Egyptian Culture Presentation


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  • BRIANAA “High Context Culture” means that the message people are trying to convey often relies heavily on other communicative cues such as body language and eye contact rather than direct wordsEgyptians make assumptions about what is not saidIt is vital to be aware of these non-verbal aspects of communication in any healthcare setting in order to avoid misunderstandings
  • ANNE
  • ANNE
  • ANNE
  • Anne
  • Anne
  • ALISHAGenerally, the parents, spouses, and elder children, in descending order, have greater decision-making power than the rest of the relativesThe negative expectations can be rapidly reversed when someone moves from the “stranger category” and becomes an insider, as was previously described by the nursing theorist MadelieneLeininger
  • OVAHNIschaemic heart disease 21.73 %Cerebrovascular disease 14 %Hypertensive heart disease 3.7%Lower respiratory infections 3.30%Nephritis and nephrosisPerinatal conditionsCirrohsis of the liver 3.1%Diarrheal diseases 0.88%COPDEndocrine disorders 3.48 %
  • KATIE TO BRIANACattle and poultry are permissible provided that the slaughter was performed by a Muslim, Christian or a JewThere are no restrictions on seafood or vegetables
  • Egyptian Culture Presentation

    1. 1. Egypt is located in the northeast part of Africa. Egypt is separated from the Sinai Peninsula in southwest Asia, by the Suez Canal. In 1869, the “Statue of Liberty” was proposed to be placed at the entrance of the Suez Canal and her flame was to symbolize the light she was bringing to Asia. She is said to have been originally meant to look like an Arab peasant woman (Burns, 2002). The Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea are both major bodies of water surrounding the vast deserts of Egypt. The Nile River runs through mainland Egypt and empties into the Mediterranean Sea  Most of Egypt is is a vast desert, with sand as far as the eye can see; the terrain is very lush and green near the Nile River.  The climate of Egypt is hot and dry, however, the soil near the Nile River is fertile and excellent for farming.
    2. 2. Total population: 85,294,388 [July 2013 est.] Life expectancy at birth male : 71.3 Life expectancy at birth female : 75.4 Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births): 23.3 Probability of dying under age 5 (per 1,000 live births): 21 Probability of dying between age 15 to 60 years male (per 1,000):141 Probability of dying between age 15 to 60 years female (per 1,000):85 The “W.H.O” reports that in Egypt, chronic diseases account for 82 % of all deaths Total deaths in Egypt : 495,000 Total deaths related to chronic disease : 384,000
    3. 3.  In the Egyptian culture, people are encouraged to steer clear of confrontation and conflict through the use of compromise, patience and self-control  The theory of “face” in an elementary concern of everyday life  “Dignity” and “Respect” are the key elements of the Egyptian culture  Egypt is considered as a very “high context culture”  Emphasis is placed on tone of voice, the use of silence, facial cues and body language
    4. 4. • Official Language of Egypt is “Literary Arabic” – Classical Arabic – Modern Standard Arabic • Bedouin Arabic • Sudanese Arabic • Saudi Arabic • English is the most commonly used foreign language, followed by French • Most street signs are bilingual – “Literary Arabic” – “English” • Some signs are in French and German – English and French are widely understood by the educated classes • Unlike most other languages, Arabic is written and read from right to left
    5. 5. • Avoidance of eye contactdisrespect. • Avoidance of eye contact between a female patient and a male healthcare provider should not be misinterpreted as a lack of trust or a sign of rejection, but rather as a common sign of modesty in this patient population. • Direct eye contact = honesty and sincerity; Egyptians believe that direct eye contact is a sign of honesty and sincerity, so be prepared for disconcertingly intense stares. • According to the Egyptian’s, gaining permission from a patient before entering the room is required before coming in. The Egyptian patient would appreciate it if some sort of notice was given before entering their rooms in health institutions.
    6. 6. • Public displays of affection, anger or other emotions are frequent and normal among Egyptians. • Male friends often hold hands while walking together, as do female friends (this has nothing to do with homosexuality). Similarly, men kiss each other on the cheek as do female friends. • It is unusual for Egyptian spouses to display affection in front of strangers, and public displays of affection between the opposite sexes is definitely not acceptable in public. An observation that might be misinterpreted by some health care professionals as a sign of a dysfunctional family. • It is not uncommon for an Egyptian patient to decline shaking the hands with a health professional of the opposite sex; caution should be practiced to avoid unnecessary embarrassment.
    7. 7. • In all parts of Egypt and among all social classes, having children is deemed the greatest blessing of all. • Prenatal care is often not sought as pregnancy is considered a “natural”process • Pregnant women should rest, eat well and do little work • Fathers are not expected to participate in pregnancy, labor or delivery • Mothers do not breastfeed until after the first 48 hours as colostrum is believed to be harmful • Both Copt and Muslim women breastfeed their children for two years (Quaranic directive) • Boys are circumcised as infants • Caring for children is mainly the women’s responsibility; grandparents also participate. – Preference for boys over girls; although both sexes are treated equally in infancy and early childhood. – Children are expected to be obedient; ‘back talk’ is forbidden. – Children may fear hospitals, schools, healthcare workers and injections as families sometimes threaten children with these as deterrents.
    8. 8. • Exposure of the patient’s body parts should be limited to the minimum necessary, and permission should be asked before gently uncovering any part of the body. Even more care should be taken when exposing the private parts, and attempts should be made to avoid such exposures unless absolutely necessary • The birth of the first son is a momentous event, after which the father and mother are often called by the titles “Abu” and “Umm” (father and mother) followed by their son’s name. • Father’s whisper “Azaan” (a call to prayer) in newborn’s ear. • The Egyptian family will arrange for the slaughter of an animal “two for boys and one for a girl” one week after the birth to mark the event. • Naming ceremony takes place one week after birth, mixing elements of “Islamic” and “traditional” elements, this is a family celebration to bring the newborn into the family. • A healthcare provider may often hear such phrases as “mash’allah” meaning “thanks be to God”, or “insha’allah” meaning “if God wills it” and most sentences will end with “hamdulillah” meaning “praise be to God”.
    9. 9. • Verbal permission is based on trust and is more acceptable than written consent • Patients and their families do not like knowing about the potential complications before a medical procedure because it is thought to be bad luck. • Close family members often contribute significantly to the decisionmaking process. • Power relations in Egyptian families vary from one family to another. • The intense caring and involvement with family and close friends is accompanied by mistrust and doubt about the intentions of those outside the intimate circle. • There are striking differences in the behaviors toward, and the demands on, intimates versus the outsider.
    10. 10. • Naturalistic and social causes of sickness include bad luck, stress and bereavement. • Illness and suffering are believed to be God’s will; God’s punishment for sins and the curse of the devil. • In the Egyptian perspective, medication-related sedation is looked at from two different angles: – Alleviation of the suffering of a human being is considered very righteous – Maintaining a level of consciousness as close to normal as possible is of great importance to allow for observance of the worship rites for the longest period possible before death. • Disabled are treated with compassion and indulgence, and kept from the public as those with genetic defects. • Genetic counseling is generally refused • Institutional care is shunned
    11. 11. In 2010, according to the WHO, Egypt has the capacity to address and respond to the following : • “Healthy Egyptians 2010” is community-based comprehensive preventative care program, initiated to combat many of Egypt’s health related problems. – Acting to educate the public about the signs and symptoms of the many disease processes and how to best prevent them. – This prevention curriculum has been initiated in schools and branches into comprehensive services within the communities. • • – There is funding available for: – NCD treatment and control – NCD prevention and health promotion – NCD surveillance, monitoring and evaluation National health reporting system Has an integrated or topic-specific policy/program/action plan which is currently operations for: • Cardiovascular diseases • Cancer • Chronic respiratory diseases • Diabetes • Alcohol • Unhealthy diet/Overweight/Obesity • Physical inactivity • Tobacco
    12. 12. • The ancient Egyptians had the earliest examples of the holistic health practitioner. They treated the whole person, physically, mentally, and spiritually. Many of the medicinal herbs we use today were first used by the ancient Egyptians and our knowledge of anatomy was handed down to us by these ancient healers from their experience with mummification. • Egyptian patients resort to modern medicine, spiritual healing, and traditional healing practices. • Many Egyptians believe in the power of the Evil Eye, for demons “djinn” are mentions in the Qur’an, and it is believed that the repeating of invocations in the name of God will prevent harm at the hands of these “djinn”
    13. 13. Briana Shroy … Anne Swepston … Alisha Fitzpatrick … Ovahn Santos … Katie Skipper
    14. 14. References Bekedam, H.J., Dr. (2013). Egypt. WHO. Retrieved November 30, 2013, from Burns, K. (2002). American *Stories: The Statue of Liberty Timeline. PBS. Retrieved October 18, 2013, from Central Intelligence Agency. (2013, November 14). The World Factbook. Retrieved November 24, 2013, from Cultural Approaches to Pediatric Palliative Care in Central Massachusetts. (2013, November 25). World’s People in Central Massachusetts. Retrieved October 30, 2013, from Muigai, A., & Morales-Correa, B. (2009). Egypt People and Culture. Egypt People and Culture. Retrieved November 2, 2013, from United States, US Army Training and Doctrine Command, Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence. (2006). Arab Cultural Awareness: 58 Factsheets. Retrieved November 30, 2013, from