Livestock, Landscapes and Livelihoods: the
contribution of global grazing-lands to
climate change mitigation and adaptatio...
United Nations Decade for Deserts
and the Fight Against Desertification
Deserere = ‘to abandon’
We can not abandon the peo...
The Drylands
Value of Deserts and Drylands
• 2.1 billion people, about 40% of the world’s population
• 90% of this populat...
Grasslands
• Grasslands occupy ~30% of the total emerged ice free world and
70% of the agricultural area.
• Grasslands sto...
Livestock Based Livelihoods
• One billion people depend on
the livestock and the majority
of the world’s poorest depend
on...
Livestock Based Livelihoods
• 25 million pastoralists and 240
million agro-pastoralists depend on
livestock as their prima...
Sub-Saharan Africa
Desertification affects 1/3 of
the continent.
Conversion of grassland ecoregions
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
North America South America Asia Africa Oceania
Remaining in gras...
Projected Land Use Conversions
Source:UNEP
20-35% of global grasslands are degraded
Photo: A. Savory
Emissions
of GHG by Sector (CO2 eq)
IPCC 2007
Production fertilisants N
Energie fossile ferme
Déforestation
Sol cultivé
Désertification pâturages
Transformation
Transpo...
Range of GHG for commodities
in OECD-countries
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
Pig Poultry Beef Milk Eggs
kgCO2eq/kg...
Meeting Expected Demands: Livestock
Trends
Past and projected meat
production (million tonnes)
Past and projected milk pro...
Croppers to Livestock-Keepers
• “There are likely to be substantial shifts in the patterns of African
cropping and livesto...
Grasslands Emissions
• Biomass burning from the
savannas contribute 42% of gross
carbon dioxide to global emissions
(Levin...
• “…to help raise the attention of both
the technical and general public to the
very substantial contribution of animal
ag...
“You can’t have shadow, if you don’t
have light.”
-Joyce Turk
Mitigation and Adaptation
Mitigation Options
Productivity increase
Reduce emissions per unit of animal product:
– improved genetics
– animal health
...
Mitigation Options
Manure management
(i) reduce emissions
during storage and
application
(ii) recover energy from
organic ...
Keekonyokie
Slaughterhouse
Mitigation Options
Controlling enteric fermentation
Reduce methane emission
from the rumen
– lower fiber content
– feed ad...
Cost mitigation measures
Potential at 3 different costs per unit CO2-eq
IPCC (4AR), 2007
Capturing Carbon
Options to Reduce Emissions
- grazing land management
CO2 CH4 N2O
Nutrient management + +/-
Grazing intensity +/- +/- +/-
...
Grassland Management
Improved grazing land management
has the second highest technical
potential for mitigating C emission...
Promoting Carbon Sequestration
• Deep rooted perennial species
• Full ground cover
• Prohibit burning
• Planned and contro...
Potential for Carbon Sequestration
Globally technical potential per year to
2030
• Grazing lands management (1.5 Gt CO2 e)...
Africa Livestock Based CH4 Emissions
Emissions
• 267 Tg CO2e (76 Tg C)/yr
Sequestration potential
• Management - 1328 Tg C...
Grasslands
Grasslands Carbon Africa
Grassland
Degradation
Soil Carbon Gap
Global Livestock Density
courtesy of HG Brauch UNU-HCS
Carius et al.
Environmental ConflictsDrought Risk Hot-Spots
“Insatiable Carbon Absorbers”
• Drylands store approximately 46% of the
global carbon share
• Its soils contain 53% of glo...
And the Adaptation?
Photos: C. Leggett
Ecosystem Processes – managing the foundation
Photos: C. Leggett
Solar Energy Flow
Biological Community...
water table
Non-effective water cycle Effective water cycle
Soil bare between plants Soil covered with plants and
mulch
50...
Photo credit: C.Neely
Photo credit: C. Leggett
Photo credit: C. Leggett
Tools of the Trade
Zimbabwe - Regenerating Landscapes
Photo credits: A. Savory
Namibia
AustraliaKenya
Mexico
Carbon Sequestration Potential of Four Land Use Systems
(Adapted from IPCC, 2000, Swaminathan, 2009)
0
100
200
300
400
500...
Before Change: C Fluxes After Net C
effect
Desertifiication
Woody
encroachment
Tropical deforestation
130,000
210,000
Fire...
Sylvopastoral Systems
Land use Carbon
(t/ha)
Degraded pasture 0.04
Natural pasture without trees 0.5
Natural pasture with high density of
trees
...
M.Ibrahim FAO IFAD side event COP14 3
Dec 2008
Mainstreaming Payment for Environmental
Services
In Costa Rica, FONAFIFO wh...
Forage Trees
Native Sylvopastoral
Systems
Live Fence
Tanzania - Ngitili System
500,000 hectares regenerated
million hectares of farmer managed natural regeneration in Niger
• Species that sequester
carbon
• Species of high nutrition
value
• Potential to reduce
emissions related to enteric
ferme...
Assessing Changes in Carbon Balance
–Life Cycle Analysis
–Farming System
Assessments; Field
Based
–Landscape
GrupoGanaderíayManejodelAmbiente
Chain of carbon footprint in conventional systems
Concentrates
Supplements
Fertilzers
419...
Chain of carbon footprint in silvopastoral systems
Concentrates
Forage banks
419
KgCO2e
206.4 KgCO2e
15 milking cows
37735...
Comparison of Carbon Footprint in both systems
Figure KgCO2e per kg of milk corected by % fat and %protein in both systems...
Assessing Carbon Accumulation
Soil Carbon
– Highly variable
– Soil carbon has a fixed
timeline (25-50 years)
– Measurement...
• randomization to minimize local biases that might arise from convenience
sampling
Sentinel site
surveillance
a spatially...
Differentiated Impacts
• 1 in 19 persons in developing countries
will experience climate related disaster
• Majority of th...
Livestock Based Livelihoods
Photo credit: C.Neely
Photo Credit: T. Wollen
Socio-Economic Issues
• Shrinking transit routes due to
cultivation; privatization, land
tenure and common property
issues...
SARD Kenya Livestock Working Group
Value Chain Pastoralist Field School
Kajiado, Kenya
Knowledge Base
Grasslands Carbon Working Group
Grazing Systems and Development
• Keep food security and poverty alleviation in the as
the main aim.
• “Climate Smart Deve...
UNFCCC COP-16 Cancun
“No agriculture no deal” – Copenhagen (2009)
Agriculture can potentially be part of the solution to c...
Will climate change be the ultimate incentive
to do what we have meant to be doing all
along?
F Livestock, Landscapes and Livelihoods: the contribution of global grazing-lands to climate change mitigation and adaptat...
F Livestock, Landscapes and Livelihoods: the contribution of global grazing-lands to climate change mitigation and adaptat...
F Livestock, Landscapes and Livelihoods: the contribution of global grazing-lands to climate change mitigation and adaptat...
F Livestock, Landscapes and Livelihoods: the contribution of global grazing-lands to climate change mitigation and adaptat...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

F Livestock, Landscapes and Livelihoods: the contribution of global grazing-lands to climate change mitigation and adaptation - Constance Neely

2,129

Published on

Livestock, Landscapes and Livelihoods: the contribution of global grazing-lands to climate change mitigation and adaptation - Constance Neely

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,129
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

F Livestock, Landscapes and Livelihoods: the contribution of global grazing-lands to climate change mitigation and adaptation - Constance Neely

  1. 1. Livestock, Landscapes and Livelihoods: the contribution of global grazing-lands to climate change mitigation and adaptation Constance L. Neely Quivira Coalition Conference November 10, 2010 Livestock, Landscapes and Livelihoods: the contribution of global grazing-lands to climate change mitigation and adaptation Constance L. Neely Quivira Coalition November 2010
  2. 2. United Nations Decade for Deserts and the Fight Against Desertification Deserere = ‘to abandon’ We can not abandon the peoples and ecosystems in the world’s drylands
  3. 3. The Drylands Value of Deserts and Drylands • 2.1 billion people, about 40% of the world’s population • 90% of this population is in developing countries • 50% of the world’s livestock is supported by rangelands • 46% of global carbon is stored in drylands • 44% of all cultivated land is in dryland • 30% of all cultivated plants come from drylands • 8 of the 25 global hotspots are in the drylands. Desertification Threats • Desertification affects 3.6 billion hectares of land worldwide — or 25% of the Earth’s terrestrial land mass· • 110 countries at risk of land degradation· • 12 million hectares of land, an area the size of Benin, are lost every year • Annual land lost could produce 20 million tons of grain • $42 billion in income is lost every year from desertification and land degradation
  4. 4. Grasslands • Grasslands occupy ~30% of the total emerged ice free world and 70% of the agricultural area. • Grasslands store up to 8 % of the world’s carbon and are an important terrestrial carbon sink - storing 230-260 Tonnes C per hectare (FAO 2006). 11 Shrub Cover, closed-open, evergreen 13 Herbaceous Cover, closed-open 14 Sparse herbaceous or sparse shrub cover 12 Shrub Cover, closed-open, deciduous
  5. 5. Livestock Based Livelihoods • One billion people depend on the livestock and the majority of the world’s poorest depend on livestock for at least a portion of their livelihood. • Extensive pastoralism occurs on 25% of global land area and supports 200 million pastoral households.
  6. 6. Livestock Based Livelihoods • 25 million pastoralists and 240 million agro-pastoralists depend on livestock as their primary income source in SSA (40% of land area). • Livestock is the fastest growing agricultural sub sector. In some countries it accounts for as much as 50% of GDP (WB, 2007)
  7. 7. Sub-Saharan Africa Desertification affects 1/3 of the continent.
  8. 8. Conversion of grassland ecoregions 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 North America South America Asia Africa Oceania Remaining in grasslands Converted to croplands Converted to Urban area Other White et al. 2000
  9. 9. Projected Land Use Conversions Source:UNEP
  10. 10. 20-35% of global grasslands are degraded Photo: A. Savory
  11. 11. Emissions of GHG by Sector (CO2 eq) IPCC 2007
  12. 12. Production fertilisants N Energie fossile ferme Déforestation Sol cultivé Désertification pâturages Transformation Transport Fermentation ruminale Effluents, stockage/traitement Epandage fertilisants N Production légumineuses Effluents, stockage/traitement Effluents, épandage/dépôt Effluents, emission indirecte CO2 CH4 N2O Deforestation 34% Enteric fermentation 26% Livestock Related Emissions by GHG Livestock is said to make up 80% of the agricultural emissions. Chemical N. fert. production On-farm fossil fuel Deforestation OM release from ag. soils Pasture degradation Processing fossil fuel Transport fossil fuel Enteric fermentation Manure storage / processing N fertilization Legume production Manure storage / processing Manure spreading / dropping Manu indirect emissions Steinfeld, 2009
  13. 13. Range of GHG for commodities in OECD-countries 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Pig Poultry Beef Milk Eggs kgCO2eq/kganimalprotein Steinfeld, 2009; Source: DeVries & DeBoer, 2009
  14. 14. Meeting Expected Demands: Livestock Trends Past and projected meat production (million tonnes) Past and projected milk production (million tonnes) Globally, Cereal production will have to increase by almost a billion tonnes and meat production will have to grow by more than 200 million tonnes by 2050 Steinfeld, 2009
  15. 15. Croppers to Livestock-Keepers • “There are likely to be substantial shifts in the patterns of African cropping and livestock keeping” – crop yields decrease but can be handled through agronomic means – crop yields increase, particularly the case of the highlands - “temperature limitations relaxed” – crop yields decline drastically • Shifting emphasis from marginal crop production to livestock keeping Jones and Thornton (2008)
  16. 16. Grasslands Emissions • Biomass burning from the savannas contribute 42% of gross carbon dioxide to global emissions (Levine et al. 1999, Andreae 1991). • Worldwide, some 18–28 billion tonnes of carbon are estimated to have been lost as a result of desertification • Grazing-induced desertification in the drylands has been estimated to emit as much as 100 million tonnes of CO2 per year (FAO/LEAD 2006) Photo: C.Neely
  17. 17. • “…to help raise the attention of both the technical and general public to the very substantial contribution of animal agriculture to climate change and air pollution, to land, soil and water degradation and to the reduction of biodiversity.” -Samuel Jutzi, Director Animal Production and Health Division FAO Livestock’s Long Shadow
  18. 18. “You can’t have shadow, if you don’t have light.” -Joyce Turk
  19. 19. Mitigation and Adaptation
  20. 20. Mitigation Options Productivity increase Reduce emissions per unit of animal product: – improved genetics – animal health – livestock fertility – feeding Shift in species: from ruminants to monogastrics Steinfeld, 2009
  21. 21. Mitigation Options Manure management (i) reduce emissions during storage and application (ii) recover energy from organic matter – balanced feeding – anaerobic digestion (methane production) – waste application Steinfeld, 2009
  22. 22. Keekonyokie Slaughterhouse
  23. 23. Mitigation Options Controlling enteric fermentation Reduce methane emission from the rumen – lower fiber content – feed additives, e.g. medium-chain fatty acids, plant extracts, – rumen manipulation Steinfeld, 2009
  24. 24. Cost mitigation measures Potential at 3 different costs per unit CO2-eq IPCC (4AR), 2007
  25. 25. Capturing Carbon
  26. 26. Options to Reduce Emissions - grazing land management CO2 CH4 N2O Nutrient management + +/- Grazing intensity +/- +/- +/- Increased productivity + +/- Fire management +/- + Species introduction (legumes) +/- +/- Restoration of degraded land Erosion control,organic amendments + +/-
  27. 27. Grassland Management Improved grazing land management has the second highest technical potential for mitigating C emissions (IPCC 2007)
  28. 28. Promoting Carbon Sequestration • Deep rooted perennial species • Full ground cover • Prohibit burning • Planned and controlled grazing
  29. 29. Potential for Carbon Sequestration Globally technical potential per year to 2030 • Grazing lands management (1.5 Gt CO2 e) • Rehabilitating degraded land (0.6 Gt CO2 e) Improving management on 10 % of the land area in Africa would result in gains of 1328 Tg of carbon per year for 25 years. (Batjes, 2004)
  30. 30. Africa Livestock Based CH4 Emissions Emissions • 267 Tg CO2e (76 Tg C)/yr Sequestration potential • Management - 1328 Tg C /yr • Rehabilitation - 20 - 43 Tg C /yr
  31. 31. Grasslands Grasslands Carbon Africa Grassland Degradation Soil Carbon Gap Global Livestock Density
  32. 32. courtesy of HG Brauch UNU-HCS Carius et al. Environmental ConflictsDrought Risk Hot-Spots
  33. 33. “Insatiable Carbon Absorbers” • Drylands store approximately 46% of the global carbon share • Its soils contain 53% of global soil carbon and its plants 14% of the global biotic carbon.
  34. 34. And the Adaptation?
  35. 35. Photos: C. Leggett Ecosystem Processes – managing the foundation Photos: C. Leggett Solar Energy Flow Biological Community DynamicsWater Cycle Nutrient Dynamics Leggett, 20
  36. 36. water table Non-effective water cycle Effective water cycle Soil bare between plants Soil covered with plants and mulch 50-80% of rainfall is lost through run-off and evaporation. After: www.managingwholes.com 1 % increase in SOM 144,000 L H20 per Ha
  37. 37. Photo credit: C.Neely Photo credit: C. Leggett Photo credit: C. Leggett Tools of the Trade
  38. 38. Zimbabwe - Regenerating Landscapes Photo credits: A. Savory
  39. 39. Namibia AustraliaKenya Mexico
  40. 40. Carbon Sequestration Potential of Four Land Use Systems (Adapted from IPCC, 2000, Swaminathan, 2009) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Agroforestry Grazing management Forest management Cropland management PotentialCarbonSequestrationby2040 (MtCy-1) Agroforestry and grassland management have a high potential particularly given the extensive areas.
  41. 41. Before Change: C Fluxes After Net C effect Desertifiication Woody encroachment Tropical deforestation 130,000 210,000 Fire & Conversion 88,000 Leaching losses Erosion Losses 2,100 16,800 Woody Encroachment Increased spatial heterogeneity of C and nutrients Desertification Increased spatial heterogeneity of C and nutrients 21 1 13 0.7 19,000 12,000 3,900 200,000 700 increase in NPP Repeat Burning (each burn) 14,000 C desminuye en produccion NPP Erosion Losses Increased Erosion Losses Three ecological degradation syndromes associated with livestock production systems. Values indicate mean carbon stocks (kg ha-1) or fluxes (kg ha-1 yr-1) as reported throughout the scientific literature (adapted from Asner et al. 2004). Net effect on C storage is depicted on far right.
  42. 42. Sylvopastoral Systems
  43. 43. Land use Carbon (t/ha) Degraded pasture 0.04 Natural pasture without trees 0.5 Natural pasture with high density of trees 1.2 Improved pasture without trees 1.0 Natural pasture with high density of trees 1.3 Improved pasture with high density of trees 2,5 Forest plantations 3.9 Secondary forest 6.5 Carbon Sequestration in pasture and forest systems in The sub-humid tropics of Costa Rica
  44. 44. M.Ibrahim FAO IFAD side event COP14 3 Dec 2008 Mainstreaming Payment for Environmental Services In Costa Rica, FONAFIFO which is the institute responsable for payment of environmental services, passed a regulation compensating farmers for adoption of silvopastoral practices: pays 40 to 50 US/ha/yr
  45. 45. Forage Trees Native Sylvopastoral Systems Live Fence
  46. 46. Tanzania - Ngitili System 500,000 hectares regenerated
  47. 47. million hectares of farmer managed natural regeneration in Niger
  48. 48. • Species that sequester carbon • Species of high nutrition value • Potential to reduce emissions related to enteric fermentation. • Other attributes which may lend themselves to adaptation • Analogue sites
  49. 49. Assessing Changes in Carbon Balance –Life Cycle Analysis –Farming System Assessments; Field Based –Landscape
  50. 50. GrupoGanaderíayManejodelAmbiente Chain of carbon footprint in conventional systems Concentrates Supplements Fertilzers 419 KgCO2e 80.4 KgCO2e 206.1 KgCO2e 206.4 KgCO2e 22 miilking cows71519 KgCO2e pasture
  51. 51. Chain of carbon footprint in silvopastoral systems Concentrates Forage banks 419 KgCO2e 206.4 KgCO2e 15 milking cows 37735.8 KgCO2e
  52. 52. Comparison of Carbon Footprint in both systems Figure KgCO2e per kg of milk corected by % fat and %protein in both systems (case study ,livestock farm in Esparza, Costa Rica). Nota: FPCM= fat and protein corrected by milk 2,2 1,1 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 Kg(CO2e/FPCM) Conventional Silvopastoral
  53. 53. Assessing Carbon Accumulation Soil Carbon – Highly variable – Soil carbon has a fixed timeline (25-50 years) – Measurement, Monitoring, Verification Intensive and is not agreed – Not yet accepted in formal trading mechanisms – Practice based reductions – Stick to above ground?
  54. 54. • randomization to minimize local biases that might arise from convenience sampling Sentinel site surveillance a spatially stratified, hierarchical, randomized sampling framework Sentinel site (100 km2) 16 Clusters (1 km2) 10 Plots (1000 m2) 4 Sub-Plots (100 m2)
  55. 55. Differentiated Impacts • 1 in 19 persons in developing countries will experience climate related disaster • Majority of the world’s poor with greater dependence on natural resources • Women are more vulnerable • Women are less well represented in global negotiation processes
  56. 56. Livestock Based Livelihoods Photo credit: C.Neely Photo Credit: T. Wollen
  57. 57. Socio-Economic Issues • Shrinking transit routes due to cultivation; privatization, land tenure and common property issues; international boundaries; nature conservation • Competition from other land uses (biofuels) • Lack of services - education and healthcare • Lack of voice in the policies that affect them.
  58. 58. SARD Kenya Livestock Working Group Value Chain Pastoralist Field School Kajiado, Kenya
  59. 59. Knowledge Base Grasslands Carbon Working Group
  60. 60. Grazing Systems and Development • Keep food security and poverty alleviation in the as the main aim. • “Climate Smart Development” is a means. • Livestock are an irreplaceable source of livelihoods for the poor and pastoralism remains the most rational strategy for marginal areas. • Well managed grazing lands and silvo-pastoral systems play a critical role in climate change mitigation. • The associated co-benefits (increased soil organic matter, productivity, water capture and retention, biological diversity) provide a vital adaptation strategies. Grasslands fit all the global agendas.
  61. 61. UNFCCC COP-16 Cancun “No agriculture no deal” – Copenhagen (2009) Agriculture can potentially be part of the solution to climate change in ways that respect and support the development and food security requirements of developing countries (FAO). Least Developed Countries (LDCs) in the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA), stressed that while agriculture contributes to greenhouse gas emissions, it is also the backbone of LDC economies, food security and livelihoods Agriculture as an issue of importance to developing countries that had "moved up the agenda" in the negotiations.
  62. 62. Will climate change be the ultimate incentive to do what we have meant to be doing all along?

×