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How a bill become law
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How a bill become law

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the presentation is about the legislative process to make a law in india under article 107 and 108 of constitution of india.

the presentation is about the legislative process to make a law in india under article 107 and 108 of constitution of india.

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  • 1. LEGISLATIVE PROCEDURE AN ORDINARY BILL ARTS Rajat Dixit B.A.LLB ‘Hons.’ III sem sec B R45022447
  • 2. Procedure relating to an ordinary bill in the Union Parliament • 107. Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills.- • (1) Subject to the provisions of articles 109 and 117 with respect to Money Bills and other financial Bills, a Bill may originate in either House of Parliament. • (2) Subject to the provisions of articles 108 and 109, a Bill shall not be deemed to have been passed by the Houses of Parliament unless it has been agreed to by both Houses, either without amendment or with such amendments only as are agreed to by both Houses.
  • 3. • (3) A Bill pending in Parliament shall not lapse by reason of the prorogation of the Houses. • (4) A Bill pending in the Council of States which has not been passed by the House of the People shall not lapse on a dissolution of the House of the People. • (5) A Bill which is pending in the House of the People, or which having been passed by the House of the People is pending in the Council of States, shall, subject to the provisions of article 108, lapse on a dissolution of the House of the People.
  • 4. HOW A BILL BECOMES AN ACT • Legislative proposals are brought before either house of the Parliament of India in the form of a bill. A bill is the draft of a legislative proposal, which, when passed by both houses of Parliament and assented to by the President, becomes an Act of Parliament. • A Bill is the draft of a legislative proposal. It has to pass through various stages before it becomes an Act of Parliament.
  • 5. First Reading • The legislative process starts with the introduction of a Bill in either House of Parliament—Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha. • Bill can be introduced either by a Minister or by a private member. In the former case it is known as a Government Bill and in the latter case it is known as a Private Member’s Bill. • It is necessary for a member-in-charge of the Bill to ask for leave to introduce the Bill. If leave is granted by the House, the Bill is introduced.
  • 6. • If the motion for leave to introduce a Bill is opposed, the Speaker may, in his discretion, allow brief explanatory statement to be made by the member who opposes the motion and the member-in-charge who moved the motion. • Where a motion for leave to introduce a Bill is opposed on the ground that the Bill initiates legislation outside the legislative competence of the House, the Speaker may permit a full discussion thereon. • Thereafter, the question is put to the vote of the House. However, the motion for leave to introduce a Finance Bill or an Appropriation Bill is forthwith put to the vote of the House.
  • 7. Publication in Gazette • After a Bill has been introduced, it is published in the Official Gazette. Even before introduction, a Bill might, with the permission of the Speaker, be published in the Gazette. • In such cases, leave to introduce the Bill in the House is not asked for and the Bill is straightaway introduced.
  • 8. Reference of Bill to Standing Committee • After a Bill has been introduced, Presiding Officer of the concerned House can refer the Bill to the concerned Standing Committee for examination and make report thereon. • If a Bill is referred to Standing Committee, the Committee shall consider the general principles and clauses of the Bill referred to them and make report thereon. The Committee can also take expert opinion or the public opinion who are interested in the measure. After the Bill has thus been considered, the Committee submits its report to the House. The report of the Committee, being of persuasive value shall be treated as considered advice given by the Committees.
  • 9. Second Reading • The Second Reading consists of consideration of the Bill which is in two stages. • First Stage: The first stage consists of general discussion on the Bill as a whole when the principle underlying the Bill is discussed. At this stage it is open to the House to refer the Bill to a Select Committee of the House or a Joint Committee of the two Houses or to circulate it for the purpose of eliciting opinion thereon or to straightaway take it into consideration. • If a Bill is referred to a Select/Joint Committee, the Committee considers the Bill clause-by-clause just as the House does. Amendments can be moved to the various clauses by members of the Committee. The Committee can also take evidence of associations, public bodies or experts who are interested in the measure.
  • 10. • After the Bill has thus been considered, the Committee submits its report to the House which considers the Bill again as reported by the Committee. If a Bill is circulated for the purpose of eliciting public opinion thereon, such opinions are obtained through the Governments of the States and Union Territories. Opinions so received are laid on the Table of the House and the next motion in regard to the Bill must be for its reference to a Select/Joint Committee. It is not ordinarily permissible at this stage to move the motion for consideration of the Bill.
  • 11. • Second Stage: The second stage of the Second Reading consists of clause-by-clause consideration of the Bill as introduced or as reported by Select/Joint Committee. • Discussion takes place on each clause of the Bill and amendments to clauses can be moved at this stage. Amendments to a clause have been moved but not withdrawn are put to the vote of the House before the relevant clause is disposed of by the House. The amendments become part of the Bill if they are accepted by a majority of members present and voting. After the clauses, the Schedules if any, clause 1, the Enacting Formula and the Long Title of the Bill have been adopted by the House, the Second Reading is deemed to be over.
  • 12. Third Reading • Thereafter, the member-in-charge can move that the Bill be passed. This stage is known as the Third Reading of the Bill. At this stage the debate is confined to arguments either in support or rejection of the Bill without referring to the details thereof further than that are absolutely necessary. Only formal, verbal or consequential amendments are allowed to be moved at this stage. In passing an ordinary Bill, a simple majority of members present and voting is necessary. But in the case of a Bill to amend the Constitution, a majority of the total membership of the House and a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting is required in each House of Parliament.
  • 13. Bill in the other House • After the Bill is passed by one House, it is sent to the other House for concurrence with a message to that effect, and there also it goes through the stages described above except the introduction stage.
  • 14. Withdrawal of Bills • The Minister-in-charge of a Bill, who has introduced the Bill in Lok Sabha, may at any stage of the Bill move for leave to withdraw the Bill on the ground that: • (a) the legislative proposal contained in the Bill is to be dropped; or • (b) the Bill is to be replaced subsequently by a new Bill which substantially alters the provisions contained therein; or • (c) a Bill is to be replaced subsequently by another Bill which includes all or any of its provisions in addition to other provisions. • and if such leave is granted, no further motion is made with reference to the Bill.
  • 15. Joint Sitting • 108. Joint sitting of both Houses in certain cases.- • (1) If after a Bill has been passed by one House and transmitted to the other House- • (a) the Bill is rejected by the other House; or • (b) the Houses have finally disagreed as to the amendments to be made in the Bill; or • (c) more than six months elapse from the date of the reception of the Bill by the other House without the Bill being passed by it, the President may, unless the Bill has elapsed by reason of a dissolution of the House of the People, notify to the Houses by message if they are sitting or by public notification if they are not sitting, his intention to summon them to meet in a joint sitting for the purpose of deliberating and voting on the Bill: Provided that nothing in this clause shall apply to a Money Bill.
  • 16. • (2) In reckoning any such period of six months as is referred to in clause (1), no account shall be taken of any period during which the House referred to in sub-clause (c) of that clause is prorogued or adjourned for more than four consecutive days. • (3) Where the President has under clause (1) notified his intention of summoning the Houses to meet in a joint sitting, neither House shall proceed further with the Bill, but the President may at any time after the date of his notification summon the Houses to meet in a joint sitting for the purpose specified in the notification and, if he does so, the Houses shall meet accordingly.
  • 17. • (4) If at the joint sitting of the two Houses the Bill, with such amendments, if any, as are agreed to in joint sitting, is passed by a majority of the total number of members of both Houses present and voting, it shall be deemed for the purposes of this Constitution to have been passed by both Houses: Provided that at a joint sitting- • (a) if the Bill, having been passed by one House, has not been passed by the other House with amendments and returned to the House in which it originated, no amendment shall be proposed to the Bill other than such amendments (if any) as are made necessary by the delay in the passage of the Bill;
  • 18. • (b) if the Bill has been so passed and returned, only such amendments as aforesaid shall be proposed to the Bill and such other amendments as are relevant to the matters with respect to which the Houses have not agreed; and the decision of the person presiding as to the amendments which are admissible under this clause shall be final. • (5) A joint sitting may be held under this article and a Bill passed thereat, notwithstanding that a dissolution of the House of the People has intervened since the President notified his intention to summon the Houses to meet therein.
  • 19. • If a Bill passed by one House is rejected by the other House, or the Houses have finally disagreed as to the amendments to be made in the Bill, or more than six months lapse from the date of receipt of the Bill by the other House without the Bill being passed by it, the President may, unless the Bill has lapsed by reason of dissolution of Lok Sabha, call a Joint sitting of the two Houses to resolve the deadlock. • The President, after consultation with the Chairman, Rajya Sabha and the Speaker, Lok Sabha, has made the Houses of Parliament (Joint Sitting and Communications) Rules in terms of clause (3) of article 118 of the Constitution to regulate the procedure with regard to Joint sitting of the Houses.
  • 20. • The Bill is deemed to have been passed by both the Houses in the form it is passed by a majority ofthe total number of members of both the Houses present and voting at the Joint sitting. • The Constitution empowers the President to take steps for resolving a deadlock on a Bill between the two Houses but it is not obligatory upon him to summon the Houses to meet at a Joint Sitting. However, once the President has notified his intention to summon the Houses for a Joint Sitting, even the subsequent dissolution of Lok Sabha does not stand in the way of proceeding with the Bill. There is no time limit as to when the Joint Sitting should take place. It may take place at any time subsequent to the notification.
  • 21. Assent of the President • The Secretariat of the House which is last in possession of a Bill initiates action for obtaining the assent of the President thereon. In the case of a Money Bill or a Bill passed at a Joint sitting of the Houses, the Lok Sabha Secretariat obtains the assent of the President. The Bill becomes an Act after the President’s assent has been given. • The President can give his assent or withhold his assent to a Bill. The President can also return the Bill, if it is not a Money Bill, with his recommendations to the Houses for reconsideration, and if the Houses pass the Bill again with or without amendments, the President can not withhold his assent to a such a Bill. The President is bound to give his assent to a Constitution Amendment Bill presented to him for assent.
  • 22. References • http://www.constitution.org/cons/india/p05107.html • http://www.constitution.org/cons/india/p05108.html • http://164.100.47.132/LssNew/abstract/legislative_proce ss.htm • http://www.parliamentofindia.nic.in/ls/intro/p5.htm • Mahendra P. Singh, Constitution of India • P.M. Bakshi, Constitution of India