Diagrams work... “ In the representations we call diagrammatic, information is organized by location , and often much of the information needed to make an inference is present and explicit at a single location . In addition, cues to the next logical step in the problem may be present at an adjacent location . Therefore problem solving can proceed through a smooth traversal of the diagram, and may require very little search or computation of elements that had been implicit. ” - Larkin, J.H., & Simon, H.A. Why a Diagram is (Sometimes) Worth Ten Thousand Words. Cognitive Science, 11, 1.
“these take a collection of items and relationships between them, and express them by giving each item a 2D position, while the relationships are expressed as connections between the items or overlaps between the items” - Wikipedia
They found that while subjects would rate the analogies, from best to worst, as literally similar, true analogy, mere appearance, and false analogy, their recall for stories, from best to worst, was literally similar, mere appearance, true analogy, and false analogy.