Unit 2:1) What is grammar?Rules/ principles that native speakers use in producing and understanding their language2) What is the different between global sense (broad sense) and narrow sense for theterm grammar?(Course book, p.18): In the broad sense, “grammar” includes everything a native speaker knows about hisor her language which enables him or her to speak and understand it. “Grammar” in this widesense includes things concerning different subjects: morphology, syntax, phonology andphonetics, semantics, discourse analysis, and pragmatics. - Morphology: word formation - Syntax: sentence building - Semantics: study of meaning - Phonology: the study of sounds in a particular language or in languages generally Phonetics: the study of the sounds made by the human voice in speech - Pragmatics: how to use language effectively to achieve our communicative goals - Discourse analysis: deal with paragraph, conversion, etc… In the narrow sense, “grammar” often refers to a particularly body of informationabout a language: that having to do only with the structure of words and sentences.“Grammar” in this sense includes morphology and syntax. Morphology is concerned with theform of words while syntax is concerned with the way words combine to form sentences.3) What is the different between prescriptive grammar and descriptive grammar?P.G: Prescriptive grammar provides normative rules about how the language is supposed tobe used. Mostly, these rules are phrased as prohibition. Prescriptive grammar is imposed bylanguage authorities. It is very fixed and does not reflect fully the kind of language used inreality. It is against the language change (hoặc: P.G is a grammar providing the languageusers with normative rules given by such people as dictionary publishers, editors, writersand teachers. PG concerned with prescribing rules of language unit. It consists of a numberof rules or regulations prohibiting language use: it provides language users with normativerules)E.g., do not end a sentence with a preposition, as in “who do you go with?”, do not split aninfinitive with an adverb
While descriptive grammar provides language users with constitutive rules. Theserules just describe the language exactly as it is used in real life without anything imposed bygrammarians. In the practice of descriptive grammar no judgment is made about what right orwrong, speaker of the language are held to be the highest authorities. (hoặc: DG studiesconstitutive rule of language. It concerned with describing language objectively as it isactually used. It describes all language elements and grants names for them without makingany judgment. It tells what the language users know unconsciously and enable them to useand understand the language)e.g., we can end the sentence with preposition, as in ‘Who did you go with?, and accept thesesentence: I haven’t got nothing to give you, she don’t understand4) “I don’t know nothing” considered correct and natural by some grammarians, whyungrammatical by others? What is the theoretical basis of this disagreement? Giveexample. Cách 1: Whether the above sentence is correct or incorrect, grammatical or ungrammatical,natural or unnatural, it depends upon the grammatical point of view of speaker.This sentence is correct if the speaker bases himself/herself on descriptive grammar, thegrammar that describes the grammar system of language exactly as it is. In contrast, if thespeaker bases himself/herself on prescriptive grammar which provides language user withnormative rules. For example, not to use double negative to express negative idea, not to enda sentence with a preposition, etc. if you do not follow these rules, the sentence will be wrongor ungrammatical.E.g. in D.G, these below sentences and words are acceptableI ain’t student ; She don’t care ; long time no see; it’s me; more fare, …While they are considered wrong and ungrammatical in P.GCách 2: According to prescriptive grammar, this sentence is ungrammatical because it doesnot satisfy normative rules of grammar. But according to D.G this sentence is acceptablebecause D.G try to describe the grammar system of language exactly without anythingimposed by grammarians. Unit 3.grammar deveplomentI. what is traditional grammar and what is the typical feature of it- Traditional grammar: Study different language elements separatelyII. Immediate constituent grammar1. Immediate constituent grammar: studies the level of structure/layers to identifymeaning. According to this grammar, language elements do not belong to the same layers,creating different meaning
2. What is constituent?A constituent is language element used for building bigger language unit.A constituent is a linguistic unit (usually sentence analysis) which is part of a largerconstruction.E.g. in the sentence” there are sixty students”, there are 4 constituents: “there”, “are”,”sixty”, “students”The word “carelessness” has 3 constituents “care”,”-less”,”-ness”III) Transformational grammar1) What are the main ways to identify the phrase structure?4 main ways: - Substitution test: any word combination of the English sentence that can be replaced by a single word without changing the grammaticality of the sentence is called a phraseE.g., that woman is brilliant. Anna is brilliant“That woman” can be replaced by “Anna” to make a new sentence sharing grammaticality.That is the reason why we can conclude that “that woman” is a phrase. - Movement criterion: any word combination of the English sentence that can be moved to another position in the sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence is called phrasedE.g., the girl is walking on the sidewalkOn the sidewalk the girl is walkingAlthough the position of “on the sidewalk” changes, the sentence’s meaning remains thesameso we can conclude that “on the sidewalk” is a phrase. - Conjoining criterion: any word combination of the English sentence that can be conjoined with the similar one without changing the grammaticality of the sentence is called phraseE.g., - the girl walked across the streetThe girl and the boy walked across the street“The girl” can be combined with similar sequence to make a new sentence without changingthe grammaticality of the sentence so it can be determined as phrase.
- Anaphora criterion: any preceding word combination (antecedent) that can be replaced by pro-word is called a phrase.That poorly dressed boy lives in my neighborhood’s house. He is very good boy. “That poorly dressed boy” can be replaced by “he” which is why we can come to conclusionthat it is phrase.2) What is antecedent?The antecedent is a preceding word or phrase that is referred back to by a single word(anaphora) in the next part of speech or in the next sentence.That pretty girl is very nice. She is always willing to help people.3) What is different between competence and performance?Competence: language proficiency/ a person’s knowledge of the rules of languagePerformance: the actual use of language in real situation4) What is transformational/ generative grammar?Transformational grammar tried to show with a system of rules, the knowledge which anative speaker of a language uses in forming grammatical sentences. For example, thisgrammar studies the basis language patterns to create and transform sentences.S=NP+VP; NP=Det + N5) Draw tree diagrams:A: adjDet: determiner (the, a, an)Deg: degree words (very, …)Compl.: complementiser (if, that, for)Aux: auxiliary verbP: prepositionPro: pronouna. the middle-aged lady in black is a successful woman in businessb. my brother got a job to earn extra money for his long holidayc. I think that she is good studente. I hope to go
f. I want to gog. I want him to goh. the elderly man has killed the middle-aged lady with an umbrellai. the middle-aged woman in black has told the eager listeners a very dreadful storyIV. Functional grammar:1) What is interpersonal meaning of the functional grammar in the English language?Interpersonal meaning is meaning as a form of action: the speaker or the writers doing sth tothe reader or listener by means of language. The interpersonal meaning is regulated bylanguage users concerned.E.g. that rose is late againRose often symbolizes beauty but for student in the class, “that rose means a problematicgirl”Man, gentlemen, chap, bird, bloke, fellow, guy can all be used to refer to a man depending onrelationship the speaker has with the man or the degree of respect that the speaker wants toshow him.2) What is functional grammar?Functional grammar proposed by British linguist Halliday studies 3 basic functions ofgrammar: - The idea function: is to organize the speaker’s or the writer’s experiences of the real or imaginary world that is language refer to real or imagined person, things, actions, event, state… - The interpersonal function: is to indicate, establish or maintain social relationship between people. It includes forms of address, speech function, modality ,… - Textual function: is to create written or spoken texts which cohere within themselves and which fit the particular situation in which they are used.3) What is the theme and rheme of clause? (p.37)Theme: the element which served as the point of departure of the message.The rest of the message referred to as “rheme’ Unit 4: grammatical unitsQ1. Describe the five rank hierarchy which is widely used as model to identifygrammatical unit in the study of grammar. Give example of each unit
The five-rank hierarchy used to identify grammatical units in the study of grammar can bedescribed as follow:Sentences are analyzed into clauses – phrases – words – morphemesMorphemes are used to build words – phrases – clauses – sentences.Eg: sentence : the man whom we are talking about is one of the most famous artistClause: whom we are talking aboutPhrase: one of the most famous artistsMorphemes: art + ist+ s MorphemesQ2. What is morpheme, stem, root, base, affixMorpheme : is the smallest meaningful unit in a language. A morpheme cannot be dividedwithout altering or destroying its meaningEg:Stem : (also the based form) is the part of the word which an inflectional affix can be addedRoot : root is a morpheme which is a basic part of the word and which may occur on its ownor may be joined to other rootsAffix: is a letter or groups of letters which is added to a word and which changes the meaningor function of the wordAffixes are bound forms that can be added: - To the beginning of the word ( prefix) eg: illegal, unhappy - To the end of the word (suffix) eg: lovely, careful,Q3. The differences between stems and rootsStems differ from roots in that they may be made up of more than one morpheme. All rootsare stems, but many stems are not rootsEg: both baby and sit are roots (and stems), but babysit is a stem (but not a root) because –ercan be attached to itQ4. What is the difference between free and bound morphemeFree morphemes are those that can stand alone carrying full semantic weight eg: book,home
Bound morphemes are those that cannot stand alone in the language. They are always addedto one or more morphemes to form a new word or to modify the meaning or grammaticalfunction eg: irreparable, unhappy, disagreeQ5. What is the difference between lexical and grammatical morphemeLexical morphemes express meanings that can be relatively easily specified by usingdictionary terms or by pointing out examples of things, events, or properties which themorphemes can be used to refer to eg: book, blue, workGrammatical morpheme expresses common meaning referring to grammatical relationshipwithin and between sentencesEg: he loves her, last night she worked very lateQ6. What is the difference between inflectional and derivational morpheme - Derivational morpheme (phai sinh) is a kind of bound morpheme which is added to a word to make new meaning of new word or new part of speech (hoặc: Derivational morpheme is a kind of bound morpheme which is used to form a new word –mr.Trung). A traditional term for derivational morpheme is affix ( prefix and suffix) Eg: like – dislike; happy – unhappy ; work – worker - Inflectional morpheme (bien hinh) is a kind of bound morpheme which is added to a word in order to express grammatical contrast in the sentence such as singular/ plural, or past tense/ present tense (hoặc: Inflectional morpheme is a kind of bound morpheme used to form a new form of the same word) Eg: like-likes, work-workedQ7. What is the difference between inflectional and derivational morphology - Inflectional morphology studies the way in which words vary or inflect in order to express grammatical contrast in sentencesEg: “ed” can be used to form past tense“es”, “s” can be used to form present tense“er”, “est” can be used to form comparative and superlative degree of one or two syllableadjectives. - Derivational morphology (hình vị học phái sinh) studies principles governing without reference to specific grammatical role, a word might play in the sentenceEg: “er” + V = N: teacher, reader, writer “ ful”, “less” + N= Adj: homeless, careful
Q8. What is an allomorph (biến thể hình vị)An allomorph is any variants of a morpheme which is different in pronunciation or spellingEg: “an” is an allomorph of “a”“ed” : /t/, /d/, /id/Q.9. what is the different between “ful” and “full”?“ful” is a bound morpheme and it cannot stand alone. It is used as a derivational morphemewith the meaning “characterized by, having the quality of or the amount that fills something”:careful, handfulWhereas “full” is an adj meaning “containing as much/many/ as possible or having hadenough to eat and drink. It can be used in the function of both adj and complementQ10. What is the use of “-ed”? - “-ed” can be used as inflectional morpheme to form past tense and past participle tense of regular verbs - “-ed” can be used as derivational morpheme to form a compound adj: quick- minded, hot-tempered, black-eyedQ.11. the use of “-er”:- used as derivational morpheme to form new word and it can change the part of speech ofroot morpheme- used as inflectional morpheme to indicate the grammaticality, specifically degree ofcomparisonQ.12. what is the difference between “half” and “semi”?Both of them mean “half”. However, “semi” is a prefix, a bound morpheme that used to forma new word and cannot stand alone in the sentence. Whereas “half” is a pronoun, a freemorpheme that can stand alone in the sentenceSemi-colon, semi-vowel, half of the matchPhraseQ. State different types of phrase in the English language on the ground of part ofspeech and syntactical functionOn the ground of part of speech, phrases include: - Noun phrase (NP) eg: water pollution, foreign investment, - Adjective phrase (AP) eg: very beautiful, really surprised
- Adverb phrase (AdvP) eg: very well, amazingly fast, surprisingly well, quite slowly - Verb phrase (VP) eg: she is walking, this work must be done - Prepositional phrase (PP) eg: on the table, in the skyOn the ground of syntactic function, phrases include: - Subject phrase eg: many new schools have been built in this region, some handsome boys are playing football - Object phrase eg: I shall never forget these memories at Hanoi University, she ate a very big cake - Complement phrase: eg: I see him passing my house every morning, we all get sick hearing his lengthy report - Attributive phrase: the girl in checked shirt is Lan, the boy riding me to school is my brother - Adverbial phrase eg: don’t speak ill of him behind his back, our lesson begin at 7.30Q. what is difference between adjectival phrase and adjective phrase (Mr.Trung)Adjective phrase: the head of the phrase is an adjectiveThe handsome boys, the fastest-growing economyAdjectival phrase: the head of the phase can be an adjective or not. However, this phrasefunctions as an adjective to modify a noun.e.g, the boys in the stadium, the girl in pink dressQ. what is difference between adverbial phrase and adverb phrase?- Adverb phrase: very sincerely- Adverbial phrase: the boys are playing football in the stadium/ we meet to discuss ourprojectMở rộng về adverbial clause: you can eat what you likeQ. classification of adverbial clause? (sgk p. 65)=> các bài tập đặt câu hoặc hoàn thànhcâuQ. in what way adverbial modifier can be formedIt can be formed by the means of:
- Adverb phrase (Head is an adverb) She speaking English very fluently - Prepositional phrase That flower died for the lack of water, He made her happy with a bunch of roses - Clause: Anywhere you go, I am near; although I’m ill, I still don’t want to refute her invitationQ what is the difference between endocentric and exocentric phraseEndocentric phrases are those expanded from a central element or head, having the samegrammatical function as a headThey have 3-part structures: pre-modifier, head, post-modifierEg: many good students of Hanoi University Pre-modifier head post-modifierExocentric phrases are those which cannot be seen as an expansion of a central element andtheir functions are variedEg: on the world, in the sky (they do not take the function of noun phrase but function ofadjectival or adverbial phrase)Clause + sentenceQ what is the difference between the phrase and the clause in English languagePhrase is a combination of words which does not consist of its own subject and predicate, andis used as a single wordClause is a part of a sentence which consists of its own subject and predicate. However, itslexical meaning is incompleteEg: the girl whom I am talking about is a famous singerPhrase: a famous singerClause: whom I am talking aboutQ. Compare the sentence and the clause in English languageThe sentences and the clauses are similar in that they both have a finite verb and one or moresubjects.
However, the clause is a part of a sentence which has its own subject and predicate but itsmeaning is incomplete and cannot be used independently. Meanwhile, a sentence is acomplete grammar unit which has its own subject and predicate and its meaning is completeEg: Sentence: the girl whom I am talking about is a famous singerClause: whom I am talking aboutSentenceQ. Classify English sentences on the ground of their structureOn the ground of their structure, English sentence can be divided into 3 types: simplesentence, compound sentence, and complex sentence - Simple sentences are those having a subject and a predicateEg: I like football/ I decided to study Spanish - Compound sentences are those having two or more independent sentences connected by means of co-ordination (The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)Eg: she is busy but she still go to her son’s football match, tell me the truth or I will no longerbe your friend - Complex sentences are those consisting of one main clause and one or more sub- ordinate clausesEg: ; I went out after I finished my homework; although she is busy, she still go to her son’sfootball match; what he said surprises us all, the boy playing football over there is myboyfriendQ. classify sentences on the ground of their meaningOn the ground of their meaning, sentences can be divided into 4 types: declarative (tườngthuật), interrogative (nghi vấn), imperative (mệnh lệnh), exclamatory (cảm thán) - Declarative sentences: to give information or to state facts - Interrogative sentences: to ask question - Imperative sentences: to induce someone to fulfill the certain action - Exclamatory sentences: express the motionQ. describe two main ways of making sentences more complexSentences can be made more complex by two ways
- Coordination is making a sentence more complex by joining two or more clauses of equal standing (importance), resulting in a compound sentenceEg: the exam was quite difficult but we managed to finish it - Subordination is making a sentence more complex by adding one or more subordinate clauses to a main clause, resulting in a complex sentence by means of a subordinating conjunctionEg: she asked if I liked chocolateQ. Elliptical sentencesElliptical sentences are sentences allowed to omit part of their structure and thus aredependent on a previous sentence Unit 5: syntactic functionsSubjectQ. what is subject, empty subject, preparatory subject- The subject is the topic, or what is being spoken about- Empty subject: the subject “it” often used in sentences referring to time, weather,temperature or distance, etc. and carrying no real information, so “it” is called an emptysubjectEg: it’s ten o’clock; it is so cold-Preparatory subject: the subject “it” used to prepare for the real subject which is going tocome later in the same sentenceEg: it’s interesting to read book;Q. what is agentAgent is the subject that expresses the person or thing performing the action indicated by theverb. In the passive the agent stands after “by” eg: the girl ate a big cakeObject: S + V (transitive) + OQ. what is object, direct object, indirect object, prepositional object- The object is the person or thing toward which the subject directs the process spoken of inthe verb- A direct object refers to the person or thing affected by the action of the verb. It comesimmediately after a transitive verb
Eg: she ate an apple,- An indirect object usually refers to the person who “benefits” from the action expressed inthe verbEg: my mother bought me a new book-Prepositional objects are objects which always take/need prepositions to form a complexunit, such as: to wait for…/ to look at…/ to approve of…Complement + attributiveQ. what is the difference between complement and attributiveA complement is a part of a sentence which gives additional meaning to complete the subjector the object of the sentence (often introduced by a link verb)Whereas an attribute is a part of sentence which gives further information to a noun or nounphraseEg: She is beautiful : complementThe girl with black hair is my girlfriend: AttributeQ. types of complement2 types of complement: subject complement and object complementSubject complementEg: she is beautiful I feel hot she seems tiredObject complementEg: I consider him my best friend, Don’t make me confusedQ. attributive and predicative (adjective)Attributive adjective refers to an adjective coming before a noun in a phrase or sentenceEg: a beautiful girlPredicative adjective refers to an adjective coming directly after “be” and be-like verbsEg: the girl is beautifulQ. can all adjectives be used in one both position: attributively or predicatively? not all - Predicatively only: eg: the girl is alone/ asleep/ awake/ afraid of - Attributively only: the main/chief reason - Both positions, but the meaning is different in different position: old, late
Eg: the president is late: not punctualThe late president: dead Unit 6. verbs in the English language Verb formsQ. in what way can verb be formedNew verbs in English can be formed in 3 main ways- Conversion: words of other classes are converted into verb eg: love- to love, hand-to hand- Affixation: an affix (either prefix or suffix) is added to the root t form verb eg: large-enlarge, short-shorten- Composition: 2 or more roots or stems are combined to form verbs eg: to download, tobabysitterQ. what is a verb? What type of verb can be divided into?The verb is a part of speech usually denoting actions, processes, experiences, or states ofbeingThe main types of verbs include: A. Main verb and auxiliary verbEg: I can’t understand what you said B. Finite and non-finite (tensed/ non-tensed)Eg: she wants (finite verb) to buy (non-finite verb) a new mobile C. Notional verb (động từ thực nghĩa)Eg: I live in Hanoi city. D. Transitive and intransitive verbEg: E. The link verbEg: her face turns red when seeing him F. Phrase verbEg: She got up at 8o’clock this morningQ. what are auxiliary verbs?
Auxiliary verbs are verbs that have no lexical meaning of their own and often used as formword, thus having only a purely structural function of forming negative and interrogativesentences, passive voice and perfect tensesHoac: An auxiliary verb is a verb used to add functional or grammatical meaning tothe clause in which it appears – for example, to express tense, aspect, modality, voice,emphasis, etc (wiki)e.g. “do” in negative and interrogative form of indefinite tenses.Eg: “have” in perfect tense, “be” in passive voiceQ. What is different between finite/tensed and non –finite/non-tensed verb?-finite form is the form of the verb which is marked to show that it is related to the subject inperson, number and which shows tense.- Non-finite form is the form of verb which is not marked according to differences in person,number of the subject and which has no tense.I wanted to go (wanted: finite, to go: non-finite)Q. Notional (thực nghĩa) verbsNotional verbs are verbs having full lexical meaning of their own and can be used in thesentence as a simple predicate. Most of the verbs in English are notional verbsEg: I go to work, she loves coffeeQ. the difference between transitive and intransitive verbTransitive verbs are verbs that are connected with their objective words directly. In otherwords, transitive verbs are verbs which take a direct object and they can be used in thepassiveeg:While intransitive verbs are verbs that do not take a direct object and cannot be used in thepassiveeg:Q. what are link verbsLink verbs are verbs that have partly lost their lexical meanings and used as part of acompound nominal predicate. They can be followed directly by an adjective eg: turn, look,feel, get, goQ. phrasal verbs
Phrasal verb can be defined as a verb followed by a particle (variously describes as apreposition, an adverb, or some combination of the two). In other words, phrasal verb is verbmaking up of two or more words which function semantically and grammatically as singleverb eg: get up, cut off, sit downSemantically, phrase verb can be classified into 3 types: - Literal PV are those items where the particle retains its literal adverbial meaning eg: the book is so interesting that I can’t put it down, the picture has come off the wall - Completive phrasal verbs are those where the particle indicates completed action (the particle up, out, off, and down all seem to be used in this way) eg: mix up, burn down, cut off - Figurative are those verbs where no semantic way of semantic association between the verb and the particle can be found eg: do you go along with his idea, why did you give inQ. What does the term “subject verb agreement” refer to? Write 3 sentences andanalyze the S-V agreement in them.Subject verb agreement is the grammatical concord between the subject and the verb, that is,the predicate must agree with the subject in person and number - The telecommunication and computer have changed our social habit When the subject consists of 2 or more nouns represent different things, it has the force of plural and takes plural verb - Coffee and milk is my favorite drink (cà phê sữa) / Bread and butter is my favorite food (bánh mỳ bơ) However, when 2 or more nouns represent a compound name of thing, the compound is consider singular and take singular verb - 100 km is not a great distance / 5 kg of mango costs VND 100.000/ 10km is nothing in this time of modern transportation. When a plural number applies to distances, weight, height or amount of money and represents singular figure or quantity, it is treated as singular and takes a singular verb.Q. Explain the difference in the following sentence in term of subject-verb agreementand meaning?A. the number of questions in these exams was twice as large as what I expectedB. a number of used books were on sale as the car park
In the sentence A, the word “number” is definite in the context and it is subject of thesentence. As it is singular in form, the verb is also in the singular form. In sentence B, theword “number” is indefinite. It is a part of a compound which is used in the function ofattribute (pr-modifier) then the group “used book” is the subject of the sentence, there for theverb is used in its plural form.Q. Distinguish gerund and present participleGerund and present participle are identical in form. Both are formed from verbs and alwaysend in –ing.+) Gerunds behave like nouns. They can be used as single words or in phrases. Gerunds andgerund phrases can be subjects and objects. They can also be attributives and complements - Cooking is one of my hobbies / Telling the truth to my mother makes me relieved (subject) - She likes shopping (object) - The last topic, teaching advanced grammar, caused anxiety for more than one trainee (attributive) - What she likes is shopping (subject complement) - I had some difficulty teaching mixed levels (object complement)Whereas present participles either function as verbs or adjectives. We see the presentparticiple in progressive tenses and reduced adverb clauses. We also see present participles asmodifiers.What she tells is interesting/ The results of the survey were/ seemed worrying(complement)The survey revealed some worrying results (attributive)I am trying my best to explain my view on this grammar topicGo camping+) in compound nouns, a gerund usually shows the function / shows the purpose to which thehead noun is put while present participle refers to an action. E.g., “sleeping” in “sleepingbag” shows the function of the bag (a bag for sleeping) so it is gerund. “Sleeping” in“sleeping girl” is present participleGerund: drinking water, speaking contest, Running shoep.p: running stream, losing team, winning teamQ. what is the use of gerund
The gerund can be used as - Subject eg: talking with her is very interesting - Object eg: iam interested in learning English - Complement eg: your task now is learning - Adverbial modifier (always precede by the preposition) + time: before crossing the road, stop and look both sides + manner eg: she answer my questions without thinking twice + reason eg: he was imprisoned for killing a man + purpose eg: their large room can be used for holding their wedding party + concession eg: in spite of being busy, she tries to find time to help meQ. in what way is gerund a noun, in what way it is a verb- Like the noun, the gerund can be modified by the noun in the possessive or by possessiveadjective. The nominal characteristics of gerund are also expressed in its functions as subject,object predicative, attribute and adverbial modifierEg: complaining won’t help youLike a verb, the gerund can+ be followed by an indirect object eg: giving you my love is my happiness+ take perfect form eg: I regretted having told all my secret for him+ be followed by a predicate adjective eg: going mad makes him blind+ take a passive eg: I feel ashamed for being cheated by him+ followed by an adverbial eg: learning hard is the shortest way to successQ. Write sentence in which the gerund: (tham khao them sgk p. 75+76)a. is followed by indirect objectb. takes perfect formc. is followed by a predicative adjd. takes a passivee. is followed by adverbialf. plays the function of the subject in sentence
g. plays the function of direct object in the sentence->a. Sending your friend a message may relief your sadness nowb. I am sorry for having been late/ I’m blame myself for having loved such a man/ I regrettedhaving given him nothingc. growing bigger doesn’t mean growing wiserd. I cannot forgive myself for being foolede. driving fast means committing suicidef. learning English makes me happyg. I regretted giving him everything of my lifeQ. what are the uses of bare infinitive“Bare infinitives” are the base form of the verb (use without “to”). Bare infinitives are usedwith different syntactic function - As a part of predicate after the modal verb or auxiliary verb in the negative and interrogative structureEg: - As complement especially object complement in several structuresEg: - As the main verb in present subjunctive moodEg: - As the main verb in the imperative TenseQ. What is the different between tense and aspect? (sgk p. 102)Tense is used to express the relation between the happening of an action and the time atwhich the action happens. There are 3 tenses in El language: past, present, future.Aspect is used to denote different characteristics of an action. In El, there are 3 aspects:indefinite, progressive, perfect aspect.Q. what is the use of present participleBasically, it is used:
- To form continuous tense (aspect) eg: - As attribute (it can either precede or follow the noun it modifies) eg: - As adverbial modifier (in literary or formal style) + time eg: seeing models in the catwalk, I wish to become a fashion designer + cause eg: knowing what she did, I couldn’t trust het anymore + manner: eg I ‘d rather die standing than live kneeing + concession eg: while saying he love her deeply, he doesn’t want to marry her + in a number of set phrases: considering, providing, generally speaking, judging eg: judging his age, the boy’s painting is excellentQ. what is the use of past participleBasically it is used: - To form passive voice eg: - To form the perfect tenses (aspect) eg: - As attribute eg: all the picture painted by Picasso cost $ 1,000,000 - As adverbial modifier (in literary of formal style) + asked suddenly, I couldn’t remember anything to say + condition eg: your product, if promoted and sold on large scale, will earn you a fortune +manner eg: she didn’t see him as if blinded by resentment + concession eg: those picture, those scratched, still look wonderful - Set phrase eg: given the financial crisis, many companies are in big troublesQ. What is the different between: - a. she lived in London for 5 years - b. she has been living in London for 5 yearsThey are different in terms of tense, aspect and meaning:In sentence a, the past simple is used to express an action which happened during a certainperiod in the past and already completed, having nothing to do with the present time. Theaction is indefinite in the time of occurrence. The speaker names the action only
However in sentence b, the present perfect is used to express an action which started in thepast and continued up to the present time and it hasn’t finished yet. The speaker wants tomention the in completeness of the action counting to the present. Modal verbsQ. what are modal verbs/ modal auxiliaries/ modalsModal verbs are special group of verbs that cannot be used independently without notionalverb though they have lexical meaning of their own. The meanings expressed by modal verbare those of modalities such as ability, determination, obligation, possibility to perform anaction denoted by a notional verbQ. why are “dare”, “need”, “used to” called semi-modalsThey called semi-modals because they can be used as both modal and full verbEg: dare you bit me now? Modal verb; I don’t dare to see him now: full verbYou don’t need to shout, it’s your fault : full verbNeed I tell your mother about that?: modal verbI used to live there : full verbUsed you to believe that there was a ghost? Modal verbQ. What is different between “used to do sth” and “would do sth” when both of themare used to denote sth usually happening in the past.Semantically, the 2 structures express the same meaning that is something often done in thepast. However, they are different in some aspects: - “Used to” can go with state verb (indicate past existence) while “would” cannot (never used to indicate past existence). E.g. we can say “there used to be a hut here” but not allowed to say “there would be a hut here” - “used to” can be used in almost all context, with or without the indicatory time/ time expressions while “would” often requires an indicatory time in the pastI used to think money is above allWhen I was a child, I would listen to my grandmother’s fairy tales - “Would do” are more commonly used when talk about happy memories with emotion than “used to”I would go swimming every afternoon when I was a child
Q. What makes “must”, “have to”, “to be to do” different when they are used to expressobligation?“Must” expresses subjective obligation. That means the obligation normally comes from thespeaker. “I must go to see her now”“Have to” expresses objective obligation, i.e. the obligation comes from outside. Forinstance a regulation or an order from someone else or imposed by circumstances. “We haveto wear school uniform”“To be to do sth” expresses obligation already planned. “You are to meet director after class”,“hurry up! We are to finish our lesion at before 11a.m” MoodQ. what is moodMood can be defined as the grammatical expression of the speaker’s purported attitudetoward what he or she is sayingQ. what are the four traditional moods in English- Indicative (trinh bay) eg: this morning I went to school- Imperative (menh lenh) eg: look into my eyes when talking to me.- interrogative (nghi van) eg: do you really love him?- Exclamative (cam than) eg: how beautiful you are!Q. describe the subjunctive mood in English language (p.94)Subjunctive mood in English is the form of the verb often used to expressed uncertainty,wishes, and desires/ Subjunctive mood in English is the special form of sentence structureoften used to express unreality, wishes, and commands.. In contrast to indicative mood, thesubjunctive mood usually refers to nonfactual or hypothetical situationThe category of subjunctive mood may be distinguished: - The mandative subjunctive (co tinh menh lenh) eg: it is requited that he return all the loan books to the library/ US demands that North Korea stop its nuclear program) - The formulaic subjunctive (co tinh cong thuc) eg: God be with you! , Long live the king! - Subjunctive “were” eg: Were I you, I wouldn’t say anything; he spoke to me as if he were my bossQ. what is the use of the past subjunctive mood in English
The past subjunctive mood is used to indicate an unreal past, a wish that never come true. Italso indicates unreality, request. Its structure is similar to that of past unreal condition. Thepast of the subjunctive mood is also found after such expression as: would rather, as if, it’s(high) timeEg: he said as if he knew all about my private lifeQ. Which sentence is more formal?a. it’s was essential for every member country to sign the agreement by Dec 15thb. it’s was essential that every member country sign the agreement by Dec 15thb is more formal because the present subjunctive mood is often used in formal context orliterary style. While “it is + adj + for sbd to do sth” belongs to the informal style. Direct and indirect speech.Q. State the rules to change the direct imperative sentence in to reported oneTo change the direct imperative sentence in to reported one, the followings changes arenecessary: - The direct imperative sentence is often reported by using an infinitive. - The introductory verb “say” changes to a verbs of command “tell, order, command, request, …). He said “go with me” -> he told me to go with him - The introductory verb of the direct command must be followed by the person address and the infinitive. He said “go with me, Lan”-> he told Lan to go with him. - Negative command is expressed by placing “not” before the infinitive:He said “don’t follow me”-> he told me not to follow him - Pronoun and adverbs of place and time in the direct imperative sentence must be changed:She said:”don’t come here tomorrow because I won’t be here” -> She told me not to comethere the next day because she wouldn’t be there Passive voice1. when would you use the agentless sentence rather than the active or the passivesentence with an explicit and implied agent.? (answer sgk p. 123)2. what is stative passive? Give example? (sgk p.122)3. what is agentless passive? (p.119)
4. what are “change-of-state verbs” (p.122)? The sequence of tense:1. What is the sequence of tense? What are rules for the sequence of tense? Sequence of tense is the adjustment of the tense of the subordinate clause to the tense of theprinciple clause. There are 2 rules for the sequence of tense: - If the main clause is in present or future , then the subordinate clause is in any tense that is required by the sense:Scientists believe that atmospheric warming has already begunWe hope that all nations will be responsible for solving this serious problemFuture research will improve that carbon dioxide is largely responsible - If the main clause is in the past tense, the verb in clause subordinate clause must be in the past form. If the action of the principle clause and that of the subordinate clause take place at the sametime or almost the same time, then the same tense is to be used in both clauses:They asked me whether I could come to the partyIf the action of the subordinate clause precedes that of the principle clause, the past perfect isused in the subordinate clause.He told me that he had lost his keyShe had gone out when I came to her houseIf the action of the subordinate clause refers to a moment, future with regard to the pastmoment indicated in the principle clause, the verb in the subordinate clause is in the future inthe pastHe told me that he would come to see me.2. If the main clause is in the past tense, the verb in clause subordinate clause mustalways be in the past form. Is that true?There are some exceptions: - There are no sequence of tenses if the subordinate clause states something as universally or logically true: The teacher told us that the pure water boils at 100’C - The dependent clause contain comparison, the verb may be in any tense that is required by the sense
You studied harder than you do/study now- If the dependent clause is an attributive, the verb is in any tense that suites the sense:Last week I watched the film which you are talking about now.