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It's all about you, baby!

It's all about you, baby!



Why users do what they do and how you can design for it .

Why users do what they do and how you can design for it .



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  • Very interesting opinion - personally, I agree to some things - but the view does not always correspond to reality
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    It's all about you, baby! It's all about you, baby! Presentation Transcript

    • its all about you, baby! ! why users do what they do! and how you can design for it! @nuxuk / #nuxuk nux manchester / 9th July 2012 with chris atherton (@finiteattention) & barry briggs (@quiffboy)
    • session outline•  Quick bit about us•  Some stuff we know about humans –  Why they behave like that –  What you can do about it•  Feel free to ask questions at any time•  Please also live-tweet using #nuxuk@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • hello, my name is @quiffboyUX Designer at amaze Finished university in started as a web developer in1998Worked for a couple of successful digital agenciesin Leeds before joining William Hill in 2001Ended up as lead front-end developerDrifted into UX in 2005Worked at Code Computerlove from 2008-2012Joined amaze in April 2012Currently designing a global ecommerce solutionfor international sportswear brand@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • hi! i’m @finiteattention :)UX Architect at NumikoPreviously, senior lecturer inpsychology at UCLanPh.D. in cognitiveneuroscience@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • #1 – our short-term memory is limited@nuxuk / #nuxuk
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    • ?  @nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • interference theory“Every time I learn somethingnew it pushes some old stuffout of my brain”!Homer J. Simpson•  Don’t ask users to remember too many ! things at once@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • Important stuff use timely reminders Important stuff Visual reminders@nuxuk / #nuxuk Important stuff
    • what else can you do about that?•  Chunking •  Split data up into smaller groups, eg: –  phone numbers: 01612762080 or 0161 276 2080? –  group lists of towns & cities by county or region:•  Semantic categorization •  Use categorizations appropriate for the data, eg: –  books by genre: biographies, crime, horror, sci-fi –  furniture by room: kitchen, bedroom, living room@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • about “7 plus or minus 2” - Only matters if list is not always visible - Irrelevant for primary navigation@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • #2 – uncertainty can cause strange reactions@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • psychology says:•  Try to activate a relevant schema•  Defensive and cling on to what they know à fear of alternate viewpoints •  Arguments between Mac and PC users – how many pc users out there have used a mac for any length of time?•  “Is it safe to leave my card details?”•  Too much choice à fear of picking the wrong one can paralyze@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • remove risk•  Trust markers•  Language & tone•  Transparency•  Try before you buy –  Lazy registration•  Small changes (“Nudge”)@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • be simple and reliable•  Set expectations about what’s required up front•  Indicate progress during a multi-step process•  Give users control over long or complex process •  Complete the steps in any order •  “Can I save this and come back later?”@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • don’t overwhelm with options •  “3 click rule” is a fallacy•  A few simple & clear options work better –  Strong information scent through clear labeling and signposting –  Semantic categorization•  Allows users to build a mental model of site•  Empowers & makes them more efficient@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • build on the familiar•  When trying to convince people to switch to your product, compare with what they know•  Stress the similarities and improvements•  Downplay the things they’d have learn all over again “You already know how to use it”@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • #3 – we’re influenced by friends and experts@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • @nuxuk/#nuxuk Facesinplaces.blogspot.com  
    • @nuxuk/#nuxuk Facesinplaces.blogspot.com  
    • try ignoring your social brain!@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • psychology says:•  We generalize from, and favour, past experiences or anecdotes from friends•  Use social proof when own experiences isn’t enough à opinions, ratings & reviews •  Peer opinions à My friends are like me à Facebook LIKEs •  “Expert” opinions à Celeb Twitter users•  Availability heuristic à Plane crashes are high profile but statistically unlikely, yet we fear plane crashes more than car crashes@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • choose the right social proof•  Is peer or expert opinion most relevant for your users?•  If expert, is it celebrity endorsement or “real” experts?@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • #4 – we are more positive before and after an event than during it@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • Here, can you handle this?!@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • psychology says:•  Anticipation & planning for the future•  Reflection on past events •  Fond recollection •  Shapes our future decisions: “it worked last time”•  Not very good at savouring the moment – mood prone to change@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • the optimal time for soliciting feedback•  Give customers an appropriate amount of time to use your product or service•  Ask them before the novelty wears off@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • #5 – we’re rubbish at estimating anything@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • @nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • psychology says:•  Cognitive biases•  Poor estimation•  Anchoring à Focusing effect•  We make decisions based on expected emotional return re: results (“risk/return”)•  “Decision-makers tend to weight possible outcomes differently based on the amount of delay between the choice and the outcome”@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • help users estimate accurately•  Don’t ask users to guess how much they’ll need•  Give them tools, examples & comparisons@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • quick memory test:•  Oven •  Tin opener•  Kettle •  Fridge•  Worktop •  Coffee machine•  Chopping board •  Fruit bowl•  Sharp knife •  Dishwasher•  Sink •  Trivet•  Grill •  Saucepan@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • trusting user feedback•  Be wary of “I’d love it if the website did this”•  What need are they trying to meet?•  Consider the best way of meeting this need•  Validate suggestions with analytics, domain experts and your own experience@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • clearly demonstrate the ! “emotional return” from any choice•  Why do some people always go back to the same place on holiday? •  Know what you’re getting – low risk strategy•  Did I buy the right one? •  Some people will commit to their choice and defend it, others will doubt themselves and think they bought the wrong one •  The trick is to encourage the latter types to be ok with their choice •  Reviews and ratings can help post-purchase as well as pre-purchase@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • #6 – we make mistakes when under pressure@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • psychology says:•  There’s stress, and there’s stress•  Stress is bad for cognition (and memory)•  Incentive is bad for performance@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • not everyone is sat at a desk ! in a quiet home or office•  Understand who your customer is: •  Parent? Commuter? Student?•  Understand when & where they are using your site: •  External pressures and distractions? •  Time-sensitive transactions?•  Consider these factors in your design, functionality and interactions@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • #7 – I have a weak bladder; you are incontinent.@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • psychology says:•  Fundamental attribution error •  disposition vs. situation•  Self-efficacy/locus of control@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • defensive design•  Help users avoid mistakes •  Form error messages should be clear, friendly and reassuring•  Protect users against unrecoverable errors •  Predict common mistakes and catch them before they happen, eg: accidentally deleting something•  System errors should clearly state that it’s not their fault •  Don’t use jargon, eg: 404 or 500 error codes •  Ensure tone of error pages are on-brand@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • #8 – we’re motivated by progress and reward@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • psychology says:•  Learning is really all about motivation •  Consider the absence of progress or reward•  Operant conditioning changes your desires•  Our natural inclinations become greater through reinforcement but diminish through punishment@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • what can you do about that?•  Progress bars to complete profiles•  Badges for activity•  Real/virtual credit for helping others•  Karma points & ranks on social networks@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • #9 – we care less as we learn to predict rewards@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • psychology says:•  Anticipation as stress-reduction?•  Unpredictable rewards seem to recruit more of the brain’s motivational circuitry •  (important caveats)•  Relationship between salience and attention@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • mix it up and keep it fresh•  Vary rewards •  Keeps it interesting, keeps people coming back, eg: “This week we’re giving away a free X for each new referral”•  Vary reward intervals •  Game “leveling” systems: eg: –  Level 2 at 3000 points;! Level 3 at 9000 points;! Level 4 at 20,000 points•  Incremental rewards •  Referral schemes, eg: –  Introduce 1 friend and get 2GB more storage;! Introduce 3 friends and get 10GB more storage;! Introduce 5 friends and get 25GB more storage;@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • OTHER! READING@nuxuk / #nuxuk
    • Thank you.! Any more questions?@nuxuk / #nuxuk