Range Science and Range Management:
Finding Common Ground
The Marin Carbon Project
John Wick, Director
Jeff Creque Ph.D., ...
1,000 CONTIGUOUS ACRES
AND 12’ HIGH FENCES: NPS
100,000 ACRES,
NO FENCES: Calif. D.F.G.
Blue Wildrye (Elymus glaucus)
California Brome (Bromus carinatus)
California Brome (Bromus carinatus)
Idaho Fescue (Festuca idahoensis)
Meadow Barley (Hordeum brachyantherum)
Darren Doherty, Australian Keyline Expert
“A 1.6% increase of the organic matter in the soils of
all the arable lands on E...
Vegetation 500
Soils 2,000
THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE
Units: Gt
1 Gt = 1 Pg = 101
Can we
market the
carbon that we
thought that
we were
adding to the
soil?
The question was, how to measure
soil carbon in order to market it?
Is there an accepted protocol for
measuring and verify...
We contacted UCB,
where we met
Prof. Whendee
Silver, who was
already working
with SOC in
tropical soil
systems, and she
ex...
We convened a meeting with the regional agricultural
agencies, organizations, institutions and experts.
Is it possible
to sequester
atmospheric
Carbon in
Marin’s
rangeland
soils?
How much C is in Marin soil?
Marin Carbon Project Phase I:
• A regional soil carbon survey
• Collect soil to 1 meter depth...
We sampled 35 sites that were typical of land under
management in our area; beef and dairy pasture.
The regional analysis also showed a wide range in soil C pools
Ranked Site
0
100
200
300
400
SoilsCarbon(Mg/ha)to1mdepth
The soil survey established that our soils
have a range from 14.5 tons/acre to 62.5
tons/acre.
0 100 200 300 400
Depth (cm)
0
100
200
300
CumulativeSoilCarbon(Mgha-1)
Literature data
From California
rangelands
On aver...
Organic amendments increased soil carbon by 50 Mg C
ha-1 in the top meter of soil
0-10 10-30 30-50 50-100
Depth (cm)
0
10
...
Fields that had a history of manure
application had significantly higher carbon
than adjacent fields without the manure.
Conclusion:
Management, specifically organic
amendments, can enhance soil carbon
sequestration.
Surprise?
We decided to look deeper into the carbon
consequences of current practices of local
land managers:
1) grazing
2) organic ...
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
Control Compost
2009 2010
Abovegroundbiomass(MtCha-2)
Compost significantly increased forage...
• The result of applying 14 tons of C/ha as
compost was an increase in soil carbon of over
14.8 Mg C/ha in year 1,
• Net g...
Compost Control
-500
0
500
1000
1500NetChange(gCm-2t-1)
Nicasio, Ryals and Silver in prep
Above Ground Biomass, End
of Yea...
• The first year, on two sites in California, we
added almost 15 tons of carbon per ha.
• There were no methane or nitrous...
California Rangelands and Carbon Sequestration
At a rate of 1 MT C ha-1 y-1
= 42 MMT CO2e/y
At a rate of 5 MT C ha-1 y-1
=...
Grasslands cover a significant portion of the Earth’s
land surface
*30% of global land surface *Over half of the global la...
Why General Systems Theory?
• Ecosystem Science
–A theoretical framework for the science of
ecosystem management.
• Ecosys...
General Systems Theory
• GST suggests that we can manage ecosystems
through the manipulation of positive and
negative feed...
System Behavior
• GST suggests systems are either changing or
remaining the same.
• System change is driven by
deviation a...
“negative feedback” or deviation-dampening
system processes.
For 400,000 years, atmospheric CO2 was essentially at
homeostasis, maintained by the deviation dampening negative
feedback...
Northern Deciduous Forest
Annual CO2 Flux
Arctic September Ice
1980 and 2010
(Pattern Driving Process)
310
320
330
340
350
360
370
380
390
AtmosphericCO2(ppmv)
Year
Atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased
dramatically i...
General Systems Theory
• To reverse the Keeling curve, caused by
deviation amplifying positive feedbacks
resulting in incr...
How do we initiate, stop or reverse
deviation amplifying positive feedback
processes at the system level?
Eg: Gully Formation and Repair
• Gullies are a classic example of a deviation-
amplifying feedback cycle. As a gully begin...
• As gullies deepen and widen, they can lower
the base level within drainage basins. As the
base level drops due to gully ...
• As channel walls erode, the gully widens and
begins to receive more direct rainfall. A wider
gully holds more water and ...
• We see a cascade of deviation-amplifying
events that act as positive feedbacks to form
deeper and wider gullies;
• Until...
• Good News
• Deviation amplifying positive
feedbacks can also reverse the
process!
Gully Restoration
• By introducing energy dissipating structure in the
form of willow and dogwood, and the structure of
th...
• Organic amendments increased system carbon
by over 14.8 Mg C/ha in year 1.
• Net gain, beyond compost additions was
appr...
Compost Control
-500
0
500
1000
1500NetChange(gCm-2t-1)
Nicasio, Ryals and Silver in prep
Above Ground Biomass, End
of Yea...
Compost is great, but spreading compost
everywhere is not an option;
What can we do to initiate a deviation
amplifying pos...
Livestock grazing is half of the world’s land use.
Can we use livestock impacts to initiate
deviation amplifying positive feedbacks to
drive the system in the desired direct...
Disturbance Drives System Change
We can manage system change by managing the scale of
disturbance
SCALE of DISTURBANCE
Space, Time and Magnitude:
The area of land
The amount of time
The number of animals
SOIL CARBON
GRASS
GRAZING
EVENT
Disturbance-driven System Change
Question:
Is this why “grazing systems” (sometimes)
work, and (sometimes) don’t?
Does this resolve the “Range Debate?”
Focus on Soil Carbon as an
Indicator
of System Change
Hypothetical effect of deviation amplifying positive
feedback resulting from Soil Carbon increases on global
rangelands du...
What next for the Marin Carbon
Project?
Grazing Trials: What does it mean to scale
our livestock impacts appropriately in our
systems?
• We are analyzing the data from the
intensive grazing portion of the
experiment.
• We expect to see a significantly highe...
NEXT STEPS
 CREEK CARBON RESEARCH:
EXAMINE 35 YEARS OF LOCAL PASTURE /
RIPARIAN RESTORATION WORK AND DETERMINE
THE CARBON...
NEXT STEPS
COMPOST STUDY:
COMPARE MANURE TO COMPOST,
WHICH WORKS BEST?
Life cycle analysis of compost
 LIFE CYCLE ANALYS...
?
MARIN CARBON PROJECT
Jeff Creque, Ph.D.
Rangeland Ecologist
oecos@earthlink.net
John Wick,
Nicasio Native Grass Ranch
john...
MARIN C ARBON PROJECT
Mission Statement
In response to the rapid pace of global climate change caused by human activity,
t...
Questions?
Fossil Fuel Emissions: Actual vs. IPCC Scenarios
Raupach et al. 2007, PNAS, updated; Le Quéré et al. 2009, Nature Geoscien...
310
320
330
340
350
360
370
380
390
AtmosphericCO2(ppmv)
Year
The Kneeling Curve
High temperature fire
System disturbance
Disturbances can vary in size in both time
and space.
Let’s look at gully networks.
Soil geomorphic systems (Briske, 2008) throughout the
West have been impacted by similar positive feedback
scenarios, ofte...
A classic example of a deviation-amplifying
feedback cycle.
Low temperature fire
Cheat grass invasion is not just a plant
community change
The restoration of wet meadow systems.
•Climate Change
•The potential to
sequester carbon in
rangeland soils
•The Range “Debate”
outline
John:
What MCP is
What MCP Did
What MCP found
Jeff:
What it means (so what?); global context; Climate; C-sequestra...
Range Science and Range
Management:
Finding Common Ground
• C/N
• Gas analyzer, burns soil, measures actual CO2;
• Loss by ignition is by weight at constant
moisture; not measuring...
Disturbance, Pattern, Process
• Remember:
General Systems Theory suggests
– We can manage system processes
(photosynthesis...
• For example, a beaver dam knocks the energy
out of flowing water in a stream. Sediments
settle out, the water level rise...
310
320
330
340
350
360
370
380
390
AtmosphericCO2(ppmv)
Year
Hypothetical deviation amplifying positive
feedback resultin...
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California
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Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground ~ John Wick, Jeff Creque, Marin Carbon Project, California

  1. 1. Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground The Marin Carbon Project John Wick, Director Jeff Creque Ph.D., Co-founder
  2. 2. 1,000 CONTIGUOUS ACRES AND 12’ HIGH FENCES: NPS
  3. 3. 100,000 ACRES, NO FENCES: Calif. D.F.G.
  4. 4. Blue Wildrye (Elymus glaucus)
  5. 5. California Brome (Bromus carinatus)
  6. 6. California Brome (Bromus carinatus)
  7. 7. Idaho Fescue (Festuca idahoensis)
  8. 8. Meadow Barley (Hordeum brachyantherum)
  9. 9. Darren Doherty, Australian Keyline Expert “A 1.6% increase of the organic matter in the soils of all the arable lands on Earth would stop and reverse global warming within a decade.”
  10. 10. Vegetation 500 Soils 2,000 THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE Units: Gt 1 Gt = 1 Pg = 101
  11. 11. Can we market the carbon that we thought that we were adding to the soil?
  12. 12. The question was, how to measure soil carbon in order to market it? Is there an accepted protocol for measuring and verifying carbon sequestered in rangeland soil?
  13. 13. We contacted UCB, where we met Prof. Whendee Silver, who was already working with SOC in tropical soil systems, and she expressed an interest in working with us.
  14. 14. We convened a meeting with the regional agricultural agencies, organizations, institutions and experts.
  15. 15. Is it possible to sequester atmospheric Carbon in Marin’s rangeland soils?
  16. 16. How much C is in Marin soil? Marin Carbon Project Phase I: • A regional soil carbon survey • Collect soil to 1 meter depth from 35 sites in Marin and Sonoma • Analyze soil for carbon, nitrogen, pH, texture, and carbon fractions. • Determine if patterns in soil carbon pools exist with soil chemical and physical properties, environmental conditions and/ or management.
  17. 17. We sampled 35 sites that were typical of land under management in our area; beef and dairy pasture.
  18. 18. The regional analysis also showed a wide range in soil C pools Ranked Site 0 100 200 300 400 SoilsCarbon(Mg/ha)to1mdepth
  19. 19. The soil survey established that our soils have a range from 14.5 tons/acre to 62.5 tons/acre.
  20. 20. 0 100 200 300 400 Depth (cm) 0 100 200 300 CumulativeSoilCarbon(Mgha-1) Literature data From California rangelands On average Marin soils appear to be in the mid range of California rangelands Average soil C for Marin/ Sonoma Counties
  21. 21. Organic amendments increased soil carbon by 50 Mg C ha-1 in the top meter of soil 0-10 10-30 30-50 50-100 Depth (cm) 0 10 20 30 40 50 SoilCarbon(Mg/ha) Intensive (organic amendments) Extensive Extensive Intensive 0 100 200 300 SoilCarbon(Mg/ha)to1mdepth
  22. 22. Fields that had a history of manure application had significantly higher carbon than adjacent fields without the manure.
  23. 23. Conclusion: Management, specifically organic amendments, can enhance soil carbon sequestration. Surprise?
  24. 24. We decided to look deeper into the carbon consequences of current practices of local land managers: 1) grazing 2) organic amendments (we used compost instead of manure) Plus we were curious about the benefit of using the Yeomans plow. We designed controlled experiments to measure the carbon consequences of each of these practices.
  25. 25. 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 Control Compost 2009 2010 Abovegroundbiomass(MtCha-2) Compost significantly increased forage production CompostControl Browns Valley, Ryals and Silver in prep
  26. 26. • The result of applying 14 tons of C/ha as compost was an increase in soil carbon of over 14.8 Mg C/ha in year 1, • Net gain, beyond compost additions was approx. 1 Mg C/ha. • Control plot soils lost carbon in the same time period. Assumptions: Heterotrophic respiration = 50% of total Root biomass = shoot biomass No difference in grazed/ungrazed biomass
  27. 27. Compost Control -500 0 500 1000 1500NetChange(gCm-2t-1) Nicasio, Ryals and Silver in prep Above Ground Biomass, End of Year One
  28. 28. • The first year, on two sites in California, we added almost 15 tons of carbon per ha. • There were no methane or nitrous oxide emissions. • We did this by applying a 1/2” layer of compost over the standing vegetation. • It was easy to do and relatively cheap. • It increased forage by 1 ton per acre. • It buffered temperatures 10ºC. • It held more water in the soil.
  29. 29. California Rangelands and Carbon Sequestration At a rate of 1 MT C ha-1 y-1 = 42 MMT CO2e/y At a rate of 5 MT C ha-1 y-1 = 211 MMT CO2e/y At a rate of 10 MT C ha-1 y-1 = 422 MMT CO2e/y 23 million hectares of rangeland statewide Assume 50% available for C sequestration •Livestock ~ 15 MMT CO2e/y •Commercial/residential ~ 41 MMT CO2e/y •Transportation emits ~188 MMT CO2e/y •Electrical generation ~109 MMT CO2e/y Units: Hectare = 2 .45 acres MT = Metric ton MMT= Million metric tons CO2e = CO2 equivalents MT=Mg=Metric ton
  30. 30. Grasslands cover a significant portion of the Earth’s land surface *30% of global land surface *Over half of the global land use *33% of the US land area *56% of California land area
  31. 31. Why General Systems Theory? • Ecosystem Science –A theoretical framework for the science of ecosystem management. • Ecosystem Management –A theoretical framework identifying management practices that sequester carbon in soils, and how.
  32. 32. General Systems Theory • GST suggests that we can manage ecosystems through the manipulation of positive and negative feedback processes.
  33. 33. System Behavior • GST suggests systems are either changing or remaining the same. • System change is driven by deviation amplifying positive feedbacks • System stasis is maintained by deviation dampening negative feedbacks.
  34. 34. “negative feedback” or deviation-dampening system processes.
  35. 35. For 400,000 years, atmospheric CO2 was essentially at homeostasis, maintained by the deviation dampening negative feedback of annual vegetation growth and senescence. http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/co2/graphics/vostok.co2.gif
  36. 36. Northern Deciduous Forest Annual CO2 Flux
  37. 37. Arctic September Ice 1980 and 2010 (Pattern Driving Process)
  38. 38. 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 AtmosphericCO2(ppmv) Year Atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased dramatically in the last 50 to 100 years, driven by deviation amplifying positive feedbacks initiated by human activity (land use, fossil fuel combustion, warfare, etc. ) Keeling Curve
  39. 39. General Systems Theory • To reverse the Keeling curve, caused by deviation amplifying positive feedbacks resulting in increases in atmospheric CO2, we must initiate a deviation amplifying positive feedback process that drives the CO2 curve in the opposite direction.
  40. 40. How do we initiate, stop or reverse deviation amplifying positive feedback processes at the system level?
  41. 41. Eg: Gully Formation and Repair • Gullies are a classic example of a deviation- amplifying feedback cycle. As a gully begins to form, the way in which water moves over the land begins to change, with the effect of further deepening and widening the gully.
  42. 42. • As gullies deepen and widen, they can lower the base level within drainage basins. As the base level drops due to gully incision, the potential energy of any water flowing into the gully increases, which further drives gully formation.
  43. 43. • As channel walls erode, the gully widens and begins to receive more direct rainfall. A wider gully holds more water and therefore can cut more deeply.
  44. 44. • We see a cascade of deviation-amplifying events that act as positive feedbacks to form deeper and wider gullies; • Until some new homeostasis is reached.
  45. 45. • Good News • Deviation amplifying positive feedbacks can also reverse the process!
  46. 46. Gully Restoration • By introducing energy dissipating structure in the form of willow and dogwood, and the structure of the gully itself (Zeedyk and Clothier, 2009), hydrological conditions improve, supporting further vegetation establishment, slowing the water, dropping out the sediments, aggrading the gully floor, fanning out the water and re-hydrating the xerified landscape. The water level rises, water-loving plants move back in, catch more sediment, and the system begins to re-build itself, as each step fosters the next. • And, as the productivity of the system increases, recovering wetlands are great sinks for carbon.
  47. 47. • Organic amendments increased system carbon by over 14.8 Mg C/ha in year 1. • Net gain, beyond compost additions was approx. 0.8 Mg C/ha.
  48. 48. Compost Control -500 0 500 1000 1500NetChange(gCm-2t-1) Nicasio, Ryals and Silver in prep Above Ground Biomass, End of Year One
  49. 49. Compost is great, but spreading compost everywhere is not an option; What can we do to initiate a deviation amplifying positive feedback process that results in the enhanced sequestration of atmospheric CO2 as soil carbon on rangelands globally?
  50. 50. Livestock grazing is half of the world’s land use.
  51. 51. Can we use livestock impacts to initiate deviation amplifying positive feedbacks to drive the system in the desired direction?
  52. 52. Disturbance Drives System Change We can manage system change by managing the scale of disturbance
  53. 53. SCALE of DISTURBANCE Space, Time and Magnitude: The area of land The amount of time The number of animals
  54. 54. SOIL CARBON GRASS GRAZING EVENT Disturbance-driven System Change
  55. 55. Question: Is this why “grazing systems” (sometimes) work, and (sometimes) don’t? Does this resolve the “Range Debate?”
  56. 56. Focus on Soil Carbon as an Indicator of System Change
  57. 57. Hypothetical effect of deviation amplifying positive feedback resulting from Soil Carbon increases on global rangelands due to strategically scaled livestock impacts
  58. 58. What next for the Marin Carbon Project?
  59. 59. Grazing Trials: What does it mean to scale our livestock impacts appropriately in our systems?
  60. 60. • We are analyzing the data from the intensive grazing portion of the experiment. • We expect to see a significantly higher rate of sequestration from the high density, short duration, long recovery management… Stay tuned.
  61. 61. NEXT STEPS  CREEK CARBON RESEARCH: EXAMINE 35 YEARS OF LOCAL PASTURE / RIPARIAN RESTORATION WORK AND DETERMINE THE CARBON SEQUESTRATION CONSEQUENCES OF THOSE PROJECTS. USE THIS INFORMATION TO ADJUST PROJECT DESIGN AS WE GO FORWARD.
  62. 62. NEXT STEPS COMPOST STUDY: COMPARE MANURE TO COMPOST, WHICH WORKS BEST? Life cycle analysis of compost  LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS: COMPARE PASTURE OPERATIONS TO C.A.F.O.
  63. 63. ?
  64. 64. MARIN CARBON PROJECT Jeff Creque, Ph.D. Rangeland Ecologist oecos@earthlink.net John Wick, Nicasio Native Grass Ranch johnwick@sonic.net
  65. 65. MARIN C ARBON PROJECT Mission Statement In response to the rapid pace of global climate change caused by human activity, the Marin Carbon Project seeks to enhance carbon sequestration in rangeland, agricultural, and forest soilsthrough appliedresearch, demonstration and implementation. Vision Statement Our vision is to establishland owners and land managers as soilcarbon sequestration champions by providing economicaland ecological solutions to global climate change. Strategy The Marin Carbon Project, a consortium of agricultural extension, agricultural producer organizations, county and federal agricultural agencies,the resource conservation district, private rangeland consultants, and land manager/ owners, seeks tounderstand the potential for soil carbon sequestration to mitigate and reverse global climatechange. This consortium of agencies and organizations is working together and independently to promote, through applied research and demonstration, enhanced carbon sequestration in Marin’s soils.The consortium also will help facilitate development of a carbon market that supports soilcarbon sequestration efforts on agricultural, forest and rangelands in Marin County and globally.
  66. 66. Questions?
  67. 67. Fossil Fuel Emissions: Actual vs. IPCC Scenarios Raupach et al. 2007, PNAS, updated; Le Quéré et al. 2009, Nature Geoscience; International Monetary Fund 2009 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 FossilFuelEmission(GtCy -1 ) 5 6 7 8 9 10 A1B A1FI A1T A2 B1 B2 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center International Energy Agency Source: Global Carbon P
  68. 68. 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 AtmosphericCO2(ppmv) Year The Kneeling Curve
  69. 69. High temperature fire
  70. 70. System disturbance
  71. 71. Disturbances can vary in size in both time and space.
  72. 72. Let’s look at gully networks.
  73. 73. Soil geomorphic systems (Briske, 2008) throughout the West have been impacted by similar positive feedback scenarios, often associated with extirpation of a keystone species, Castor canadensis, from much of the region.• Photo: Phil Myers, U Michigan, 2003
  74. 74. A classic example of a deviation-amplifying feedback cycle.
  75. 75. Low temperature fire
  76. 76. Cheat grass invasion is not just a plant community change
  77. 77. The restoration of wet meadow systems.
  78. 78. •Climate Change •The potential to sequester carbon in rangeland soils •The Range “Debate”
  79. 79. outline John: What MCP is What MCP Did What MCP found Jeff: What it means (so what?); global context; Climate; C-sequestration; Range debate: can we do it with grazing alone? Keeling curve, GST; negative and positive feedbacks Disturbance as system driver and determinate of + and – change Strategic livestock impacts as system disturbance to increase soil C What do we manage for and how? soil C, native biodiversity, pattern and process John: What I manage for and how
  80. 80. Range Science and Range Management: Finding Common Ground
  81. 81. • C/N • Gas analyzer, burns soil, measures actual CO2; • Loss by ignition is by weight at constant moisture; not measuring actual C, measuring change in weight only.
  82. 82. Disturbance, Pattern, Process • Remember: General Systems Theory suggests – We can manage system processes (photosynthesis, carbon sequestration, etc.) by managing system patterns. (paddocks, plant communities; fuel loads, etc.) –We can manage system patterns by managing system disturbance (grazing, fire, mowing, cultivations, etc). –Disturbances drive system processes
  83. 83. • For example, a beaver dam knocks the energy out of flowing water in a stream. Sediments settle out, the water level rises, the floodplain stays moist, moisture-loving vegetation grows, providing even more energy-dissipating structure, and habitat becomes more desirable for beaver. Castor canadensis Photo: Phil Myers, U Michigan, 2003
  84. 84. 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 AtmosphericCO2(ppmv) Year Hypothetical deviation amplifying positive feedback resulting from Soil Carbon increases on global rangelands due to strategically scaled livestock impacts Reversing the Keeling Curve

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