THE THREE WORLDS Worlds Together, Worlds Apart Pages 769-783 WTWA: Companion Reader, pp. 350-354 Amanda Abrams and Qiaxian Johnson
THE FIRST WORLD• United States inﬂuenced• In early 1950’s, this was Western Europe, North America, and later Japan. – Liberal Modernism – organize world on basis of capitalism and democracy• Sometimes allied with 3rd world dictators to combat communism
POSITIVE EFFECT Negative Effect• The post-war period was marked by economies of • Fear of communism recovery and prosperity – Atomic weapons thanks to U.S. investment in – McCarthyism in the US Europe and Japan. – Spread of communism in Asia – Nearly ¼ of citizens lived in poverty• U.S. high prosperity following the war • Western Europe – Cold War slowed efforts to – Homeownership more common punish Fascists, Nazis, and collaborators – Suburban development – Fear complete de- – High birth rates Naziﬁcation would leave Germany weak and – Civil rights movements susceptible to communism • NAACP
THE SECOND WORLD• Soviet Union inﬂuenced – Determined to insulate itself from future aggression from the west, created buffer states.• Eastern and central Europe, Mongolia, and North Korea.
SECOND WORLD (CONT.)Pro Con• Rapid industrialization • The Stalinist Soviet system• state management of the suppressed dissent and anyone it considered economy with a cradle-to- dangerous to the state grave comprehensive welfare – returning POWs were sent to system camps after being released from German camps because they had• Soviet science gained had too much contact with foreigners worldwide acclaim, especially – Security police massacred strikers after the launching of Sputnik in Poland in 1957
THE THIRD WORLD• Term coined by French intellectuals – “third estate” – represented majority of population but was oppressed• 1960’s large bloc of countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America – All recently decolonized and create more just societies than First and Second worlds. • Stronger democracy than 1st and rapid development like the 2nd
THIRD WORLD DRAWBACKS• impeded by the multi-national corporations and by the ﬁnancial system (IMF and World Bank)• US and USSR opposed Third World neutrality and impeded Third World autonomy• Both superpowers sought “client states,” and contributed to the militarization of the Third World• many new countries had become debtor states, ruled by corrupt regimes supported by one of the superpowers
THIRD WORLD REVOLUTIONS• Mao Zedong – 1958, introduced Great Leap Forward (unsuccessful) – 1966 Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution • Rid country of old customs, old culture, old habits, and old ideas – “Lost Generation” sent to country side to reeducate• In Guatemala, the CIA toppled the progressive government of Jacobo Arbenz in 1954• in Cuba, Fidel Castro launched a successful guerilla war against the US-backed Batista regime in the late 1950s• Che Guevara (1928-1967), Marxist revolutionary and champion of the Cuban Revolution and Third World
POST WAR TENSIONS: FIRST WORLD• Civil Rights Movements • African American Civil Rights, NAACP • Integration, racial tensions cause riots • feminism: March in NYC 1970 • Friedan, women more independent, work oriented rather than family oriented, sexual revolution and birth control• Anti-War Movements • Kent State Shooting: Anti-Vietnam • lead to heightened non-violent civil disobedience, along with Ghandi and MLK, Jr.
POST WAR TENSIONS: SECOND WORLD/ COMMUNISM• Soviet Union Control • Buffer countries were against such a strong-hold of communist control • Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia • Prague Spring of 1968: political reforms to try to loosen control -> caused tensions between USSR and satellites • USSR response: give limited political freedom in exchange for loyalty
RESULTS• Decolonization was now complete• Three World Order replaced old European dominance • US and USSR now superpowers, not Europe • “nation-states” now form of organizing, not empires • states given more power because they were no longer under control of a “mother-country”