables are canned and then reheated, only 1/3 of the original vitamin C content may be left. Consumption of vitamin C-rich foods in their fresh, raw form is the best way to maximize vitamin C intake
    24. 24.  Vitamin C Toxicity  Toxicity Symptoms Nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, headache, fatigue and insomnia  Hot flashes and rashes  Interference with medical tests, creating a false positive or a false negative  Aggravation of gout symptoms, urinary tract infections, and kidney stones   Upper level for adults: 2000 mg/day
    25. 25. TREATMENT Cease vitamin C intake & Treatment of underlying condition
    26. 26. More Interesting Facts About Vitamin C : English sailors were called limeys because they sucked on limes to prevent scurvy. Inuit people have very few fresh fruits and vegetables, but they do not get scurvy. That's because the traditional sea foods they eat such as seal meat and Arctic char are high in vitamin C. Ascorbic acid as a food additive helps preserve colours and flavours in canned food. Vitamin C and coffee can be used to develop black and white photo film. It is the most widely researched nutrient on the Internet. Many people think oranges are the food highest in vitamin C, but there are others with higher levels including red bell peppers, papaya, broccoli.

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