ART OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST: BABYLONIAN ART STELE OF HAMMURABI RODRIGUEZ, Abraham Borra BFA ID-U 2012-78784
BABYLON • Babylon (Greek )is an adaptation ofBabili (Akkadian) meaning "Gate of God“ • In the Hebrew Bible, the name appears as Babel, interpreted in the Book of Genesis to mean confusion • Was an Akkadian city-state (founded by an Amorite Dynasty, 1867 BCE)
BABYLON • First appeared during the third millennia BCE as a small town and flourished and attained independence with the rise of the First Amorite Babylonian Dynasty • Had 5 distinct periods: Old Babylonian, Kassite, Middle Babylonian, Assyrian, and Neo- Babylonian period. • During this time, the City of Babylon became the cultural center of Sumer • Ruled and unified the region of Mesopotamia for over 300 years
THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST • The people of the Ancient Near East worshiped numerous Gods and Goddesses, mostly nature gods. Each city had a special protective deity, and people do believed the fate of the city depended on the power of that deity.
• Sixth king of the first Babylonian Dynasty (1792 BC to 1750 BCE)• He inherited the power from his father, Sin-Muballit• Died c. 1750 BCE• at the time of his death, his successors were unable to maintain his empire• Favorite shepherd of Shamash• Best known for the set of laws he made (Hammurabi’s Code)
• One of the earliest surviving written bodies of law• Hammurabi’s laws governed all aspects of Babylonian life. The largest portion is then devoted to matters of commercial and property law, rulings in domestic issues, and questions of physical assault , detailing penalties to be exacted on non-compliers
• Here is a small sample of the infractions described and the penalties imposed (which vary with the person’s standing in society):• ❚ If a man puts out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out.• ❚ If he kills a man’s slave, he shall pay one-third of a mina.• ❚ If someone steals property from a temple, he will be put to death, as well as the person who receives the stolen goods.• ❚ If a man rents a boat and the boat is wrecked, the renter shall replace the boat with another.• ❚ If a married woman dies before bearing any sons, her dowry shall be repaid to her father, but if she gave birth to sons, the dowry shall belong to them.• ❚ If a man’s wife is caught in bed with another man, both will be tied up and thrown in the water.
• ❚If anyone bring an accusation of any crime before the elders, and does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital offense charged, be put to death …• ❚If anyone break a hole into a house (break in to steal), he shall be put to death before that hole and be buried …• ❚If a son strikes his father, his hand shall be hewn off; if he break another man’s bone, his bone shall be broken• ❚ If a builder build a house for someone and that house is not properly built, and cause death to the owner, the builder shall be put to death; if it kill the son of the owner, the builder’s son shall be put to death• ❚If anyone steal a cattle or goat, and if it belong to a God or the court, the thief shall pay thirty fold; if they belonged to a freed man of the king he shall pay ten fold; if the thief can’t pay, he shall be put to death.
• Source:• Janson’s History of Art (7E): The Western tradition• Gardner’s Art Through the Ages (V1) : A Global History• Stokstad’s Art History• A History of Western Art (5E)