©2008 Rodale institute
By Jeff Moyer
Farm Director
RODALE INSTITUTE
Regenerative Agricultural
“Healthy Soil = Healthy Food...
©2008 Rodale institute
For the First Time in History We Have the Power
to Crush Our Environment
©2008 Rodale institute
Inspirational Wisdom
• “ A nation that destroys its soil destroys itself.”
Franklin Delano Roosevel...
©2008 Rodale institute
Let’s Think About the Problems
©2008 Rodale institute
The Way We Farm Effects The Environment
©2008 Rodale institute
Dead Zones Continue To Expand
2008 Soil From Iowa in the Gulf of Mexico
©2008 Rodale institute
We’re Polluting Our Water
©2008 Rodale institute
We’re Killing Our Farmers
©2008 Rodale institute
Childhood Obesity is Epidemic
©2008 Rodale institute
2007 Census of Agriculture,
National Agricultural Statistics Service
(NASS)
©2008 Rodale institute
Net Farm Land Loss Tops 27,000,000 Acres
©2008 Rodale institute
One Solution is Organic Production
Supported by Statistics
Supported by Science
©2008 Rodale institute
Same Resources…… Different Philosophy
©2008 Rodale institute
• Soil is a complex, multi-component system of interacting inorganic and organic materials,
and the...
©2008 Rodale institute
Soil Organic Matters
1% 5%
5 % 1%
©2008 Rodale institute
Soil Microorganisms
Group Average Number per
Gram Of Soil
Live Weight per Acre
Plow Depth (pounds)
...
©2008 Rodale institute
Typical Numbers of Soil Organisms in
Healthy Ecosystems
Crop Land Prairie Forest
Organisms per gram...
©2008 Rodale institute
• Higher corn and soybean
yields in drought years
• Increased soil C and N
• Higher water infiltrat...
©2008 Rodale institute
Organic Corn - 1995 Drought
Organic Conventional
Better infiltration, retention, and
delivery to pl...
©2008 Rodale institute
According to The 2007 Census of Agriculture:
• In 2008 organic farms had an average of
$217,675 in ...
©2008 Rodale institute
Let’s Take a Look at
me Tools to Build Soil Health
Cover Crops
©2008 Rodale institute
Rodale Institute - Regenerated
1970
1970
2000
©2008 Rodale institute
Each square represents
one year’s global
emissions of carbon
dioxide, measured by the
weight of car...
©2008 Rodale institute
Unproven Carbon Sequestration
©2008 Rodale institute
Proven Carbon Sequestration
Plants
The soil‘s microbial “labor
force“ incoporates carbon
into the s...
©2008 Rodale institute
©2008 Rodale institute
©2008 Rodale institute
-44.6 -18.9 -8.1
312 330
1000
1261
2363
-500
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
Moldboard
Plow
Sub Soil Mole...
©2008 Rodale institute
Beneficial Root Fungi
on Bahia Grass
Dr. David Douds -
USDA-ARS Researcher,
specializing in benefic...
©2008 Rodale institute
• Extends plant root
systems
• Produces erosion-
resistant, carbon
enriched soil
• Provides mechani...
©2008 Rodale institute
Chemical synthetic N fertilizer
• produced by the industrial Haber-Bosch process
• requires huge am...
©2008 Rodale institute
Energy “Required” ?
Bosch Haber
Process
www.hydro.com/upload/4518haberboschen.jpg
©2008 Rodale institute
Tap root
Root nodules housing
Rhizobia bacteria
©2008 Rodale institute
2006 Hairy Vetch N (Lbs/acre) in above ground biomass
Field #60, The Rodale Institute
232
172
155
1...
©2008 Rodale institute
How Green Is My Orange?
New York Times, Jan. 2009
PEPSICO/ Tropicana
©2008 Rodale institute
Carbon Footprint
©2008 Rodale institute
Published Research
The Myth of Nitrogen Fertilization for Soil Carbon Sequestration
S.A. Khan, R.L....
©2008 Rodale institute
Tillage has it’s Drawbacks
©2008 Rodale institute
A Different Way of Farming
©2008 Rodale institute
Organic No-Till
©2008 Rodale institute
Corn
PLOW TILL
• PLOW
• DISC
• PACK
• PLANT
• ROTARY HOE
• ROTARY HOE
• CULTIVATE
• CULTIVATE
• HAR...
©2008 Rodale institute
231.7
199.2
121.6
77.5
0
50
100
150
200
250
Conv. Till Conv. No-
Till
Org. Till Org. No-Till
Energy...
©2008 Rodale institute
©2008 Rodale institute
3111
4837
5344
6669 6978
8392
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
Oats HV Plow
5/1...
©2008 Rodale institute
Tools That Make it Possible
©2008 Rodale institute
Dense Cover Crops
Prevent Weed Expression
©2008 Rodale institute
Corn 3 Days After Planting
©2008 Rodale institute
Corn Planted into Hairy Vetch @ 3 Weeks After Planting
©2008 Rodale institute
©2008 Rodale institute
Corn Mid-Season
©2008 Rodale institute
2010 Soybean Research Plots
©2008 Rodale institute
2009 Tomato
©2008 Rodale institute
Pumpkins 2010 Planted on 30” Rows – 5’ Centers
Hairy Vetch Cover
©2008 Rodale institute
6 weeks after rolling
©2008 Rodale institute
California Transplanted Eggplant
©2008 Rodale institute
30 Foot Roller Illinois
©2008 Rodale institute
Works on Small Scale Ag Systems
©2008 Rodale institute
A New Way of Marketing and Buying Food
Together We Can Change Our Food System
©2008 Rodale institute
Organic Conventional
Change the Soil and We Change the World
©2008 Rodale institute
Jeff Moyer
The Rodale Institute
611 Siegfriedale Road
Kutztown, PA 19530 USA
Phone: 610-683-1420
Fa...
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Jeff Moyer at Quivira Coalition Conference

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Jeff Moyer at Quivira Coalition Conference

  1. 1. ©2008 Rodale institute By Jeff Moyer Farm Director RODALE INSTITUTE Regenerative Agricultural “Healthy Soil = Healthy Food = Healthy People” A Flawed Food Production System & An Organic Solution
  2. 2. ©2008 Rodale institute For the First Time in History We Have the Power to Crush Our Environment
  3. 3. ©2008 Rodale institute Inspirational Wisdom • “ A nation that destroys its soil destroys itself.” Franklin Delano Roosevelt • “Despite all our pretensions, we still are totally dependent on 6 inches of top soil and the fact that it rains.” Confucius • “Nature is the greatest gift of all!” “Soil has the ability to regenerate itself” Robert Rodale
  4. 4. ©2008 Rodale institute Let’s Think About the Problems
  5. 5. ©2008 Rodale institute The Way We Farm Effects The Environment
  6. 6. ©2008 Rodale institute Dead Zones Continue To Expand 2008 Soil From Iowa in the Gulf of Mexico
  7. 7. ©2008 Rodale institute We’re Polluting Our Water
  8. 8. ©2008 Rodale institute We’re Killing Our Farmers
  9. 9. ©2008 Rodale institute Childhood Obesity is Epidemic
  10. 10. ©2008 Rodale institute 2007 Census of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS)
  11. 11. ©2008 Rodale institute Net Farm Land Loss Tops 27,000,000 Acres
  12. 12. ©2008 Rodale institute One Solution is Organic Production Supported by Statistics Supported by Science
  13. 13. ©2008 Rodale institute Same Resources…… Different Philosophy
  14. 14. ©2008 Rodale institute • Soil is a complex, multi-component system of interacting inorganic and organic materials, and the properties of soil result from the effect of all these interactions. Healthy soil management – emphasizes the conservation and increase of soil organic matter – by maximizing the contributions of on-farm resources Conservation - Prevents Erosion (loss of Organic Matter) Cover crops Green Manures Composts Animal Manures Soil Health & Fertility
  15. 15. ©2008 Rodale institute Soil Organic Matters 1% 5% 5 % 1%
  16. 16. ©2008 Rodale institute Soil Microorganisms Group Average Number per Gram Of Soil Live Weight per Acre Plow Depth (pounds) Bacteria Actinomycetes 1 billion 10 million 500 750 Fungi 1 million 1,000 Algae 100 thousand 150 TOTAL 2,400 Francis E. Clark, A Perspective of the Soil Microflora, Soil Microbiology Conf., Purdue University (June 1954)
  17. 17. ©2008 Rodale institute Typical Numbers of Soil Organisms in Healthy Ecosystems Crop Land Prairie Forest Organisms per gram (teaspoon) of soil Bacteria 100 mil. -1 bil. 100 mil. -1 bil. 100 mil. -1 bil. Fungi Several yards 10s – 100’s of yds 1-40 miles (in conifers) Protozoa 1000’s 1000’s 100,000’s Nematodes 10-20 10’s – 100’s 100’s Organisms per square foot Arthropods < 100 500-2000 10,000-25,000 Earthworms 5-30 10-50 10-50 (few in conifers)
  18. 18. ©2008 Rodale institute • Higher corn and soybean yields in drought years • Increased soil C and N • Higher water infiltration • Higher water holding cap. • Higher microbial activity Soil in Organic Systems
  19. 19. ©2008 Rodale institute Organic Corn - 1995 Drought Organic Conventional Better infiltration, retention, and delivery to plants helps avoid drought damage
  20. 20. ©2008 Rodale institute According to The 2007 Census of Agriculture: • In 2008 organic farms had an average of $217,675 in sales compared to $134,807. • Census Conclusion: Adding in cost of production organic farms are more profitable. Where Does Organic Stand In The Agricultural World?
  21. 21. ©2008 Rodale institute Let’s Take a Look at me Tools to Build Soil Health Cover Crops
  22. 22. ©2008 Rodale institute Rodale Institute - Regenerated 1970 1970 2000
  23. 23. ©2008 Rodale institute Each square represents one year’s global emissions of carbon dioxide, measured by the weight of carbon it contains. The size of each square is proportional to the amount of that year’s emissions. Sources: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; “Managing The Transition to Climate Stabilization, “A.E.I.-Brookings, by Dr. Richard Richels, Dr. Thomas Rutherford, Dr. Geoffrey Blanford and Dr. Leon Clarke; Climate Analysis Indicators Tool, World Resources Institute; Dr. Jeffery Greenblatt, Environmental Defense; Dr. Alex Farrell, University of California Energy Institute. BILL MARSH / New York Times, December 16, 2007 ©
  24. 24. ©2008 Rodale institute Unproven Carbon Sequestration
  25. 25. ©2008 Rodale institute Proven Carbon Sequestration Plants The soil‘s microbial “labor force“ incoporates carbon into the soil structure Air Soil Human nutrition and health starts in the soil, from which plants draw their nutrients The soil microbial community provides the nutritional building blocks that plants need to grow and thrive Light is the energy source www.rodaleinstitute.org
  26. 26. ©2008 Rodale institute
  27. 27. ©2008 Rodale institute
  28. 28. ©2008 Rodale institute -44.6 -18.9 -8.1 312 330 1000 1261 2363 -500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Moldboard Plow Sub Soil Mole Knife Raw Dairy Manure Cov. No Till Winter Cover Crops Compost Broiler (litter, leaves) Compost (Dairy, Manure, Leaves) Carbon Impact by Field Treatment Carbon Sequestration ( kg C / ha /year)
  29. 29. ©2008 Rodale institute Beneficial Root Fungi on Bahia Grass Dr. David Douds - USDA-ARS Researcher, specializing in beneficial root fungi research for the last 25 years www.rodaleinstitute.org Mycorrhizal Fungi
  30. 30. ©2008 Rodale institute • Extends plant root systems • Produces erosion- resistant, carbon enriched soil • Provides mechanisms for soil biological carbon fixation • Slows decay of organic matter Mycorrhizal Fungi
  31. 31. ©2008 Rodale institute Chemical synthetic N fertilizer • produced by the industrial Haber-Bosch process • requires huge amounts of energy to create the 2939 PSI and 842ºF of heat • needed to industrially extract N from the atmosphere and hydrogen from natural gas. • The production of 1 kg (2.2lbs) of chemical N fertilizer burns the equivalent of 1 L (1.05 Qt.) of oil and 17.6 cubic feet of natural gas, releasing a great deal of carbon and other greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere NITROGEN
  32. 32. ©2008 Rodale institute Energy “Required” ? Bosch Haber Process www.hydro.com/upload/4518haberboschen.jpg
  33. 33. ©2008 Rodale institute Tap root Root nodules housing Rhizobia bacteria
  34. 34. ©2008 Rodale institute 2006 Hairy Vetch N (Lbs/acre) in above ground biomass Field #60, The Rodale Institute 232 172 155 191 103 151 167170 232 180 195 253 193 203 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 MN-1 OR-1 OR-2 Steve Groff PA-1 (Planted 9-8-05) Steve Groff PA-1 (Planted 9-27-05) WI-1 Field Average all plots Hairy Vetch accession Lbs/acreN (Abovegroundbiomassx%Ntissueanalysis) Above ground dry matter biomass/acre x %N tissue analysis = lbs N /acre (4-21-06) Above ground dry matter biomass/acre x %N tissue analysis = lbs N /acre (6-9-06) 4.24 % N 2.84 % N 4.84 % N 4.91 % N 5.66 % N 3.85 % N 5.09 % N N 4.77 % N 3.76 % N 3.12 % N 3.16 % N 3.81 % N 3.16 % N 3.31 % N
  35. 35. ©2008 Rodale institute How Green Is My Orange? New York Times, Jan. 2009 PEPSICO/ Tropicana
  36. 36. ©2008 Rodale institute Carbon Footprint
  37. 37. ©2008 Rodale institute Published Research The Myth of Nitrogen Fertilization for Soil Carbon Sequestration S.A. Khan, R.L.Mulvaney, T.R.Ellsworth, and C.W.Boast Univ. of Ill Conclusion: A half century of N fertilization has played a crucial role in expanding worldwide grain production, but there has been a hidden cost to the soil resource: a net loss of native SOC and the residue C inputs. This cost has been exacerbated by the widespread use of yield-based systems for fertilizer N management, which are advocated for the sake of short-term economic gain rather then long term sustainability. Published in Journal of Environmental Quality (2007)
  38. 38. ©2008 Rodale institute Tillage has it’s Drawbacks
  39. 39. ©2008 Rodale institute A Different Way of Farming
  40. 40. ©2008 Rodale institute Organic No-Till
  41. 41. ©2008 Rodale institute Corn PLOW TILL • PLOW • DISC • PACK • PLANT • ROTARY HOE • ROTARY HOE • CULTIVATE • CULTIVATE • HARVEST • (143 Bu/A) NO-TILL • ROLL/PLANT • HARVEST • (160 Bu/A) A two step organic production system Plant and Harvest!
  42. 42. ©2008 Rodale institute 231.7 199.2 121.6 77.5 0 50 100 150 200 250 Conv. Till Conv. No- Till Org. Till Org. No-Till Energy Used in Different Corn Production Systems Units = Diesel Fuel Equivalents
  43. 43. ©2008 Rodale institute
  44. 44. ©2008 Rodale institute 3111 4837 5344 6669 6978 8392 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Oats HV Plow 5/12/03 BuWh HV 6/9/03 Oats HV 6/9/03 Barley HV 6/9/03 Wheat HV 6/9/03 Rye HV 6/9/03 Cover Crop Treatment & Date Collected Biomass(Lbs/Acre) Average Biomass (lbs/A) of Cover Crop Mixtures: 2003 Corn Cover Crop Trial
  45. 45. ©2008 Rodale institute Tools That Make it Possible
  46. 46. ©2008 Rodale institute Dense Cover Crops Prevent Weed Expression
  47. 47. ©2008 Rodale institute Corn 3 Days After Planting
  48. 48. ©2008 Rodale institute Corn Planted into Hairy Vetch @ 3 Weeks After Planting
  49. 49. ©2008 Rodale institute
  50. 50. ©2008 Rodale institute Corn Mid-Season
  51. 51. ©2008 Rodale institute 2010 Soybean Research Plots
  52. 52. ©2008 Rodale institute 2009 Tomato
  53. 53. ©2008 Rodale institute Pumpkins 2010 Planted on 30” Rows – 5’ Centers Hairy Vetch Cover
  54. 54. ©2008 Rodale institute 6 weeks after rolling
  55. 55. ©2008 Rodale institute California Transplanted Eggplant
  56. 56. ©2008 Rodale institute 30 Foot Roller Illinois
  57. 57. ©2008 Rodale institute Works on Small Scale Ag Systems
  58. 58. ©2008 Rodale institute A New Way of Marketing and Buying Food Together We Can Change Our Food System
  59. 59. ©2008 Rodale institute Organic Conventional Change the Soil and We Change the World
  60. 60. ©2008 Rodale institute Jeff Moyer The Rodale Institute 611 Siegfriedale Road Kutztown, PA 19530 USA Phone: 610-683-1420 Fax: 610-683-8548 Email:jeff.moyer@rodaleinst.org Web: www.rodaleinstitute.org

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