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Sequestering Carbon for the Carbon Market ~ Doing it and Proving it ~ Dr. Bill Chameides

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  • 1. The
Climate‐Policy
Context for
the C
Ranch Bill Chameides Nicholas Professor of the Environment Dean November 12, 2010
  • 2. What I will talk about … •
Climate
Change
Background •
Poten:al
Role
of
Land‐Based Offsets •Prospects
for
a
C
Market •But
First
…
  • 3. Climate Change Some basics The
greenhouse
gases (GHGs) • Carbon
Dioxide
(CO2) – Fossil
fuels,

deforesta8on • Methane
(CH4) – Cows,
rice,
landfills,
wetlands, coal
mining • Nitrous
oxide
(N2O) – Nitrogen
fer:lizers • HFCs – Refrigerants,
solvents
  • 4. The
GHGs Basics Some • Carbon
Dioxide
(CO2) – Fossil
fuels:
25
billion
tons
CO2/yr • 43%
coal • 43%
petroleum • 15%
natural
gas – Deforesta:on:
7
billion
tons
CO2/yr
  • 5. CO2
Emissions
(tons/yr) • Average
American
car:

7 • Average
American
family:
24 • United
States:

7
billion • World:

30
billion But what is a ton of CO2? How can a gas have a weight?
  • 6. CO2
on
the
“Gridiron.” American family in one year 10 yard balloon = 1 ton of CO2
  • 7. CO2
on
the
“Gridiron.” After 1 year as much as 60% removed by ocean and biosphere
  • 8. CO2
on
the
“Gridiron.” But after 100’s of years about 25% remains and that’s from just one year
  • 9. The
scien8fic
founda8on
for
ac8on 1. CO2
warms
the
atmosphere 2. CO2
is
increasing
due
to
human
ac:vi:es 3. “Globe”
is
warming 4. Warming
is
largely
due
to
increasing
CO2 5. 
Inac:on
will
likely
bring
dangerous consequences
  • 10. 2010?
  • 11. How

do
we
know
warming
is
due
to
human
ac8vi8es? Any
explana8on
of
warming
must
have
a
physical
basis: Global
warming
requires
a
source
of
heat Low High Heat T T
  • 12. Solar Output: No Significant change in 20+ years...
  • 13. What does the future hold? The Greenhouse Gamble: http://globalchange.mit.edu/resources/gamble/policy.html
  • 14. Need to find emission cuts totaling about 6,000 – 8,000 MtCO2/yr 1,000 Mt = 1 billion tons
  • 15. What Role Can Offsets from Land-Management Play?
  • 16. What Role Can Offsets from Land-Management Play? www.Cheatneutral.com Helping you because you can't help yourself
  • 17. Process for creating credible offsets Set baseline Measure change Register offset Independently verify
  • 18. Global Mitigation Potential from Agriculture in 2030 89% from soil carbon sequestration 9% from mitigation of methane 2% from mitigation of soil N2O emissions
  • 19. The Climate Science Meltdown of 2009/10 Wall Street Journal on Climategate: “Has climate change data been rigged since the beginning?” November 27, 2009 •Climategate •IPCC •Copenhagen Climate Meeting •Blizzard 2010 •111th Congress •Election 2010
  • 20. Vintage 2010
  • 21. Alternatives --- Ecosystem Marketplace --- ? --- Carbon, water, biodiversity --- • Voluntary Markets • Regional/State-Based Markets: CARB, RGGI • USDA Office of Environmental Markets • Biofuels/Biomass
  • 22. We have a Failure to Communicate ---Culture War Clouding Our Perceptions?---