Walk through supervision.assingment

  • 420 views
Uploaded on

WALK-THROUGH SUPERVISION MODEL

WALK-THROUGH SUPERVISION MODEL

More in: Education , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
420
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
13
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. “WALK-THROUGH” MODEL OF SUPERVISION BY QURAT-UL-AIN NAEEM Content 1)Supervision 2)Introduction to the concept of walkthrough 3)Purposes of walkthrough 4)Need to conduct walk through 5)Essential elements of walkthrough 6)Criteria of walkthrough 7)Steps to conduct walkthrough 8)Current walkthrough model 9)Benefits of walkthrough 10) Conclusion
  • 2. WALK THROUGH SUPERVISION SUPERVISION For explaining the term supervision it is rightly said that in textual discussions it has been suggested that everything leadership people do in the course of their professional lives is in some way part of supervision. Different concepts in sense of definitions are being described which are prescribed as under,According to Knoll (1987) “Supervision is a leadership role in which the supervisor diagnoses teacher performance needs and then guides, directs assists, suggests, supports, and consults with the teacher.” Goldhammer, Anderson, and Krajewski (1980) also suggest that supervision is supportive of teacher growth “Supervision is the task assigned to certain employees, whether in a line or staff relationship to classroom teachers (or counselors), to stimulate staff growth and development, to influence teacher behaviors in the classroom (or counseling center), and to foster the selection, development, use, and evaluation of good instructional approaches and materials” (p. 13) Merriam-Webster defines supervision as “The action, process, or occupation of supervising; especially: a critical watching and directing (as of activities or course of action)” Supervision is a task in the educational setting that involves the leading and oversight of the instructional program as well as the responsibility for personnel evaluation. Throughout the history, influences and impacts on supervision included government involvement, scientific management, business management and practices, and educational research and practices. INTRODUCTION TO THE CONCEPT OF WALKTHROUGH Classroom walk-through is an instructional supervision technique which is designed tohelp administrators and teachers to focus collaboratively on instructional practicesand also to identify educator training and support needs.Walk-through can last from 2 to 45 minutes. The observing group can range from 2 to 12 people and
  • 3. may include teachers, administrators, community members,and students. Walk- through can focus on one teacher, all teachers, or a subset of teachers and institution. The walkthrough process provides formative assessment data that answers the question, “how are we doing?” in regards to the implementation of standards-based teaching and learning. Examining and analyzing this data is a key practice of continuous school improvement.Walkthrough methods have many names and various definitions and descriptions. Credited with the beginning of walkthroughs, Frase and Hetzel (2002) described walkthroughs as “An active person-to-person process that relies on deeds, involvement, and participation to create better schools” Rossi (2007) defined walkthroughs as “Frequent, focused, brief visits to classrooms that allow principals to observe firsthand the teaching and learning that are occurring in the classroom” Davidson & Taylor (2002) focuses on the aspect of principals‟ instructional leadership, describing it as “An organized observation that requires the principal to visit all classrooms to look specifically at instructional practices and student learning” Kachur, Stout, and Edwards (2010) define a classroom walkthrough by common elements as, “Informal and brief; involving the principal and/or other administrators, other instructional leaders, and teachers; quick snapshots of classroom activities (particularly instructional and curricular practices); not intended for formal teacher evaluation purposes; focused on “look-for” that emphasize improvement in teaching and learning; an opportunity to give feedback to teachers for reflection on their practice; and having the improvement of student achievement as its ultimate goal.” It can be rightly said walkthroughs are a tool for instructional supervision that includes brief, focused classroom observations designed to gather formative data to inform effective instructional practices through timely feedback for the purpose of improving teaching and student learning.
  • 4. PURPOSE OF WALKTHROUGH The purpose of the Walkthrough is to, Give and receive safe, non-threatening, qualitative evidence-based feedback to stimulate in-school dialogue. Reinforce attention to focus on teaching and learning priorities within a standards-based environment. Gather and provide qualitative data about instructional practice and student learning to supplement other data about institution and student performance. Stimulate collaborative, professional conversations about teaching and learning through the gathering of evidence related to the instructional expectation. Learn from each other and from colleagues outside of the school through observing peers, asking questions, sharing experiences, and providing a variety of perspectives. Deepen an understanding of teaching and learning through ongoing, formative feedback related to improvement that supports the institute‟s instructional focus. NEED TO CONDUCT WALKTHROUGH The classroom walkthrough model consists of a series of frequent classroom visits where the observer(s) are present to look for predetermined evidence of specific practices. The observations last anywhere from two to forty-five minutes, and are intended to support the faculty in the delivery of instruction and curriculum. Carolyn Downey is known for her early work in the development of the classroom walkthrough model, however, there are several models available and some school districts have created their own. The aim of the classroom walkthrough is to provide direct and specific feedback to teachers based on the snapshot observed. The feedback can then be given to an individual, or the observer may provide a report of patterns noted during the walkthroughs According to the National Staff Development Council, walkthroughs, sometimes referred to as "learning walks," provide the opportunity to  Reinforce attention to instructional practices
  • 5.  Gather data about instructional practice and student learning  Stimulate collegial conversation about teaching and learning  Learn from other participants  Deepen understandings and improve practices through continuous feedback. The walk-through can serve many purposes. First, it gets principals into classrooms. Unlike formal observations, which often last a full class period but occur only two or three times a year, the walk-through, when used consistently, ensures that the principal will see teachers teaching more often, albeit for a shorter length of time. Depending on the size of the school, the principal might visit every classroom as often as once a month, or even weekly. These structured visits also give principals a first-hand view of instructional issues and patterns while providing them with a meaningful way to demonstrate their interest in and knowledge of the teaching and learning process. The primary purpose the walk-through serves, though, is to provide a structure for dialogue between principal and teacher about what goes on in the classroom, "An adult-to-adult model of discourse that involves professional conversation about practice" (Downey, Steffy, English, Frase, & Poston, 2004, p. ix). ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF A WALK-THROUGH The specific components of the walk-through vary with its purpose, but all effective walk-through strategies share certain common elements. They include the following as Brevity The walk-through is designed to increase the number of classrooms that principals visit, so brevity is a must. While the typical walk-through lasts about 10 minutes, Dr. Cockerhamsays, "If we are in the classroom longer than three minutes, then it defeats the purpose of gathering first impressions". Walk-throughs do not replace longer observations but instead supplement them by providing a high number of classroom practice "snapshots" that over time can reveal patterns and instructional issues throughout the school.”
  • 6. Focus Former Michigan Principal Todd Wiedeman the common focus of the walk-through "puts teachers and principals on the same page in terms of expectations" but because the walk-through is an adaptable strategy that can be used for a variety of purposes, special attention must be paid to clarifying for all participants what is being observed, and why. To ensure that there is indeed a common understanding; teachers should be involved in developing the "look fors" and "listen fors" that principal‟s use during the observation as well as the reflective questions that structure the feedback session. This participation will go a long way toward reassuring teachers that the walk-through is a strategy for support, not for evaluation.The walk-through strategy works well when everyone both the observer and the observed knows and understands its purpose and focus. Dialogue A third common feature of the well-designed walk-through is that it results in a dialogue between the principal and the teacher who has been observed. The dialogue begins with the principal giving feedback about what was seen and heard. According to authors Hall and Hord (2000) this brief, one-on-one, focused feedback is the most powerful staff development approach available to impact teacher behavior. Feedback often takes the form of reflective questions, such as "Why did you group your students for that activity?" or "How did you develop the criteria for posting student work?" The goal of the dialogue is twofold: to encourage teachers to reflect on their classroom practice and to inform the principal about how that practices can be supported. Principals also can talk about school wide trends they have identified and make suggestions for classrooms to visit or for specific professional development (Downey et al., 2004). When principals and teachers can talk openly about what matters in the classroom, the possibilities for continuous improvement are increased significantly. VARIATIONS ON THE THEME Although the walk-through can be an effective strategy to increase instructional leadership, it also can be employed as a tool to promote teacher leadership and build professional learning communities. Once teachers are trained in the basic
  • 7. principles of the walk-through, it can be used in a variety of ways.Authors Blatt, Linsley, and Smith (2005) say about the essentials that "The essentials are the same- teachers learning from teachers in a non-evaluative way, talking about their craft, and developing lessons that will improve student achievement." This strategy deploys a group as large as five or six. The observers meet beforehand to decide the focus, and then each team member is assigned to observe a specific aspect of that focus. When the walk-throughare completed, team members meet to debrief, and written feedback is shared with the teachers who have been observed. Team members might include the principal, teachers, instructional coaches, or even staff from a neighboring school. CRITERIA OF WALKTHROUGH Walkthrough procedure includes common elements of time parameters for observations, recommendations for what to observe who should be involved in defining the process for and the conduction of classroom observations and how feedback should be communicated. The recommended amount of time spent in each classroom observation ranges from three minutes according to Downey, Steffy, English, Frase, &Poston, to between four and five minutes according to Ginsberg & Murphy, five to seven minutes according to Ziegler, less than ten minutes (“Using the Classroom Walkthrough,” 2007), and as much as twenty minutes .according to Jones, Time can be an important factor when administrators and teachers already have full daily agendas. A majority of walkthrough observation protocol recommends involvement of principals and administrators, teacher‟s community members, and students. In general, the people recommended by the procedure to be involved set the purpose of the walkthrough, agree to the criteria used, conduct the observations, and serve as an integral part of the feedback process to individual teachers and staffs.Types of feedback communication vary between models and tools. Most models strongly support affirming the positive aspects of classroom observations. According to Skretta, it should not demand a reply from teachers. Other forms of written communication cited include providing copies of completed observations to teachers in their mailboxes and providing information through faculty newsletters.
  • 8. Recommended avenues for oral communication of walkthrough results include department meetings, lead teacher meetings, and full staff meetings, depending upon the purpose of the walkthrough. Researchers and practitioners offer recommendations for developing walkthrough criteria, processes, or protocols Develop and use a common language for quality instruction: have administrators and faculty develop key descriptors (Skretta& Fisher, 2002) Establish clear and consistent expectations for the process and for observers and communicate these to staff members and school community: process should be transparent and public (Skretta& Fisher, 2002) Develop consistent format for documenting observations (Bloom, 2007; Skretta& Fisher, 2002) Train participants in data gathering and providing feedback (Bloom, 2007) Communicate anecdotal feedback from walkthroughs with faculty (Skretta& Fisher, 2002) Continually evaluate the process: should be ongoing and not a one shot experience (Bloom, 2007) Include as an integral element of school and district culture (Bloom, 2007) STEPS TO CONDUCT THE CLASSROOM WALKTHROUGH 1) Planning the Walkthrough  Orientation to Principals, Assistant Principals, Academic Coaches providedby District  Staff orientation at schools re-delivered by those trained above.  Principals work with Instructional Leadership Team Improvement, Data Team to develop the Walkthrough Process at the school. Central Office instructional staff may be invited to assist with development of the protocol.
  • 9.  An examination of factors such as the SchoolAccountabilityPlan,achievement data, and professional learning of the school are taken intoconsideration. The Leadership Team determines the instructional focus of theWalkthrough and completes the Walkthrough Observation Form, to identify:the focus question and a description of the instruction expectations; thegrade levels and classrooms to be visited; artifacts and evidence.  The teachers, school staff are notified of the pending Walkthrough andprovided with the Walkthrough Observation Form that will be used.  The team members are selected to conduct the walk and they are notifiedof the process. A date is established, with a schedule of rooms to be visitedby each team member.  See Phase-In Schedule for timeline specifics. 2) Conducting the Walkthrough  Team members arrive and receive an orientation.  The Walkthrough is conducted and observations are recorded. One-two persons visit a classroom to record the data being collected, answering the question, “How are we doing?” The classroom observation should last approximately 10 minutes, with the observation form completed at that time. The classroom should have chairs identified for observers who need to be seated. Part of the observation time may be spent circulating throughout the room and examining student work (on display or at desks) andinterviewing. See Walkthrough Guidelines for specifics. STEP 3 ANALYZING DATA AND USING WALKTHROUGH RESULTS TO PLAN FOR NEXT STEPS STEP 4 IMPLEMENTING THE NEXT STEP PLAN OF ACTION TO IMPROVE TEACHING AND LEARNING STEP 2 CONDUCTING THEWALKTHROUG H STEP 1 PLANNING THE WALKTHROUGH
  • 10. 3) Analyzing Data and using Walkthrough Results to Plan for Next Steps  Share observations and consolidate data from the individual Walkthrough Observation Forms.  This information is used to identify which expectations are/are not in place.  These findings are discussed with the Leadership Team immediately after the data is compiled.  The Leadership Team identifies the reasons that the expectations are not in place, and a Next Steps Plan of Action is completed to address the expectation(s) not in place within 2 weeks. 4) Implementing the Next Steps Plan of Action to Improve Teaching and Learning  The Principal and School Leadership Team assess progress on the Next Steps Action Plan during the monthly reviews of the School Accountability Plan. CURRENT WALKTHROUGH MODELS The walkthrough models presented above are only a sample of the walkthrough methods that are occurring in schools and school districts. The following models are perhaps the most recognized in the literature of current walkthrough models. Each model includes its purpose, criteria, and available research. a) The Three-Minute Classroom Walkthrough The Three-Minute Classroom Walkthrough (Downey et al., 2004) focuses on the comparison between teacher instructional decisions and teacher actions. School- based administrators conduct classroom observations that result in reflective questions for each individual teacher observed regarding how they make instructional decisions and how they will make future instructional decisions. “Its ultimate purpose is to support teachers in becoming responsible and self-analytical individuals who are continuously improving their practice. Teachers set growth targets and search out researched practices and try them.”Three-minute classroom observations involve a five-step structure. In stepone, administrators look for student orientation to the work. Within the first two seconds, the observer assesses whether students are exhibiting attending behavior, listening, participating in class activities, and on task. In the next two to three minutes of the observation, observers look for the curricular objective and its alignment with district grade level standards for step
  • 11. two of the process. The lesson objective does not have to be written for students to see or communicated orally to students. The observer determines if what the “teacher thinks is being taught, what is actually being taught” Step three includes assessment of instructional decisions observed. Observer looks for generic instructional practices such as types of student feedback provided by the teacher, use of homework, how teachers handle student errors, level of instruction, strategies identified as a school district goal, and subject-specific appropriate strategies. If time permits in the three-minute limit, an observer would “walk the walls” in step four. Walking the walls includes looking on the walls of the classroom for artifacts of student work, looking for information that reveals previous learning, and looking for learning objectives that continue to support instruction. Walking the walls may include review of student journals, portfolios, or graded papers on the teacher‟s desk.Step five looks for safety and health issues such as physical hazards (examples: backpacks in aisles, extension cords, broken desks or chairs) and environmental concerns (examples: chemical smells and lack of adequate ventilation). Step five happens naturally when an observation occurs. The administrator notes any safety or health issues observed to address with appropriate staff. Administrators take informal notes during the three minutes and formulate possible reflective questions that would lead to reinforcing what is occurring in the classroom or identifies an area for refinement. While the goal is to encourage professional growth through the development of teachers as reflective thinkers, the method calls for only occasional follow-up with teachers. According to Downey, when follow-up conversations occur between administrator and teacher, “the teacher will decide whether the conversation is of value to them”.These classroom visits are three minutes in length, unannounced, informal, with no checklists, and provide a snapshot of instructional decisions that teachers are making. The goal of this process is to change teacher behavior by influencing their thinking with reflective questions. The method acknowledges that the classroom visits are not long enough to determine content accuracy and completeness. Downey suggest that the practice of being in classrooms for as brief a time as three minutes will result in more visits to more classrooms on a more continual basis and that this will assist administrators in developing a better picture of instruction. There is no intent to evaluate teachers or make judgments about instruction during this process. The Three-Minute Classroom Walkthrough method assumes that administrators either have or will develop the
  • 12. content knowledge and depth of knowledge of instructional practices to make the aforementioned determinations in three-minute observations. Downey recommends that either administrators download content curriculum information to carry electronically or have print copies laminated to carry for easy access to information. Administrators will then decide if content taught is accurate or complete, if not, a more extensive observation period may be necessary. In cases where more directive methods are needed to address instructional issues, the three-minute walkthrough does not provide support, it “is not meant for the marginal teacher” .This may imply that the method is not appropriate for beginning or struggling teachers, only for known, competent, experienced teachers. Downey also acknowledges that issues may arise from the process of change, moving from evaluative and directive style observations to collegial and reflective observations. b) Freedman In Freedman‟s dissertation study of two school districts implementing the Three- Minute Classroom Walkthrough, the tool monitored classroom practice and visibly demonstrated principals‟ leadership. The study involved two elementary schools and one secondary school in each district. Teacher surveys yielded a return rate of 37 percent for the 187 teachers for the six school study sites. Teachers participating in the survey could volunteer for an individual interview. Of the seventy-two survey participants, nine teachers volunteered. The researcher interviewed one teacher per school. The teacher survey data and interviews were low in number and there was no indication of how the researcher followed up with non-responders. Through principal interviews and teacher surveys in six schools, Freedman found that increased and targeted classroom visits reinforced principals‟ self-efficacy. However, the walkthrough did not appear to affect the self-efficacy of teachers. Freedman noted that the walkthrough method was not fully nor coherently practiced, “design and delivery are not the same”. A key component of the walkthrough method is reflective conversations. Principals reported that reflective conversations with teachers were difficult and they felt uncomfortable with the process. This may explain Freedman‟s finding that “teachers felt like passive recipients of walkthroughs, not equal partners, teachers did not know what principals were looking for”, during their classroom visits. In conclusion, Freedman‟s dominant message was, “principals are powerful when they use their position, authority, personality, and beliefs to construct
  • 13. an environment that either nurtures or undermines professional working relationships”. c) Wolfrom Wolfrom conducted an exploratory study of two elementary school principals in Maine that used walkthrough tools. Although it was Wolfrom understands that both principals were using the Three-Minute Classroom Walkthrough tool, it became apparent in initial principal interviews that both were using tools of their own design. Both principals had chosen to design their own tool to fit the needs of their school. Both principals shared that they conducted formal and informal walkthroughs. Formal walkthroughs included a checklist with comments that the principal of one school shared with individual teachers observed. The second principal worked with staff to design the walkthrough form and shared observation results with the full faculty. Informal walkthroughs were announced “pop-ins” that did not include a formal checklist or formal feedback process. Through surveys, observations, and interviews with principals and teachers, Wolfromfound that walkthroughs had a positive impact on meeting teachers‟ higher-level needs for attention, recognition, feelings of success, and professional growth. Teacher interview results indicated that because of walkthroughs, teachers have grown in instruction and behavior management. Teachers reported that they benefitted from informal conversations with the principal because of the informal walkthroughs their principals conducted. Both principals felt that the walkthrough “feedbackprocesses that they created were difficult to complete because of their time and energy requirements” Wolfrom appeared concerned that neither principal was conducting the Three-Minute Classroom Walkthrough tool as evidenced by a concluding statement: “In order to realize the benefit of walkthroughs and determine if these strategies will work for our schools, it is necessary that educators implement the strategies as described”. Wolfrom recommended that future research include walkthroughs conducted by teachers to “study, the benefits of peer visitation and feedback conversations as an approach to formative supervision”. d) Learning Walk In contrast to the Downey process, Learning Walk is more formal, has a prescribed focus, involves teachers as observers, and incorporates discussions with students. The Institute for Learning (IFL), in the Learning Research and Development Center of the University of Pittsburgh, developed a theory of standards-based teaching.
  • 14. Their theory, the Principals of Learning (POL), are identified as: organizing for effort, clear expectations, recognition of accomplishment, fair and credible evaluations, academic rigor in a thinking curriculum, accountable talk, socializing intelligence, learning as apprenticeship, and self-management of learning. IFL developed a tool for school administrators to accompany the POL called Learning Walk (“The learning walk,” 2008). Learning Walk is, “an organized walk through a school‟s halls and classrooms using the Principles of Learning to focus on the instructional core”. Goals of the classroom instructional walk process are to diagnose student learning and develop rigorous and coherent professional development.Classroom observations may gather data on implementation of POL, practices from school district professional development activities, or used to inform needs for professional development. School-based administrators, teacher leaders, and/or teachers conduct the walkthrough observations. Six components comprise the process of LearningWalks: orientation of staff, orientation of observers or “walkers,” classroom visits, hall talk, debriefing, and reflection to staff. The principal communicates to the school staff the purpose for the LearningWalk and communicates what observers will be looking for to gather data. The principal briefs the observers on the professional development aspect they will be focusing on and provides the data collection form. Each classroom visit lasts for five to ten minutes. Observers look at learning available to students on the walls, review artifacts of student work (portfolios, journals, posted work samples), talk with students about their learning, note arrangement of the classroom, note available classroom resources, and, if possible, talk with teachers about the learning they are observing and its connection to the larger picture of instruction. Following each observation, observers meet to discuss the observation and to develop reflective questions that may help the teacher and the school improve instruction. These conversations are confidential and may occur outside of classrooms or in another location away from classrooms, such as a conference room or library.Upon completion of observations, all observers gather to discuss trends and common reflective questions with the principal. The principal may invite observers to develop goals for addressing concerns, plans for additional professional development, and plans for future walks. The principal then shares the findings with the staff through written or oral communication. Communication may occur through email to teachers, either individually or collectively, without an expectation for a response. The principal may
  • 15. choose to talk with content specific departments, grade level teachers, or the staff as a whole, depending on the focus of the observations. The intent of the LearningWalk is not to make judgments about individual teachers or the school, but to focus on how to deliver instruction effectively for student learning. e) Walkthrough Observation Tool The Walkthrough Observation Tool, from the Principals Academy of Western Pennsylvaniais comprised of a fourteen-step process that sets the structure and protocol for data collection. Administrators and teachers identify and qualify the look- fors, observable behaviors, which will be included during classroom observations. Administrators and teachers define those look-fors, communicating them to teachers in advance of the classroom visits. Teachers join administrators to conduct observations and collect evidences of student work, learner objectives, classroom management, materials and resources, and room arrangement. The principal provides feedback to staff that validates good instruction and promotes a learning community through collegial conversation about teaching and learning. The fourteenth step is the maintenance of the walkthrough culture by continuing to visit classrooms on a frequent and regular basis. Two qualitative studies used perceptions of principals and teachers to determine the impact of classroom walkthroughs on student learning and achievement. Both researchers studied schools that used the Principals Academy of Western Pennsylvania Walkthrough Observation Tool. Keruskin (2005) conducted a study with high school principals who had incorporated the use of the Walkthrough Observation Tool. BENEFITS OF THE WALKTHROUGH  Supports continuous school improvement  Strengthens focus on teaching and learning  Makes principals‟ presence in classrooms more frequent and more purposeful  Aligns teachers and principals in terms of expectations  Uses time effectively  Creates a common ground for discussing academic improvement  Keeps the administrator “in-touch” with the day-to-day happenings in the classroom
  • 16.  Enables principals to know teachers‟ strengths and weaknesses  Encourages the principal to be visible and to provide feedback  Reinforces the principal‟s vested interest in what goes on daily in school  Improves rapport with students and decreases discipline issues  Increases appreciation by/of teachers  Stimulates sharing within faculties about the effective practices and positive happenings in classrooms  Provides for quality reflection on teaching and learning  Stimulates additional opportunities for professional dialogue  Learn more about their teaching through the principal's support and presence and to extend talk about teaching and reduce feelings of isolation.  Examine what works well and which areas of instruction or classroom management could be enhanced by modifying practice.  Be affirmed for their instructional efforts.  Gauge short- and long-term efforts by examining objective data collected over a sustained period of time. CONCLUSION The walk-through supervision model can be a practical, useful strategy to support improved teaching and learning in any institution. But careful attention must be paid to its organization and use to keep the walk-through from becoming just another educational trend. Regardless of its structure or purpose, the walk-through must be purposeful and focused. It must be done consistently and with a high degree of accountability. The effective walk-through model or technique results in increased dialogue and reflection about teaching practice on the part of both teacher and principal. Most important, the walk-through supports improved teaching and increased student achievement. Classroom walkthrough models are numerous and vary in purpose, identification of who conducts the visits, procedures, and time requirements. Faculties need clear and transparent criteria, processes, and procedures. Whether individual teachers, grade levels, content areas, or the full school is observed, feedback is a powerful tool that should be provided in a timely manner. The walkthrough process should be ongoing and focused on school and district-wide goals.
  • 17. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1) Jane L. David, “Classroom Walk-Through” (2008) 2) Acheson, K. A., & Gall, M. D. (1997), “Techniques in the clinical supervision of teachers”, (4th.Ed.) White Plains, NY: Longman Publishers. 3) Cervone, L., & Martinez-Miller, P. (2007), “Classroom walkthroughs as a catalyst for school improvement Leadership Compass” 4) Downey, C. J., Steffy, B. E., English, F. W., Frase, L. E., & Poston, W. K., Jr. (2004), “The three-minute classroom walkthrough: Changing school supervisory practice one teacher at a time.” (Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.) 5) Gall, J. P., Gall, M. D., & Borg, W. R. (2005), “Applying educational research: A practical guide” (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education. 6) Gilliland, J. (2002), “Effective walkthroughs. Principal”, 87(1), 40. 7) Ginsberg, M. G. & Murphy, D. (2002), „How walkthroughs open doors. Educational Leadership”, 59(8), 34-37. 8) Hoy, W. K., & Forsyth, P. (1986), “Effective supervision: Theory into practice”. New York, NY: Random House 9) Kachur, D. S., Stout, J. A., & Edwards, C. L. (2010), “Classroom walkthroughs to improve teaching and learning”. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education. WIBLIOGRAPHY  http://www.adlit.org/article/27501/  http://www.educationworld.com/a_admin/admin/admin405.shtml  http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational_leadership/dec07/vol65/num04/Classroom _Walk-Throughs.aspx  http://www.principals.org/s_nassp/bin.asp?TrackID=&SID=1&DID=55499& CID=1234&VID=2& DOC=FILE.PDF  http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/28/08/ 04.pdf  http://www.mcrel.org/PDF/LeadershipOrganizationDevelopment/4005IR_LeadingSchool s.pdf  http://www.nwrel.org/request/2005nov/leadership.pdf