Art of the Ancient Near East (Stele of Hammurabi)

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Art of the Ancient Near East (Stele of Hammurabi)

  1. 1. ART OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST: BABYLONIAN ART STELE OF HAMMURABI RODRIGUEZ, Abraham Borra BFA ID-U 2012-78784
  2. 2. BABYLON • Babylon (Greek )is an adaptation ofBabili (Akkadian) meaning "Gate of God“ • In the Hebrew Bible, the name appears as Babel, interpreted in the Book of Genesis to mean confusion • Was an Akkadian city-state (founded by an Amorite Dynasty, 1867 BCE)
  3. 3. BABYLON • First appeared during the third millennia BCE as a small town and flourished and attained independence with the rise of the First Amorite Babylonian Dynasty • Had 5 distinct periods: Old Babylonian, Kassite, Middle Babylonian, Assyrian, and Neo- Babylonian period. • During this time, the City of Babylon became the cultural center of Sumer • Ruled and unified the region of Mesopotamia for over 300 years
  4. 4. THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST • The people of the Ancient Near East worshiped numerous Gods and Goddesses, mostly nature gods. Each city had a special protective deity, and people do believed the fate of the city depended on the power of that deity.
  5. 5. The Gods and Goddesses of Mesopotamia
  6. 6. AnuThe chief deity of the Sumerians, Anu was the god of the skyand of the city of Uruk.
  7. 7. EnlilAnu’s son, Enlil was the lord of the winds and the earth . Heeventually replaced his father as king of the gods.
  8. 8. InannaThe Sumerian goddess of love and war, Inanna was laterknown as Ishtar..
  9. 9. NannaThe moon god, Nanna was also known as Sin. He was thechief deity of Ur.
  10. 10. Mardukchief god of the Babylonians.
  11. 11. NabuHe is the son of Marduk and the god of writing and wisdom
  12. 12. Adadwas the Babylonian god of storms
  13. 13. NingirsuThe local god of Lagash and Girsu
  14. 14. AshurThe local deity of Assur, the city that took his name, Ashurbecame the king of the Assyrian gods. He sometimes isidentified with Enlil.
  15. 15. UtuThe sun god, Utu was known later as Shamash. On aBabylonian stele, Shamash presents the Rod of Justice toHammurabi.
  16. 16. a wedge-shaped stylus was used to make impressions on claysurfaces (also on stone, metal, and wax surfaces)
  17. 17. TechniqueCUNEIFORM WRITING(“Cuneus” Latin for “wedge-shaped”)
  18. 18. Enuma Elish ("when thegods"), Fragment of a clay tablet fromNineveh,
  19. 19. clay tablet from the library of Ashurbanipal atNineveh
  20. 20. An early world map, circa 600 BCE
  21. 21. The sun-god tablet from Babylon, about 870 BCE
  22. 22. THE CODE OF HAMMURABI
  23. 23. • Sixth king of the first Babylonian Dynasty (1792 BC to 1750 BCE)• He inherited the power from his father, Sin-Muballit• Died c. 1750 BCE• at the time of his death, his successors were unable to maintain his empire• Favorite shepherd of Shamash• Best known for the set of laws he made (Hammurabi’s Code)
  24. 24. • One of the earliest surviving written bodies of law• Hammurabi’s laws governed all aspects of Babylonian life. The largest portion is then devoted to matters of commercial and property law, rulings in domestic issues, and questions of physical assault , detailing penalties to be exacted on non-compliers
  25. 25. • Here is a small sample of the infractions described and the penalties imposed (which vary with the person’s standing in society):• ❚ If a man puts out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out.• ❚ If he kills a man’s slave, he shall pay one-third of a mina.• ❚ If someone steals property from a temple, he will be put to death, as well as the person who receives the stolen goods.• ❚ If a man rents a boat and the boat is wrecked, the renter shall replace the boat with another.• ❚ If a married woman dies before bearing any sons, her dowry shall be repaid to her father, but if she gave birth to sons, the dowry shall belong to them.• ❚ If a man’s wife is caught in bed with another man, both will be tied up and thrown in the water.
  26. 26. • ❚If anyone bring an accusation of any crime before the elders, and does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital offense charged, be put to death …• ❚If anyone break a hole into a house (break in to steal), he shall be put to death before that hole and be buried …• ❚If a son strikes his father, his hand shall be hewn off; if he break another man’s bone, his bone shall be broken• ❚ If a builder build a house for someone and that house is not properly built, and cause death to the owner, the builder shall be put to death; if it kill the son of the owner, the builder’s son shall be put to death• ❚If anyone steal a cattle or goat, and if it belong to a God or the court, the thief shall pay thirty fold; if they belonged to a freed man of the king he shall pay ten fold; if the thief can’t pay, he shall be put to death.
  27. 27. • Source:• Janson’s History of Art (7E): The Western tradition• Gardner’s Art Through the Ages (V1) : A Global History• Stokstad’s Art History• A History of Western Art (5E)

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