Intersectionality Intersectionality helps explain the unique ways in which discrimination happens in the workplace. Gender/Sex, Race, Class, Nation ality, and other identities are all discriminatory factors within social institutions. (Pg. 199) ―…Work as an institution maintains the interlocking systems of sexism and racism, little organizational communication research examines race, sex, and class as interdependent processes.‖ - (Pg. 199)
Gendered Lens: How work relates to other aspects of social lives, and howthey intersect. People have limited control over communication within theworkplace, and it is a complex issue. A ―wide angle lens‖ is helpful whenanalyzing gender and job relations. Off Ramping: Women leaving work to have children and form a family.This is seen as negative because women are viewed as abandoning theirprofessions. Problems with off ramping: Work Structure: Family unfriendly organizational practices. Family Structure: Women with significant others who are not willing or able to off ramp. Difficulty On Ramping: It is very difficult for people to on ramp once they have left the work environment. (Pg. 200)
Men at Work Work vs. Stay at Home Or Not… Dads Out of the 26.5 million men in heterosexual marriages only a small percentage are ―stay at home dad‘s‖. (Census, 2006) In Western cultures work is a 26.5 Million way of life. Even if someone does not like their job, it is a 98,000 commonality that work should be precious anyway. How does this effect intersectionality and social class?
Work and Social Class In America people should want to work, because work is positive. Work even if he/she hates their job. This belief also effects the way people are viewed on welfare. America has made work a way to maintain acceptance within culture through social institutions. (Pg. 201) Americans who need government assistance are looked at as weak and unmotivated.
―Is work good? It depends on whether you are a middle-class womanwith small children or a poor woman. Is work valued? It depends onWhether or not you are independently wealthy. These contradictions,as well as changes in the economy, may breed changes in work asinstitutions.‖ (Pg. 203)This quote helps explain how ‗work as an institution‘ uses social classand gender to construct what is acceptable in the U.S. and what is deemedinappropriate and inferior. It is a conflicting concept that creates a viciouscycle of discrimination.
Work vs. Family Conflicting Concepts In America there is a great deal of tension between work and family structures. Since time stress is a problem in the U.S. people are choosing to work more to reap the benefits. Gender, race and class are the intersections relating to work vs. family. (Pg. 203-204)
Pregnancy Descrimination The Pregnancy Discrimination act (1978) and Family Medical Leave Act (1993) both protect people from having to choose between work and family. The problem is that pregnancy is then looked at as a disability within the masculinized work place. There is gendered framework that surrounds the work/family problem which inhibits gender/sex equality.
Maternal ambivalence is a term that has been used to describe the emotionalstrain caused by stay-at-home parenting. Modern day stay-at-home dad‘s have said―how lonely they felt and how their brains were turning to mush.‖ Dr. Kyle Pruett of Yale University explains ―It‘s proof that these emotions havenothing to do with gender—and everything to do with the job.‖http://www.parents.com/parenting/dads/issues-trends/stay-at-home-dads/Even though there is no financial wage involved with child rearing, Dr. Pruett‘sresearch helps reinforce the idea that raising children is a full-time job.
Since men biologically do not carry during pregnancy; does this createa gender specific barrier that deems women as more problematic in themale dominated work place?This could effect hiring practices in the labor market, because womenmight be viewed as less predictable throughout their careers. This is whywork and family are seen as interlocking issues, when in reality they have nocorrelation. Work is a public institution while family is a private matter.
Emotions in the Work Place (Two-Culture) The stereotype is that women are more emotional than men. This correlates with the idea that work is male dominant, because emotions are ―innapropriate‖ in the work environment. (Pg. 205) The two-culture theory explains the communication barrier between men and women: ―…Emotions consideredorganizationally appropriate whenexpressed by a man are perceived asinappropriate when expressed by awoman.‖ (Pg. 206) Since work is deemed as masculine, male emotions are sometimes not considered emotional but norms. (Pg. 206)
Men engage in work relations that are usually attributed towomen. The problem is that work is male dominant so men‘sactions are looked at as positive rather than negative. ―When women coworkers socialize, they waste time; when men coworkers socialize, they advance their careers.‖ (Pg. 206) ―Peacocking‖ is a practice between men that is a self-promoting act to express power and intelligence. (Pg. 206) Homoerotic relationships between men generate the male dominated work place. This desire for men to gain other male‘s attention reinforces oppression.
Global Inequality Issues Globally there is an earnings gap between men and women that reinforces gender inequality problems. Women are further limited because of the difference in financial earnings. Since women are stereotyped as doing household type work that is unpaid, it is considered more restricting. Organizational structures even pay women 25% less than men which inhibits gender neutrality. (pg. 207-208)
1. ―The sex segregation of work, including which work is paid and which is unpaid.‖2. ―Income and status inequality between women and men and how this is created through organizational structure.‖3. ―How organizations invent and reproduce cultural images of sex and gender.‖4. ―The way in which gender, particularly masculinity, is the product of organizational processes.‖5. ―The need to make organizations more democratic and more supportive of humane goals.‖Together they form issues of power, control, and dominanceand how work is gendered. (Pg. 208)
Care Work Intersectionality In the past African, Filipina, and Latina women have been stereotyped as workers of servitude. Since domestic services are valued less and paid less, there is no room for large economic rewards. ―Interlocking systems of gender and racial oppression act to concentrate women and people of color in those occupations that are lower paying and lower status.‖ (Pg. 210) This generates a white-male focused social institution, which constructs gender oppression.
Sexual Harassment and the Work Place Quid Pro Quo: Favor for a favor. Most identifiable form of harassment It is the most predominant form of sexual harassment by men toward women. Men are likely to blame the women who are harassed as the problem. Women are looked at as leading men on in the work environment. The big problem is how a masculinized work place creates sexual play for men.
A hostile work environment can add up to more than sexual harassmentbetween genders. ―Girl watching‖ is a form of male dominance that allowsmen to evaluate women in a sexual manner. Men feel as though it is theirgendered right to gaze at women to objectify their looks. To go a step furthermales use girl watching as a way to interact with each other, which creates agrowing barrier between genders.―In a culture of hegemonic masculinity, men become men by performing theirvirility in front of other men.‖ (Pg. 212)This quote helps explain how men feel they should be overflowing with sexuality,which correlates with power, dominance and girl watching.
A recent example of sexual violence is the Penn State Jerry Sandusky scandal.The multiple accounts of sexual abuse happened over a 14 year period. This isan example of how a social institution can normalize taboos such as childmolestation over years of silence. The men that helped cover up Sandusky‘s terribleactions were part of an upper-class group that cared more about the collegesreputation than the human beings that were hurt.Cited:-New York Times by Joe DrapeJune 22, 2012
Gender diversity and the work environment in the United States has beenan issue for decades. In America work can be seen as part ofsomeone‘s identity, which should be gender neutral. Since work has beenviewed as being masculinized for so long, developing gender liberation will bedifficult. Understanding the intersectionality of family, work, and leisure,and how it fits into creating identity might help the reform process. It iseveryone‘s personal gendered lens that will help shape the future in a positivelight. Although the process is slow, it is the idea of incremental progressionthat will humanize society for future generations.